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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

安溪铁观音产地 退茶还耕、还林、还蔬、还花

  1
Issuing time:2022-01-11 16:16

安溪多地低产铁观音茶园“退茶还耕、还林、还蔬、还花”等蔚然成风,村村有特色,处处有亮点。


  通过以“退”为进,既优化了铁观音茶产业结构,培育了新的农业增长点,又保护了生态提高了茶叶品质,形成“一叶飘香、多元增收”的格局。


  


  低产茶园蝶变创收花园


  大雪菊、玲珑粉、黑美人、高原红……这些都是金谷镇河美村一家鲜切花种植基地出产的非洲菊。如今,安溪城区花店里的非洲菊几乎都来自该种植基地,这些原产非洲的花卉品种有了“安溪户口”。


  近日,记者在该基地看到,数个花卉种植智能温室大棚整齐划一坐落在田野上,大棚内各色非洲菊恣意盛放,红的、黄的、粉的,就像一个个小太阳,令人陶醉。工人们在田埂里或采摘花朵,或除草摘叶,或播种育苗,井然有序。


  在一畦花园里,基地负责人吴梅月一边忙着弯腰锄草,一边谈起她从龙岩回乡创业的经过。“以前老往别人种植园里跑,时间长了,种植知识了解越来越多,朋友建议我自己创业,开发家乡市场,恰逢政府开展‘退茶还花’项目,我心想这是个机会,便下决心回来。”吴梅月说。


  “综合考虑市场需求和这里的气候条件,决定先行种植非洲菊。”吴梅月介绍,非洲菊花色丰富、艳丽,花朵硕大,是现代鲜切花重要材料,且可四季开花、产值高。以往安溪县市场内的非洲菊鲜切花大多来自云南、三明,运输成本高,途中须冷冻保存,鲜度有所下降。而安溪气候和云南接近,加之现代种植技术日益成熟,种植非洲菊前景可观。


  做完市场调查,吴梅月便把发展的目光投向金谷镇河美村一片低产茶园。“这片茶园水源充沛、土壤肥沃、气候适宜,非常适合大棚花卉种植。加上靠近高速路口,交通便利,方便花卉运输。”在金谷镇政府的帮助下,吴梅月从村民手里流转了50亩低产茶园,并引进智能温室大棚鲜切花种植技术。目前,基地拥有智能花卉大棚3座,占地16亩,主要种植非洲菊,现已进入鲜花盛产期。


  “今年非洲菊市场行情好,一扎鲜菊花能卖到5—15元,一扎有20枝鲜花。逢年过节价格就会上涨到15元以上。”吴梅月介绍,非洲菊的生命周期为两年,两年内可以循环采摘。她还给记者算了一笔账:每亩土地可种植非洲菊5000株,每株每年可生产鲜花60朵,整个基地目前已种植达16亩,一年下来就有480万朵的产量,产值超过100万元。


  优质的花卉不愁市场。吴梅月介绍,基地种植的非洲菊因品质优良备受商家和消费者青睐,形成稳定的订单销售模式,实现良好的经济效益。


  “旺季畅销时,鲜花仅供县内市场需求。”吴梅月介绍,目前该基地的非洲菊基本可以做到摘多少卖多少,供不应求,除供应安溪本地,也有部分销售到泉州市区、厦门等周边地区和东莞、山西等省外市场。“虽受疫情影响,但今年基地内非洲菊的产值预计仍然保持增长。”吴梅月说。


  五颜六色的非洲菊不仅带来美丽的风景,也为当地村民铺就增收致富道路。金谷镇林业站站长梁晓东介绍,这片土地原本零星种植茶叶,产出茶青品质不高,总体产能低下,“退茶还花”后,土地租金每年可达4万元。


  发展特色产业结硕果


  不只河美村,安溪其他其地方退茶发展特色产业也结出累累硕果。如金谷镇水利条件较好的三元、丽山、华芸等村发展优质稻生产,全镇优质稻生产达1200亩;溪榜村实行水旱轮作,连片种植早红米、晚优质紫薯300亩;景坑村有200亩百果园,汤内村、中都村、河美村、芸美村的油茶种植,渊兜村500亩蜜柚基地,山岭村200亩芭乐等。“打破以往‘唯茶是农’的固有观念,通过利好政策开路、宣传舆论引导,因地制宜发展特色农业。土地盘活了,村民增收了,还解决周边农民就业问题。”金谷镇副镇长詹育杉高兴地说,退茶还耕、还果、还花,构建“一叶飘香、多元增收”的发展格局,推进产业结构调整。


  官桥镇上苑村高速公路旁开辟了上苑百合园。前几年,在外打拼的上苑村村民廖建安和廖启忠以每亩650元的价格向村里的种茶户租用田地,在挖掉茶树后,对茶园土壤进行改良处理,撒播种子,建成一片面积13亩的百合花种植基地。


  在该百合园旁,2000年开始种茶的林瑞丽也挖掉低产的黄金桂茶树,点播花生。“那时候一斤茶青(茶鲜叶)售价达14.7元,一年可采摘5茬,效益很好,后来很多人跟着把稻田改成茶园。”官桥、龙门一带并非安溪县茶叶主产区,受市场利益驱使,稻田种茶一度成风气。


  在桃舟乡吾之茗茶香人家,负责人肖连地也向村民流转一批低产茶园,种植荷花、莲花、橘子等经济作物。


  退茶还林还耕增效益


  自2010年“退茶还林”启动以来,全县已退茶数万亩。连续多年实施“退茶还林”“退茶还耕”,茶乡安溪意欲何为?


  作为名茶铁观音发源地、“中国乌龙茶之乡”,安溪县的茶产业历史积淀深厚。改革开放40多年来,安溪茶产业获得大发展,其中,2000年至2010年被称为“黄金十年”,创造了历史性的辉煌,茶叶单价、茶农收入、涉茶总产值、茶业品牌价值等多项指标全国居首。


  然而,辉煌背后不乏隐患,由于铁观音茶的热销,当地茶农在规模上盲目扩张,一度造成水土流失、生态失衡,反过来又影响当地茶叶的品质和茶产业的长远发展。一些生态专家告诫,安溪开垦茶园面积在60万亩较为适宜,超过就会影响产业发展的可持续性。


  正是基于铁观音茶产业的整体发展考量,安溪做出“退茶还耕”的决策部署。经过几年来的“退茶还耕”,目前,安溪全县的茶园面积已稳定在60万亩左右。


  值得一提的是,退出的茶园,种植的多为品种、品质较差的茶种。这些低端茶园的退出,有效优化了安溪铁观音茶的产品结构,提升了产业整体发展水平,为当地高标准生态茶园的发展腾出空间。


  退茶的背后,是发展理念的革新。在保护生态环境和发展经济之间,安溪县追求茶园面积的总量控制和适度稳定,尊重茶产业发展规律,把发展铁观音支柱产业和生态保护统一起来,追求可持续性的市场发展。环境变好了、茶品质提高了、茶叶价格上去了,生态效益和经济效益就实现了双赢。


  退茶之后,另一个新问题随之而至,几万亩茶园退出后,腾出的农地该如何处理?要种什么作物?对此,安溪遵循市场法则,扶持茶农建起有机蔬菜、花卉、水果、中药材等基地,发展淮山、油茶等特色种植业,这些特色种植业均为安溪以及周边市场需求旺盛的行业。为鼓励这些产业发展,安溪还出台政策,对5亩以上连片种植的农地,每亩每年补贴2000元。这些新型种植业的培育和壮大,有效改善了安溪农业产业结构,为当地农民增收开辟了新路。


  安溪铁观音以“退”为进,走出一条生态改善、经济发展、农民增收“三赢”的路子。当前,传统农业在向现代农业转型的过程中,亟须开展供给侧结构性改革。安溪“退茶还耕”的做法和配套动作,正是我省地方基层政府推进农产品供给侧结构性改革的一个成功探索。

"Returning tea to farming, forests, vegetables, and flowers" has become a common practice in many low-yield tea gardens in Anxi. Every village has its own characteristics, and there are bright spots everywhere.


Through "retreat" as progress, it not only optimizes the tea industry structure, cultivates new agricultural growth points, but also protects the ecology and improves the quality of tea, forming a pattern of "one leaf is fragrant, and multiple incomes are increased".


□ This newspaper reporter Xie Weiduan correspondent Wu Mingna Zhang Yihan text / picture


Low-yielding tea gardens become income-generating gardens


Daxue chrysanthemum, Linglong pink, black beauty, plateau red... These are all gerbera produced by a fresh-cut flower planting base in Hemei Village, Jingu Town. Today, almost all of the gerbera in flower shops in Anxi City come from this planting base, and these flower varieties native to Africa have "Anxi Hukou".


Recently, the reporter saw at the base that several intelligent greenhouses for flower planting are located in the fields neatly. In the greenhouses, all kinds of gerbera are in full bloom, red, yellow, and pink, just like small suns. revel. In the fields, workers pick flowers, weed and pick leaves, or sow seedlings in an orderly manner.


In a garden, Wu Meiyue, the head of the base, was busy bending over and weeding, while talking about her journey from Longyan back to her hometown to start a business. "I used to go to other people's plantations. After a long time, I learned more and more about planting knowledge. My friends suggested me to start my own business and develop the market in my hometown. This coincided with the government's 'returning tea and returning flowers' project. I thought this was an opportunity. , and decided to come back." Wu Meiyue said.


"Considering the market demand and the climatic conditions here, it was decided to plant gerbera first." Wu Meiyue introduced that gerbera is rich in color, gorgeous, and large in size. It is an important material for modern fresh cut flowers, and it can bloom in four seasons and has a high output value. In the past, most of the fresh cut gerbera flowers in the market in Anxi County came from Yunnan and Sanming. The transportation cost was high, and they had to be frozen on the way to preserve the freshness. The climate of Anxi is close to that of Yunnan, and the modern planting technology is becoming more and more mature, so the prospect of planting gerbera is considerable.


After completing the market research, Wu Meiyue set her sights on the development of a low-yield tea garden in Hemei Village, Jingu Town. "This tea garden has abundant water sources, fertile soil, and a suitable climate, which is very suitable for greenhouse flower cultivation. In addition, it is close to the highway intersection, and the transportation is convenient, which is convenient for flower transportation." With the help of the Jingu Town Government, Wu Meiyue transferred 50 mu from the villagers. Low-yield tea gardens, and the introduction of intelligent greenhouse fresh-cut flower planting technology. At present, the base has 3 smart flower greenhouses, covering an area of 16 acres, mainly planting gerbera, and has now entered a period of flourishing flowers.


"The gerbera market is doing well this year. A bundle of fresh chrysanthemums can sell for 5-15 yuan, and a bundle of 20 flowers. The price will rise to more than 15 yuan during festivals." Wu Meiyue introduced that the life cycle of gerbera is two Years, can be recycled within two years. She also calculated an account for the reporter: 5,000 gerbera plants can be planted per mu of land, and each plant can produce 60 flowers per year. The entire base has now planted 16 mu, and there will be 4.8 million in one year. The output value more than 1 million yuan.


High-quality flowers do not worry about the market. Wu Meiyue introduced that the gerbera planted in the base is favored by merchants and consumers because of its high quality, forming a stable order sales model and achieving good economic benefits.


"When the peak season is popular, the flowers are only for the market demand in the county." Wu Meiyue introduced that at present, the gerbera in the base can basically be picked and sold as much as possible, and the supply is in short supply. In addition to the local supply in Anxi, some are also sold to Quanzhou, Xiamen and other surrounding areas. Regions and markets outside the province such as Dongguan and Shanxi. "Although affected by the epidemic, the output value of gerbera in the base is expected to continue to grow this year." Wu Meiyue said.


The colorful gerbera not only brings beautiful scenery, but also paved the way for local villagers to increase their income and become rich. According to Liang Xiaodong, the head of the Jingu Town Forestry Station, the land was originally planted sporadically, but the quality of the green tea produced was not high, and the overall production capacity was low.


The development of characteristic industries has yielded fruitful results


Not only Hemei Village, but also other localities in Anxi have also produced fruitful results by withdrawing tea and developing characteristic industries. For example, Sanyuan, Lishan, Huayun and other villages with good water conservancy conditions in Jingu Town develop high-quality rice production, and the production of high-quality rice in the town reaches 1,200 mu; Xibang Village implements flood and drought rotation, planting early red rice and late high-quality purple rice. There are 300 acres of potatoes; Jingkeng Village has 200 acres of 100 orchards, camellia plantations in Tangnei Village, Zhongdu Village, Hemei Village, and Yunmei Village, 500 acres of pomelo base in Yuandou Village, and 200 acres of guava in Shanling Village. "Breaking the traditional concept of 'only tea is farming' in the past, through favorable policies to open the way, propaganda and public opinion guidance, and develop characteristic agriculture according to local conditions. The land has been revitalized, the villagers' income has increased, and the employment problem of surrounding farmers has also been solved." Zhan Yushan, deputy mayor of Jingu Town, is happy In other words, returning tea to farming, fruit, and flowers will build a development pattern of "one leaf is fragrant, and multiple incomes will increase", and promote the adjustment of industrial structure.


The Shangyuan Lily Garden was built next to the expressway in Shangyuan Village, Guanqiao Town. A few years ago, Liao Jian'an and Liao Qizhong, villagers of Shangyuan Village, who worked hard outside, rented fields from tea farmers in the village at a price of 650 yuan per mu. After the tea trees were dug up, the soil of the tea garden was improved, seeds were sown, and an area was built. 13 acres of lily planting base.


Next to the lily garden, Lin Ruili, who started tea cultivation in 2000, also dug up the low-yielding golden osmanthus tea trees and ordered peanuts. "At that time, the price of a pound of tea green (fresh tea leaves) was 14.7 yuan, and five crops could be picked a year, and the benefits were very good. Later, many people followed the conversion of rice fields into tea gardens." The Guanqiao and Longmen areas are not tea owners in Anxi County. In the production area, driven by market interests, tea cultivation in paddy fields once became a trend.


At Wuzhichaxiang Family in Taozhou Township, Xiao Liandi, the person in charge, also transferred a batch of low-yield tea gardens to the villagers to plant lotus, lotus, oranges and other cash crops.


Returning tea to forest and farming to increase efficiency


Since the launch of "Returning Tea to Forests" in 2010, the county has returned tens of thousands of acres of tea. "Returning tea to forests" and "returning tea to farming" for many years in a row, what is the intention of tea town Anxi?


As the birthplace of the famous tea Tieguanyin and the "Hometown of Oolong Tea in China", Anxi County has a profound history of tea industry. Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, Anxi's tea industry has achieved great development. Among them, the period from 2000 to 2010 was called the "Golden Decade", which created historic brilliance. Value and other indicators ranked first in the country.


However, there are many hidden dangers behind the brilliance. Due to the hot sales of Tieguanyin tea, local tea farmers have blindly expanded in scale, which once caused soil erosion and ecological imbalance, which in turn affected the quality of local tea and the long-term development of the tea industry. Some ecological experts have warned that it is more suitable for Anxi to reclaim an area of 600,000 mu of tea gardens, as more than 600,000 mu will affect the sustainability of industrial development.


It is precisely based on the overall development of Tieguanyin tea industry that Anxi made the decision to "return tea to farmland". After several years of "returning tea to farming", the area of tea gardens in Anxi County has stabilized at about 600,000 mu.


It is worth mentioning that most of the tea gardens that have been withdrawn are planted with low-quality tea varieties. The withdrawal of these low-end tea gardens has effectively optimized the product structure of Anxi Tieguanyin tea, improved the overall development level of the industry, and made room for the development of local high-standard ecological tea gardens.


Behind the withdrawal of tea is the innovation of the development concept. Between protecting the ecological environment and developing the economy, Anxi County pursues the total control and moderate stability of the tea garden area, respects the development law of the tea industry, unifies the development of Tieguanyin pillar industries and ecological protection, and pursues sustainable market development. The environment has improved, the quality of tea has improved, and the price of tea has gone up, and the ecological and economic benefits have achieved a win-win situation.


After the withdrawal of tea, another new problem arose. After the withdrawal of tens of thousands of acres of tea gardens, what should be done with the vacated farmland? What crops to plant? In this regard, Anxi follows the laws of the market, supports tea farmers to build bases for organic vegetables, flowers, fruits, Chinese herbal medicines, etc., and develops characteristic planting industries such as yam and camellia oleifera. These characteristic planting industries are industries with strong demand in Anxi and surrounding markets. In order to encourage the development of these industries, Anxi also issued a policy to subsidize 2,000 yuan per mu of farmland for contiguous planting of more than 5 acres per year. The cultivation and expansion of these new types of planting has effectively improved the structure of Anxi's agricultural industry and opened up a new way for local farmers to increase their income.


Anxi takes "retreat" as its advance, and finds a "three-win" path of ecological improvement, economic development and farmers' income increase. At present, in the process of transforming traditional agriculture into modern agriculture, it is urgent to carry out supply-side structural reform. Anxi's practice of "returning tea to farmland" and supporting actions is a successful exploration of the local grass-roots government in our province to promote the structural reform of the supply side of agricultural products.


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