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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

成就安溪铁观音品牌原因

  1
Issuing time:2022-01-11 16:27

安溪,居山近海,生态环境优越,是乌龙茶(名茶)之乡、世界名茶铁观音的发源地。安溪产茶始于唐朝,发展于清朝,兴盛于当代。经过千年传承发展,安溪人将安溪铁观音发展成为举世闻名的茶品牌,安溪茶文化历久弥新,代代传承。


悠久的发展历史,深厚的文化底蕴以及独特的生态景观,融合形成了完整齐全、特色鲜明的安溪铁观音茶文化系统。安溪铁观音茶文化系统是以传统铁观音品种选育、栽培、病虫害防治、茶园生态系统管理、茶叶采制工艺和茶的相关文化为核心要素的复合农业系统。该系统对于当地人民具有不可替代的生计支持功能,同时具有维护当地农业及相关物种生物多样性,保持水土、涵养水源、促进养分循环、调节小气候等生态系统服务功能,充分展现出当地人利用和改造自然条件,创造人与自然和谐共生的农业景观及丰富的茶文化,蕴含重要农业文化遗产的内核,入选申报全球重要农业文化遗产正式名单。



蕴含重要文化遗产内核


在浩瀚的茶故乡中,安溪无疑是幸运的:年平均气温16℃至21℃,年降雨量1800mm,相对湿度80%以上;千米以上的高山近3000座;红壤或沙质红壤,微酸性,PH值4.5-6.5……这些唯一、不可复制的数据,使得安溪铁观音一出生就身披光环,赢在了起跑线上。


安溪独特的自然环境孕育神奇茶树。安溪境内峰峦叠翠,甘泉潺流,云雾缭绕,温和湿润,得天独厚的自然条件,很适宜铁观音生长。


“好山好水出好茶。”国家茶叶质量监督检验中心主任郑国建对媒体发布:安溪铁观音所含茶多酚、氨基酸、维生素等高于其他茶类,含30余种无机矿质元素、70余种香气物质。


安溪也因此拥有丰富的茶树品种及相关物种资源。栽培品种100多个,1985年首批认定的30个国家级茶树良种中,安溪就占了6个;陆生野生动物24目68科258种,其家Ⅰ级保护动物5种;维管植物种类达152科497属940种,其家Ⅰ级保护植物3种。


晒青、凉青、摇青、杀青、揉捻、初烘、包揉、复烘、复包揉、烘干……经过300年来的传承,在安溪茶农长期制茶实践的积累和优化下,每一泡安溪铁观音历经十道传统工序,三十六小时连续制作,也造就了安溪铁观音传统制作技艺的严谨和精妙。该技艺被茶业界誉为“最高超、最精湛、最独特的制茶技艺”,也使安溪铁观音具备绿茶的鲜爽、红茶的甘醇、花果的芬芳。


安溪被公认为茶业界作出三大历史性贡献。一是明朝成化年间,发明创制了“半发酵”乌龙茶制作技艺;二是在清朝雍正年间发现了安溪铁观音这一珍稀茶树品种;三是发明了“短穗扦插”茶树无性繁殖技术。


安溪铁观音茶文化系统构建了完善的茶园管理体系和质量安全管控体系。在茶园管理方面,安溪茶园为梯田式茶园,采用梯壁留草、套种绿肥、茶林相间等复合生态种植模式;在质量安全管控方面,实现了“信息可查询、流向可追踪、责任可追究、产品可召回”从茶园到茶杯全程安全可追溯管控体系。


业内人士表示,独特的气候环境以及“天、地、人、种”完美结合的生产制作体系,造就了安溪铁观音独一无二的高贵品质--天然“兰花香”和独特“观音韵”。由安溪铁观音衍生出来的生态系统、生产系统、文化系统,蕴含重要农业文化遗产的内核,更是成为茶产业的突出代表和符号。



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具备独特茶文化习俗


千百年来,茶已渗透到茶乡人民的生产生活中。安溪铁观音茶文化系统因悠久茶文化历史而形成独特的斗茶、敬茶、茶艺等茶文化习俗、礼俗。以茶待客,以茶为礼,形成“安溪人真好客,入门就泡茶”“未讲天下事,先品观音茶”的独特的安溪茶礼文化。


茶农之间在长期的生产过程中,相互交流、切磋、比试各自的制茶技艺,形成独特的民间技艺切磋形式--斗茶。


在国家级非遗乌龙茶(铁观音)制作技艺传承人魏月德看来,安溪最精彩的茶俗当属“茶王赛”,与茶叶一起繁衍生息,经久不衰。每逢春秋茶叶上市高峰期,安溪都会推出精彩的“茶王赛”及品茗大会。茶农们携带各自制作的上好茶叶聚在一起,由茶师主持,从“形、色、香、韵”诸方面细细品评,评选后还举行茶艺表演、茶王拍卖会及“踩街”活动。


为传递“纯、雅、礼、和”的茶道精神,1994年安溪铁观音茶文化艺术团成立,创编了一整套具有安溪茶乡风格、融传统茶道和现代精神于一体的“安溪茶艺”节目。


“茶艺团应邀到世界各个国家和地区进行文化交流,传播安溪铁观音茶文化,茶艺表演也成为‘福建安溪铁观音茶文化系统’的精华之一。”安溪茶文化艺术团团长杨爱红表示。


安溪茶自古带有国际化的“基因”。宋元时期,随着泉州港的兴起,安溪茶叶作为一种重要商品,通过“海上丝绸之路”走向世界。在产品输出的过程中,也向世界传播了安溪茶文化。如今,安溪铁观音茶文化成为安溪走向世界的一张文化名片。


近年来,我县还创作《安溪铁观音:一棵伟大植物的传奇》《安溪寻茶记》《茶之原乡》《铁观音的王国》《安溪人》《飘香》《循香问茶》等茶文化文艺精品,制作发行MV、微电影等,把安溪铁观音的个性魅力、保健功效等,通过文化形态表现出来,在国内外进行有效传播,以此不断提高安溪铁观音的知名度、美誉度和影响力。


的确,在今天,茶客想要寻味“茶中香水”安溪茶,不光可以依靠嗅觉。可以从书卷里嗅到,从飘扬的乐声里听见,在光影流动的影视作品中真实感受体验。


从输出茶叶的传统做法,升级到输出茶文化,这是安溪铁观音深化传播内涵的新兴气象。从茶瓷之路到东西方茶酒对话,千百年来,安溪以茶为媒,持续沟通中西。

Anxi, located in the mountains and near the sea, has a superior ecological environment. It is the hometown of oolong tea (famous tea) and the birthplace of the world famous tea Tieguanyin. Tea production in Anxi began in the Tang Dynasty, developed in the Qing Dynasty, and flourished in the contemporary era. After thousands of years of inheritance and development, Anxi people have developed Anxi Tieguanyin into a world-famous tea brand, and Anxi tea culture has been passed down from generation to generation.


The long history of development, profound cultural heritage and unique ecological landscape have combined to form a complete and distinctive Anxi Tieguanyin tea culture system. The Anxi Tieguanyin tea culture system is a complex agricultural system with the core elements of traditional Tieguanyin variety selection, cultivation, pest control, tea garden ecosystem management, tea picking and production technology and tea-related culture. The system has irreplaceable livelihood support functions for local people, and also has ecosystem service functions such as maintaining local agricultural and related species biodiversity, maintaining water and soil, conserving water sources, promoting nutrient circulation, and regulating microclimate, fully demonstrating the use of and by local people. Transforming natural conditions, creating agricultural landscapes and rich tea culture in which man and nature coexist in harmony, containing the core of important agricultural cultural heritage, and selected for the official list of global important agricultural cultural heritage.



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Contains the core of important cultural heritage


In the vast hometown of tea, Anxi is undoubtedly lucky: the annual average temperature is 16°C to 21°C, the annual rainfall is 1800mm, and the relative humidity is over 80%; there are nearly 3,000 high mountains over one kilometer; red soil or sandy red soil, slightly acidic , PH value of 4.5-6.5... These unique and unreproducible data make Anxi Tieguanyin wear a halo from birth and win at the starting line.


The unique natural environment of Anxi breeds magical tea trees. The peaks and mountains in Anxi are green, the springs are flowing, the clouds and mists are lingering, mild and humid, and the unique natural conditions are very suitable for the growth of Tieguanyin.


"Good mountains and good water produce good tea." Zheng Guojian, director of the National Tea Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, announced to the media: Anxi Tieguanyin contains more tea polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, etc. than other teas, containing more than 30 kinds of inorganic mineral elements, 70 Other aroma substances.


Anxi is also rich in tea tree varieties and related species resources. There are more than 100 cultivated varieties, of which Anxi accounted for 6 of the first batch of 30 national-level tea tree varieties recognized in 1985; 258 species of terrestrial wild animals in 24 orders, 68 families, and 5 species of Class I protected animals; vascular plants There are 940 species in 152 families, 497 genera and 3 species of Class I protected plants.


Dry green, cool green, shake green, finish green, knead, first bake, wrap, rebake, rebake, dry... After 300 years of inheritance, under the accumulation and optimization of Anxi tea farmers' long-term tea-making practice, each time A soak of Anxi Tieguanyin has gone through ten traditional processes and 36 hours of continuous production, which has also created the rigor and exquisiteness of Anxi Tieguanyin's traditional production skills. This technique is praised by the tea industry as "the most superb, exquisite and unique tea-making technique", and it also enables Anxi Tieguanyin to have the freshness of green tea, the glycol of black tea, and the fragrance of flowers and fruits.


Anxi is recognized as making three historic contributions to the tea industry. First, during the Chenghua period of the Ming Dynasty, he invented the "semi-fermented" oolong tea production technique; second, he discovered the rare tea tree variety Anxi Tieguanyin during the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty; third, he invented the "short spike cutting" tea tree vegetative propagation technology.


Anxi Tieguanyin tea culture system has built a perfect tea garden management system and quality and safety control system. In terms of tea garden management, Anxi Tea Garden is a terraced tea garden, adopting complex ecological planting models such as terrace walls, green manure, and tea forests. , Products can be recalled" from the tea garden to the tea cup, the whole process of safety traceability control system.


According to industry insiders, the unique climatic environment and the production system with the perfect combination of "heaven, earth, people and species" have created the unique and noble quality of Anxi Tieguanyin - natural "orchid fragrance" and unique "Guanyin charm". The ecosystem, production system, and cultural system derived from Anxi Tieguanyin contain the core of important agricultural cultural heritage, and have become a prominent representative and symbol of the tea industry.



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Unique tea culture and customs


For thousands of years, tea has penetrated into the production and life of the people of the tea town. Anxi Tieguanyin tea culture system has formed unique tea culture customs and etiquettes such as fighting tea, serving tea, and tea art due to its long history of tea culture. Treating guests with tea and taking tea as a gift has formed the unique Anxi tea ceremony culture of "the people of Anxi are really hospitable, and they make tea when they are first introduced" and "before they talk about the world, they should taste Guanyin tea first".


In the long-term production process, tea farmers communicated with each other, learned from each other, and compared their own tea-making skills, forming a unique form of folk skills competition - tea fighting.


According to Wei Yuede, the inheritor of the national intangible cultural heritage oolong tea (Tieguanyin) production skills, the most wonderful tea custom in Anxi is the "Tea King Competition", which thrives with tea and endures for a long time. Every spring and autumn tea market peak period, Anxi will launch a wonderful "Tea King Competition" and tea tasting conference. The tea farmers brought their best tea leaves together and were presided over by the tea master. They carefully evaluated from the aspects of "shape, color, fragrance and rhyme". After the selection, tea art performances, tea king auctions and "walking on the street" were also held. Activity.


In order to convey the spirit of the tea ceremony of "purity, elegance, propriety and harmony", Anxi Tieguanyin Tea Culture and Art Troupe was established in 1994, and created a set of "Anxi Tea Art" programs with the style of Anxi tea village, integrating traditional tea ceremony and modern spirit. .


"The tea art troupe was invited to various countries and regions in the world for cultural exchanges, to spread the Anxi Tieguanyin tea culture, and the tea art performance became one of the essences of the 'Fujian Anxi Tieguanyin Tea Culture System'," said Yang Aihong, head of the Anxi Tea Culture and Art Troupe.


Anxi tea has an international "gene" since ancient times. During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, with the rise of Quanzhou Port, Anxi tea, as an important commodity, went to the world through the "Maritime Silk Road". In the process of product export, Anxi tea culture was also spread to the world. Today, Anxi Tieguanyin tea culture has become a cultural business card for Anxi to go to the world.


In recent years, our county has also created "Anxi Tieguanyin: The Legend of a Great Plant", "Anxi Searching for Tea", "The Hometown of Tea", "Tieguanyin's Kingdom", "Anxi People", "Fragrant", "Ask for Tea" ” and other tea culture and literary works, produce and distribute MVs, micro-movies, etc., express the personality charm and health care effects of Anxi Tieguanyin through cultural forms, and effectively spread it at home and abroad, so as to continuously improve the popularity of Anxi Tieguanyin, reputation and influence.


Indeed, today, tea consumers who want to inquire about the "perfume in tea" Anxi tea can not only rely on the sense of smell. You can smell it from the scroll, hear it from the fluttering music, and feel the real experience in the film and television works with the flow of light and shadow.


From the traditional practice of exporting tea to exporting tea culture, this is an emerging trend for Anxi Tieguanyin to deepen the connotation of communication. From the road of tea and porcelain to the dialogue between the East and the West on tea and wine, Anxi has used tea as a medium for thousands of years to continuously communicate between China and the West.


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