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铁观音大师效应强带动 品质铁观音价格双提升

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Issuing time:2021-11-09 18:19


今年安溪铁观音秋茶价格上扬,市场回暖十分明显。记者了解到,安溪铁观音大师、名匠、技能大师、非遗传承人对茶农的示范带动作用相当明显,直接促进了茶叶品质和茶叶价格的“双提升”。而这种“双提升”又辐射到周边区域,使更多人加入到做好茶、卖好茶的行列。



铁观音茶农收益提高 自发学习技术



近日,记者来到安溪铁观音制作技艺县级非遗传承人吴堃东的加工厂,四五名工人正在抓紧包装茶叶。“已经连续加班1个月了,还是赶不上客人订单的速度。”吴堃东说,今年的安溪铁观音秋茶绝对算得上供不应求。



吴堃东要求茶农深翻茶园土壤



铁观音茶叶供不应求与这几年坚持不懈的努力分不开。从去年冬天开始,吴堃东就在为今年秋茶做准备,他多次前往感德的合作基地,指导茶农进行冬季茶园管理,要求茶农必须深翻土壤。“茶园的土壤硬化,雨天容易积水,土地的湿气重就会长青苔,有些青苔甚至寄生在茶树的茎部。寄生的青苔会吸收茶树的营养,影响茶叶生长。这样制作出来的茶叶不仅香气和韵味不显,还有青草味,降低茶叶的品质和口感。”土壤深翻后,茶园在雨季能消水,旱季能保水,茶树的根也能在蓬松的土壤内更好地吸收营养。



除了铁观音茶园管理外,吴堃东还要求茶农规范采摘制作,比如采摘的茶青要匀整,包揉要用手工等。按照这种方法制作出来的铁观音盖杯蕴香、茶水含香、杯底留香,达到“三香合一”,毛茶价格提高了15%。而由于茶园科学管理,茶青长势好,茶园单位亩产增加了20%,茶农综合收入增加了30%。“村里面的茶园都是一片紧挨一片的,隔壁茶园的很多茶农看到我指导的茶农增收这么多,也自发地来学习。我也都免费地进行技术指导。”



大师名匠指导 辐射周边区域



前几年,安溪县湖上乡筑巢引凤,引入多位安溪铁观音大师、名匠与当地名山、名茶结合,成立安溪双旅茶业公司,互相帮扶,释放叠加效应。今年秋茶季,这种叠加效应更加明显,在大师、名匠的指导下,茶农的收益翻番。




“你很难想象,到了10月底,安溪铁观音采摘接近尾声了,湖上乡长林村茶农做出来的毛茶均价还能达到100多元。”安溪铁观音大师刘协宗说,往年这个时间点,毛茶均价一般只有20元左右。今年整个秋茶季,当地接受大师、名匠指导的茶农,毛茶售价在150元到700元之间,其中一户茶农今年秋茶季做了3000多斤毛茶,收入几十万元;而往年,他们做出的毛茶每斤的价格一般是三四十元或者七八十元。



安溪铁观音大师刘协宗在指导茶农晒青




记者了解到,在双旅茶业公司,安溪铁观音大师刘协宗,安溪铁观音名匠陈宁石、陈清龙、刘协明、陈繁荣等常年对茶农进行技术指导。为了对比效果,大师、名匠会让受指导的茶农安排临近的两块茶园,其中一块按照大师、名匠的要求采取人工除草、对茶园土壤进行深翻等方式进行规范管理;而另一块按照茶农原来的方式管理。“结果按我们的方式管理出来的茶园,比按自己方式管理的茶园,毛茶价格高出一倍。”越来越多的茶农选择按照大师、名匠的方式管理茶园。“农村还有很多留守老人,他们已经没有体力加工茶叶,我们就鼓励他们按我们的方式管理好自家茶园,再把茶青卖给我们。”这不仅让留守老人有了收入,茶园也因得到管理而没有抛荒。




今年秋茶季,铁观音茶农还按公司要求实施人工采摘,之后将茶青统一送到加工厂。双旅茶业盘下湖上乡沙堤村一所2000平方米的闲置小学,将其改造成茶叶加工厂。在加工厂,大师、名匠等对茶农进行技术指导,茶叶的品质好,售价很高。“周边很多产茶大户纷纷拿自家茶叶前来比对,跟着我们学。”刘协宗说,乡镇整体制茶水平有了很大提升。




自身练好内功 带动社员增收



在安溪近日举办的多场县级、乡镇级茶王赛上,由泉州市技能大师、天香魂茶业负责人詹国珍选送的茶样无一例外都获奖。记者也慕名前往詹国珍位于安溪的门店,此时他正在加工茶叶,半个多小时后,拖着疲惫身体的詹国珍才有空接受采访,他对记者说:“这一个月来,我每天都要工作到凌晨5点,还是满足不了客户购茶需求。”




詹国珍出生于祥华乡石狮村一个普通茶农家庭,从小在茶树下长大,跟着长辈细心学习制茶技艺。为进一步提高茶叶品质,他经常向老前辈和经验丰富的茶农讨教学习。一有机会,他就往茶区跑。每逢茶季,詹国珍就到感德、祥华、西坪等产茶乡镇,和茶农住在一起,跟他们学茶、制茶。“别人喝茶睡不着,我是没喝茶睡不着!”詹国珍介绍,哪里有好茶,他就往哪里跑,对一泡好茶他常常反复品鉴,细心研究。凭着对铁观音的痴迷,詹国珍认真钻研茶叶加工技术及茶园管理方法,熟练掌握茶叶“色、香、味、型”的关键工艺,不断提高茶叶制优率。




詹国珍在认真比对铁观音茶样,进行审评拼配




选料时,他总是挑选高香大韵、回甘软润的铁观音。审评时,他运用视觉、嗅觉、味觉和触觉的辨别能力,对茶叶的外形、色泽、香气、滋味、汤色与叶底的六项因子进行审评,要求茶叶外形条索肥壮紧结,色泽翠绿油润,匀整洁净,香气清香持久,滋味鲜醇甘爽,音韵明显,汤色金黄明亮,叶底肥厚软亮。拼配时,则要多泡、多喝、多思、多实践。拼配的关键在于从茶叶的外形、色泽、香气、滋味、汤色与叶底的六项因子审评后对等级进行拼配,促进产品品种的多样化,满足不同消费者的需求。此外,根据茶叶的特征不同来进行优势互补,使茶叶香气高雅,滋味醇厚,回甘清爽,持久耐泡。拼配茶叶的质量与价格相对固定,才能保证大批量品质稳定的茶叶产品供应,让消费者信任放心选购。如今,詹国珍从选料到审评拼配都能做到“快”“准”“狠”。




茶香客自来。因茶叶品质好,詹国珍的名气越来越响,许多制茶工艺大师和茶商经常邀他一起论茶、一起切磋。各种茶客纷至沓来,茶叶供不应求。茶季一到,很多客户都提前下订单,詹国珍只好按客户需求,限量供应茶叶。詹国珍牵头成立天香魂茶叶专业合作社,从茶园管理到茶叶加工,对社员进行全程指导,为社员茶叶生产销售搭建平台。目前,合作社自有茶叶基地300亩,社员30户,100多人。“今年客户增加了30%”,合作社在满足更多铁观音茶人茶客需求的同时,也大大提高社员的经济收入,带动村民增收致富。

The price of Anxi Tieguanyin autumn tea has risen this year, and the market has recovered significantly. The reporter learned that Anxi Tieguanyin masters, master craftsmen, skilled masters, and non-genetic inheritors have demonstrated obvious leading role in tea farmers, directly promoting the "double increase" of tea quality and tea prices. And this "double promotion" radiates to the surrounding areas, so that more people join the ranks of making tea and selling good tea.



Increased income of tea farmers Spontaneous learning technology



Recently, the reporter came to the processing factory of Wu Kundong, the county-level non-genetic inheritor of Tieguanyin's production skills in Anxi. Four or five workers are packing tea. "I have been working overtime for 1 month, and I still can't keep up with the speed of customer orders." Wu Kundong said, this year's Anxi Tieguanyin Autumn Tea is definitely in short supply.



Wu Kundong asks tea farmers to dig into the soil of the tea garden



The shortage of tea is inseparable from the unremitting efforts over the past few years. Since last winter, Wu Kundong has been preparing for this year's autumn tea. He has traveled to Gande's cooperation base many times to guide tea farmers in winter tea garden management, requiring tea farmers to thoroughly dig the soil. "The soil in the tea garden is hardened, and it is easy to accumulate water on rainy days. The moisture in the land will cause moss to grow. Some moss even parasitize the stems of the tea trees. The parasitic moss will absorb the nutrients of the tea trees and affect the growth of the tea. The tea made in this way is not only The aroma and flavor are not obvious, and there is a grassy taste, which reduces the quality and taste of the tea.” After the soil is turned deeply, the tea garden can eliminate water in the rainy season and retain water in the dry season. The roots of the tea trees can better absorb nutrients in the fluffy soil. .



In addition to the management of tea gardens, Wu Kundong also required tea farmers to standardize their picking and production, for example, the tea greens to be picked should be neat, and the kneading should be done manually. According to this method, the Tieguanyin cup with lid contains fragrance, the tea contains fragrance, and the fragrance remains at the bottom of the cup, achieving "three fragrances in one", and the price of Maocha has increased by 15%. Due to the scientific management of tea gardens, tea greens are growing well, the yield per mu of tea garden units has increased by 20%, and the comprehensive income of tea farmers has increased by 30%. "The tea gardens in the village are all close to each other. Many tea farmers in the tea garden next door saw that the tea farmers I guided have increased their income so much, and they came to learn spontaneously. I also gave free technical guidance."



Masters and masters guide radiating the surrounding area



In the past few years, Hushang Township, Anxi County, built nests to attract phoenixes and introduced many Anxi Tieguanyin masters and master craftsmen to combine with local famous mountains and famous teas to establish Anxi Shuanglv Tea Company to help each other and release the superimposed effect. This year's autumn tea season, this superimposed effect is even more obvious. Under the guidance of masters and master craftsmen, the income of tea farmers has doubled.




“It’s hard to imagine that by the end of October, the picking of Anxi Tieguanyin is coming to an end, and the average price of Maocha made by tea farmers in Changlin Village of Hushang Township can reach more than 100 yuan.” said Anxi Tieguanyin master Liu Xiezong. The price is generally only about 20 yuan. Throughout the autumn tea season this year, local tea farmers who received the guidance of masters and master craftsmen sold Maocha between 150 yuan and 700 yuan. One of the farmers made more than 3,000 catties of Maocha this autumn tea season, earning hundreds of thousands of yuan; The price per catty of the Maocha they make is generally thirty or forty yuan or seventy to eighty yuan.



Anxi Tieguanyin Master Liu Xiezong is instructing tea farmers to dry the tea




The reporter learned that at Shuanglu Tea Company, Anxi Tieguanyin master Liu Xiezong, Anxi Tieguanyin masters Chen Ningshi, Chen Qinglong, Liu Xieming, Chen Fanrong, etc. provide technical guidance to tea farmers all year round. In order to compare the effect, the master and master craftsman will ask the instructed tea farmer to arrange two adjacent tea gardens, one of which adopts manual weeding and deep plowing of the tea garden soil according to the requirements of the master and master craftsman for standard management; while the other is in accordance with the original tea farmer’s original Way of management. "As a result, the tea garden managed in our way is twice as expensive as the tea garden managed in our own way." More and more tea farmers choose to manage the tea garden in the way of masters and master craftsmen. "There are still many left-behind elderly people in the countryside. They have no physical strength to process tea. We encourage them to manage their own tea gardens in our own way, and then sell tea greens to us." This not only allows the left-behind elderly people to have income, but also the tea gardens. Management without abandonment.




In the autumn tea season this year, tea growers also implemented manual picking according to the company's requirements, and then sent the tea greens to the processing plant. Shuanglv Tea Industry transformed a 2,000-square-meter idle primary school in Shadi Village, Hushang Township, Panxia, into a tea processing factory. In the processing plant, masters and master craftsmen give technical guidance to tea farmers. The quality of the tea is good and the price is very high. "Many large tea producers in the surrounding areas have compared their own tea and followed us to learn." Liu Xiezong said, the overall tea production level of the township has been greatly improved.




Practise your own internal skills to drive members' income



In many county-level and township-level tea king competitions recently held in Anxi, the tea samples selected and presented by Quanzhou skill master and head of Tianxianghun tea industry, Zhan Guozhen, all won prizes. The reporter also went to Zhan Guozhen’s store in Anxi, where he was processing tea. After more than half an hour, Zhan Guozhen, who was dragging his tired body, was free to accept the interview. He told reporters: "For the past month, I have been doing tea every day. Working until 5 a.m., I still can’t meet the needs of customers for tea."




Zhan Guozhen was born in a family of ordinary tea farmers in Shishi Village, Xianghua Township. In order to further improve the quality of tea, he often consulted his seniors and experienced tea farmers. He ran to the tea area whenever he had the opportunity. During the tea season, Zhan Guozhen went to Gande, Xianghua, Xiping and other tea-producing towns to live with tea farmers and learn tea and make tea with them. "Others can't sleep with tea, I can't sleep without tea!" Zhan Guozhen said, wherever there is good tea, he will go wherever he goes. He often tastes good tea and studies carefully. With an obsession with Tieguanyin, Zhan Guozhen earnestly studied tea processing technology and tea garden management methods, mastered the key techniques of tea "color, aroma, taste, and shape", and continuously improved the yield of tea production.




Zhan Guozhen is carefully comparing the tea samples and evaluating the blending




When choosing materials, he always chooses Tieguanyin, which is high-fragrant, large-rhyme, sweet and soft. During the review, he used the distinguishing ability of vision, smell, taste and touch to evaluate the six factors of tea shape, color, aroma, taste, soup color and leaf bottom, and required the shape of the tea to be strong and tight, and the color and luster Emerald green and oily, neat and clean, the fragrance is long-lasting, the taste is fresh and mellow, the sound is obvious, the soup is golden and bright, and the bottom of the leaf is thick and soft. When blending, soak more, drink more, think more, and practice more. The key to blending is to blend the grades after reviewing the six factors of tea shape, color, aroma, taste, soup color and leaf bottom, to promote the diversification of product varieties and meet the needs of different consumers. In addition, the advantages are complemented according to the different characteristics of the tea, so that the tea has an elegant aroma, a mellow taste, a refreshing sweetness, and a long-lasting foam resistance. The quality and price of the blended tea are relatively fixed, so as to ensure the supply of large quantities of stable quality tea products, so that consumers can trust and buy with confidence. Now, Zhan Guozhen can achieve "fast", "accurate" and "ruthless" from material selection to review and matching.




Tea pilgrims come by themselves. Because of the good quality of tea, Zhan Guozhen's reputation has become more and more famous. Many tea craftsmen and tea merchants often invite him to discuss tea and discuss together. All kinds of tea customers come in droves, and the supply of tea leaves exceeds demand. When the tea season arrived, many customers placed orders in advance, and Zhan Guozhen had to supply limited quantities of tea according to customer needs. Zhan Guozhen led the establishment of the Tianxianghun Tea Professional Cooperative, which provided full guidance to members from tea garden management to tea processing, and built a platform for members of tea production and sales. At present, the cooperative has its own tea base of 300 acres, 30 households and more than 100 members. "The number of customers has increased by 30% this year." While the cooperative meets the needs of more tea people and tea customers, it also greatly increases the economic income of its members and drives the villagers to increase their income and become rich.


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