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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
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乌龙茶铁观音

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Issuing time:2021-11-06 15:22

很多年前,铁观音这种茶火遍京城。我还在出版社上班,有个湖南的书商来找我们合作,那时候的我根本不懂茶,用纸杯子放几粒铁观音茶招待那个书商,那个书商摆摆手说不用,自己拿出自己的茶杯来,里面放满了铁观音茶叶,跟我们要了开水浇了上去,


然后把铁观音茶水倒到自己带的一个小杯子来,然后非常满足地喝了起来……我们几个编辑都觉得新鲜,那时候我们连“茶水分离”都不懂。不过这件事情也激发了我对茶的兴趣,从此一发不可收拾——有个茶友打电话给我说“韩老师,这儿有一泡3000元一斤的铁观音等你来喝”,我会扔掉手头的稿子打车去喝这泡3000元一斤的铁观音!再到后来,习上了岩茶,铁观音就喝得少了,但是我仍然十分喜爱铁观音的滋味。又过了几年,铁观音这款茶沾上了一些负面消息,比如说“铁观音喝多了伤胃”,


你别喝那么多不就伤不了你的胃了嘛。至于说有些茶农和茶商过量使用农药的问题,说实话,只要别去买那种超低价格的茶叶,我觉得农药问题对于爱茶的茶友来说不会构成问题,你得喝多少茶叶才能中毒?再者,农药的问题也不止铁观音一种茶存在。只要铁观音茶青、工艺保持高品质,买茶去从信誉好的商户去买,铁观音的品质还是能得到保证的,粉丝会依然喜爱铁观音的。下面简单的介绍下铁观音,希望刚刚开始习茶的粉丝可以看到我的介绍。


铁观音这款茶,属于乌龙茶类,是中国十大名茶之一,乌龙茶类的代表。纯种铁观音植株为灌木型,树势披展,枝条斜生,叶片水平状着生。叶形椭圆,叶缘齿疏而钝,叶面呈波浪状隆起,具明显肋骨形,略向背面反卷,叶肉肥厚,叶色浓绿光润,叶基部稍钝,叶尖端稍凹,向左稍歪,略厂下垂,嫩芽紫红色,因此有“红芽歪尾桃”之称,这是纯种特征之一。属于半发酵茶类。


1. 地理环境


福建省安溪县地处戴云山东南坡,戴云山支脉从漳平延伸县内,地势自西北向东南倾斜。境内有独立坐标的山峰522座,千米以上的高山有2461座,最高的太华山海拔1600米。境内按地形地貌之差异,素有内外安溪之分,以湖头盆地西缘的五阆山至龙门跌死虎西缘为天然分界线,线以东称外安溪,线以西称内安溪。


外安溪地势平缓,多底山丘陵,平均海拔300-400米。内安溪地势比较高峻,山峦陡峭,平均海拔600-700米。土质大部分为酸性红壤,PH值4.5—5.6,土层深厚,特别适宜茶树生长。


2. 气候影响


安溪铁观音 安溪铁观音主产区在西部的“内安溪”,这里群山环抱,峰峦绵延,云雾缭绕,年平均气温15—18度,无霜期260—324天,年降雨量1700—1900毫米,相对湿度78%以上,有“四季有花常见雨,一冬无雪却闻雷”之谚。


3. 制作工艺


采青


安溪铁观音的制作综合了红茶发酵和绿茶不发酵的特点,属于半发酵的品种,采回的鲜叶力求完整。茶青的采集以茶芽〔心〕伸长叶面开面后,采取它的一心二叶,俗称“开面采”。茶青的采集在整个制茶过程当中占了非常重要的先决条件,采集茶青时是不能在下雨天及阴天中采,否则将很难形成甘醇的滋味及香气,正铁观音茶只能早上九点采集到下午四点。


凉青、晒育和晾青


鲜叶按标准来收进厂经过凉育后进行晒青。晒青时间以午后4时阳光柔和时为宜,叶子直薄摊,以失去原有光泽,叶色转暗,手摸叶子柔软,顶叶下垂,失重6~9%左右为适度。然后移入室内凉育后进行做青。


摇青与摊置相间进行,合称做青


做青技术性高,灵活性强,是决定毛菜品质优劣的关键。摇青使叶子边缘经过摩擦,叶缘细胞受损,再经过排置,在一定的温度、湿度条件下伴随着叶子水分逐渐丧失,叶中多酚类在酶的作用下缓慢地氧化并引起了一系列化学变化,从而形成乌龙茶的特有品质。

铁观音鲜叶肥厚,要重摇并延长做青时间,摇青共5~6次,每次摇青的转数由少到多。摇育后摊置历时由短到长,摊叶厚度由薄到厚。第三、四次摇青必须摇到青味浓强,鲜叶硬挺,俗称“还田”,梗叶水分重新分布平衡。 摇青是制作铁观音的重要工序,通过摇笼旋转,叶片之间产生碰撞,叶片边缘形成擦伤,从而却激活了芽叶内部酶的分解,产生一种独特的香气。就这样转转停停、停停转转,直到茶香自然释放,香气浓郁时进行杀青、揉捻和包揉,茶叶卷缩成颗粒后再进行文火焙干,最后还要经过筛分、拣剔,制成成茶。


炒青要及时


当做青叶青味消失,香气初露即应抓紧进行。

揉捻、烘焙


铁观音的揉捻是多次反复进行的。初揉约3~4分钟,解块后即行初焙。焙至五、六成干,不粘手时下焙,趁热包揉,运用揉、压、搓、抓、缩等手法,经三揉三焙后,再用50~60℃的文火慢烤,使成品香气敛藏,滋味醇厚,外表色泽油亮。


4. 工艺分类


安溪铁观音按照国家标准可分为即清香型和浓香型两大香型。按市场产品则可以细分为清香型、韵香型、浓香型、陈香型,其中清香型铁观音根据制作工艺不同又细分为正味型和酸香型两种。


正味型(清香型)


分打青和正炒两种做法。打青做法是采青后第二天早上(凌晨5-6点左右)开始看青做茶。而正炒做法则是采青后的第二天中午12点前炒青。其成茶色泽乌绿润,香气幽雅,滋味醇厚,但带有微涩(需要关注的是,涩和甜是能互相转化的元素,所以微涩的回甘比较好)。此外,音韵明显,回甘度好,汤色金黄是正味铁观音最突出的特点。


酸香型(清香型)


根据制作时间点的不一样,可细分为回青和拔青两种做法。回青做法一般是采青后第二天约下午5点炒青。拔青制法一般是采青后第二天夜里10点左右炒青。其成茶色泽墨绿,香气张扬,较纯正有音韵、带酸甜味、汤色或呈深金黄色。


韵香型


韵香型铁观音是介于清香与浓香之间,有清香型之明媚润泽,又不失浓香型之醇厚悠远。在传统正味做法的基础上再经过120℃左右烘焙10小时左右,提高滋味醇度,发展香气。茶叶发酵充足,传统正味,具有“浓、韵、润、特”之口味。香味高,回甘好,韵味足,其汤色澄明清亮,黄中有绿,如江南初秋,尽显华贵与富丽,长期以来倍受广大消费者的青睐。铁观音中的维生素C和维生素E能阻断致癌物——亚硝胺的合成,对防治癌症有较大的作用。


浓香型


属传统半发醇的安溪铁观音茶,适合资深茶友饮用,因为口感较重。叶子的成色看上去在绿色的茶叶后面还有青黑和微黄的叶子,也就是成色不是最好,但是口感是最纯正的,金黄色的汤水是浓香型茶叶的代表哟!传统制法的铁观音茶要求的半发酵时间较长较重,冲泡之后的茶汤颜色也比较浓,喝起来的感觉是醇厚甘爽,就是纯正。


温馨提示:传统浓香的具有醇厚,具有医学上讲到的暖胃、降血压、血脂、减肥的功效,很适合应酬多,饮食结构不合理的,肠胃有小毛病、血脂血压高,感觉自己身体发胖的朋友饮用。我们自己经常喝的就是传统浓香的茶叶,还有陈茶的。传统铁观音放置时间长了成为老茶后,经过再烘烤,炭焙等深加工程序,口感、保健功效等更显著。


陈香型


陈香型铁观音是浓香型铁观音延伸,其原料均选自历年来经传统制作工艺加工而成的优质铁观音产品,产品具有浓香型铁观音的醇厚浓韵,又有独特陈香等优点。在很早以前,安溪人就懂得陈年铁观音有防暑、消胀、消气、去腻消油等功效。

Many years ago, Tieguanyin tea fires all over the capital. I was still working in a publishing house. A bookseller from Hunan came to cooperate with us. At that time, I didn’t understand tea at all. I put a few Tieguanyin tea in a paper cup to entertain the bookseller. The bookseller waved his hand and said no, myself. I took out my own teacup and filled it with Tieguanyin tea leaves. I asked us for boiling water and poured it on. Then I poured the tea into a small cup I brought, and then drank it very contentedly... Several of us editors They all felt fresh. At that time, we didn't even understand "tea-water separation". However, this incident also stimulated my interest in tea, and it was out of control since then-a tea friend called me and said, "Mr. Han, there is a Tieguanyin worth 3,000 yuan a catty waiting for you to drink." Will throw away the manuscript at hand and take a taxi to drink this Tieguanyin for 3000 yuan a catty! Later, after learning rock tea, Tieguanyin drank less, but I still loved the taste of Tieguanyin. After another few years, Tieguanyin's tea was stained with some negative news, such as "Tieguanyin hurts your stomach after drinking too much." As for the excessive use of pesticides by some tea farmers and tea merchants, to be honest, as long as you don’t buy the ultra-low-priced tea, I don’t think the issue of pesticides will be a problem for tea lovers. How much tea do you have to drink? To be poisoned? Furthermore, the problem of pesticides is not limited to Tieguanyin tea. As long as Tieguanyin tea is green and craftsmanship maintains high quality, and buy tea from reputable merchants, the quality of Tieguanyin can still be guaranteed, and fans will still love Tieguanyin. The following is a brief introduction to Tieguanyin. I hope fans who have just started to learn tea can see my introduction.


This tea of Tieguanyin belongs to the oolong tea category and is one of the top ten famous teas in China, the representative of the oolong tea category. The purebred Tieguanyin plant is shrub-shaped, with spreading tree vigor, branches growing obliquely, and leaves horizontally growing. The leaf shape is elliptic, with sparse and blunt leaf margins, and the leaf surface is wavy uplifted, with obvious rib-shaped, slightly revolved to the back, the leaf flesh is thick, the leaf color is dark green and shiny, the leaf base is slightly blunt, and the leaf tip is slightly concave, to the left Slightly crooked, slightly drooping, the buds are purplish red, so it is called "red bud crooked tail peach", which is one of the characteristics of purebreds. It belongs to the semi-fermented tea category.


1. Geographical Environment


Anxi County in Fujian Province is located on the southeastern slope of Daiyun Mountain. The branch of Daiyun Mountain extends from Zhangping within the county, and the terrain slopes from northwest to southeast. There are 522 independent coordinated peaks in the territory, 2461 high mountains above kilometers, and the highest Mount Taihua at 1,600 meters above sea level. According to the difference of topography and geomorphology, the territory is known as the inner and outer Anxi. The natural boundary is from Wulang Mountain on the western edge of the Hutou Basin to the western edge of the Longmen Dyinghu.


The Wai'anxi terrain is gentle, with many bottom mountains and hills, with an average elevation of 300-400 meters. The terrain of Neian River is relatively high and steep, with an average elevation of 600-700 meters. Most of the soil is acid red soil with a pH value of 4.5-5.6. The soil layer is deep, especially suitable for the growth of tea trees.


2. Climate impact


Anxi Tieguanyin The main producing area of Anxi Tieguanyin is in the west of "Nei'anxi", surrounded by mountains, peaks and ridges, clouds and mist, the annual average temperature is 15-18 degrees, the frost-free period is 260-324 days, and the annual rainfall is 1700-1900 mm. The relative humidity is above 78%, and there is a saying that "there are flowers in the four seasons and rain is common, and there is no snow in winter but thunder is heard".


3. Production process


Caiqing


The production of Anxi Tieguanyin combines the characteristics of fermented black tea and non-fermented green tea. It is a semi-fermented variety, and the fresh leaves collected strive to be complete. After the tea green is collected, the tea buds (hearts) are used to extend the leaf surface to open the surface, and then one heart and two leaves of it are taken, which is commonly known as "open surface harvesting". The collection of tea greens occupies a very important prerequisite in the entire tea making process. When collecting tea greens, it should not be collected in rainy or cloudy days, otherwise it will be difficult to form a sweet taste and aroma. Zhengtieguanyin tea can only Collected from nine in the morning to four in the afternoon.


Cool, sun and dry


The fresh leaves are collected into the plant according to the standard, and then dried after cooling. The best time to bask in the sun is 4 o'clock in the afternoon when the sun is soft, the leaves are straight and thin to lose their original luster, the leaf color turns dark, the leaves are soft when touched by hands, the top leaves are drooping, and the weight loss is about 6-9%. Then move into the room to cool down and make green.


Shaking and stalling are carried out alternately, collectively referred to as making green


The high technicality and flexibility of making greens are the key to determining the quality of Mao Cai. Shaking the green leaves the edges of the leaves through friction, and the cells in the edge of the leaves are damaged. After being arranged, under certain temperature and humidity conditions, along with the gradual loss of water in the leaves, the polyphenols in the leaves are slowly oxidized under the action of enzymes. A series of chemical changes form the unique quality of Oolong tea.

Tieguanyin's fresh leaves are thick and thick, so you need to re-shake and extend the greening time. A total of 5 to 6 greens are shaken. After shaking, the spreading lasts from short to long, and the thickness of the spreading leaves changes from thin to thick. The third and fourth shakes must be shaken until the green taste is strong and the fresh leaves are firm, commonly known as "return to the field", and the water in the stems and leaves is redistributed and balanced. Shaking green is an important process for making Tieguanyin. By rotating the cage, the leaves collide, and the edges of the leaves form abrasions, which activates the decomposition of enzymes inside the buds and leaves to produce a unique aroma. In this way, stop and stop, stop and stop, until the tea fragrance is naturally released. When the aroma is strong, the tea is finished, twisted and wrapped. After the tea is rolled into pellets, it is soft-fired and dried. Finally, it is sieved and sorted. , Made into tea.


Stir fry in time


When the green leaves and green smell disappear, the aroma should be carried out as soon as the aroma first emerges.

Kneading and baking


Tieguanyin's kneading is repeated many times. Knead for about 3 to 4 minutes, and then start baking after unblocking. Bake to 50% or 60% dry, not sticky to your hands. Now bake, pack and knead while hot, use kneading, pressing, rubbing, grasping, shrinking and other techniques, after three kneading and three baking, then slowly bake at 50-60℃. The finished product is concentrated in aroma, has a mellow taste and a shiny appearance.


4. Process classification


According to national standards, Anxi Tieguanyin can be divided into two major types, namely, fresh fragrance type and strong fragrance type. According to market products, it can be subdivided into fresh fragrance type, rhyme fragrance type, strong fragrance type, and old fragrance type. Among them, the fragrance type Tieguanyin can be subdivided into two kinds of normal flavor type and sour fragrance type according to different production processes.


Zheng Taste Type (Fresh Fragrance Type)


There are two ways of splitting into green and frying. The practice of making green tea is to start watching green tea the next morning (around 5-6 in the morning) after picking green tea. The practice of real speculation is to speculate celebrities before 12 noon the next day after picking the greens. The tea has a dark and green color, elegant aroma, mellow taste, but slightly astringent. In addition, the rhyme is obvious, the sweetness is good, and the golden color of the soup is the most prominent feature of Zhengwei Tieguanyin.


Sour fragrance (clear fragrance)


According to the different production time points, it can be subdivided into two methods: returning green and pulling green. The practice of returning to green is generally to fry green at about 5 pm the next day after picking green. The method of making greens is generally to stir greens at around 10 o'clock the next day after picking greens. Its brown color is dark green, the aroma is open, and it is purer with phonology, sweet and sour, soup color or deep golden yellow.


Rhyme type


The rhyme type Tieguanyin is between the delicate fragrance and the strong fragrance. It has the bright and moisturizing fragrance of the fragrance type, without losing the mellow and long-distance of the strong fragrance. On the basis of the traditional right-tasting method, bake at 120°C for about 10 hours to increase the taste and mellowness and develop the aroma. The tea leaves are fully fermented, traditionally tasted, and have a "rich, mellow, moist, and special" taste. It has high fragrance, good sweetness, and full flavor. Its soup is clear and bright, with yellow and green, such as the early autumn of the south of the Yangtze River. Vitamin C and Vitamin E in Tieguanyin can block the synthesis of carcinogens-nitrosamines, and have a greater effect on the prevention and treatment of cancer.


Luzhou type


Anxi Tieguanyin tea, which is traditional and semi-mellow, is suitable for senior tea lovers because it has a heavy taste. The color of the leaves looks like black and yellowish leaves behind the green tea leaves, that is, the color is not the best, but the taste is the purest. The golden-yellow soup is the representative of the aromatic tea! The traditional Tieguanyin tea requires a longer and heavier semi-fermentation time, and the tea soup after brewing has a thicker color. It tastes mellow, sweet and pure.


Reminder: The traditional strong fragrance is full-bodied and has the functions of warming the stomach, lowering blood pressure, blood lipids, and weight loss as mentioned in medicine. It is very suitable for people with a lot of entertainment, unreasonable diet structure, small gastrointestinal problems, high blood lipids and blood pressure, and feel yourself Friends who are getting fat drink it. We often drink traditional tea with strong aroma, as well as old tea. After the traditional Tieguanyin has been left for a long time to become an old tea, it undergoes deep processing procedures such as re-baking and charcoal roasting, and the taste and health benefits are more significant.


Chenxiang type


Chenxiang Tieguanyin is an extension of Luzhou-scented Tieguanyin. Its raw materials are all selected from high-quality Tieguanyin products processed by traditional manufacturing techniques over the years. The products have the mellow and strong rhyme of Luzhou-scented Tieguanyin and have a unique aging fragrance. Etc. A long time ago, people in Anxi knew that aged Tieguanyin had the effects of preventing heatstroke, reducing bloating, qi, removing greasy and oil.


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