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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
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铁观音制作工序

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Issuing time:2021-10-03 13:27

铁观音制作需经多道复杂工序


铁观音优质品质的形成,源于传统、独特、精湛的制作工艺,其制作要经过诸多工序。


采青。为了确保铁观音的完美外形,采制技术特别讲究:以“虎口对芯”,手工采摘成熟新梢2—3叶;采摘做到“五不”,即不折断叶片,不折叠叶张,不碰碎叶尖,不带单片,不带鱼叶和老梗。安溪铁观音制茶工艺大师吴世福特别提醒:鲜叶采摘后,不能长时间置于袋里或者篓里,应及时置于阴凉处,并翻松鲜叶,防止风吹日晒,新鲜度被破坏。


茶叶第二次生命是茶农与制茶师赋予的。晒青、晾青、摇青、炒青、揉捻、包揉、烘焙……茶叶在吴世福对茶叶制作“度”的精准把握中,获得重生。


晒青。利用阳光热能,蒸发鲜叶水分,促进发酵,消除青草气。晒青的适宜程度一般是晒至叶片失去光泽,叶色较暗绿,顶部下垂,梗弯而不直,手捏略有弹性感。晒青后,要将鲜叶移进室内晾青,进一步摊凉,以散发鲜叶热气,使梗叶内水分重新分布,恢复近于未晒青的状态。晾青的适宜程度是,茶梗青绿饱水,叶表新鲜但无水分。


摇青是做青的关键,鲜叶在摇青机中摇动,叶片相互碰撞,擦伤叶缘细胞,从而加速叶片氧化发酵。第一次摇青后,需将鲜叶摊放静置一段时间,进行第二次摇青,摇青与静置晾青交替进行,鲜叶在动静之间发生了一系列生物化学变化。如何掌握摇青的适宜程度?一摸叶片,看是否柔软;二看叶片是否形成“绿叶红镶边”;三闻气味,青气是否消退,花香是否显露。


炒青,也叫杀青。利用高温炙烤,破坏鲜叶中酶的活性,固化品质,促使芳香物质挥发。铁观音炒青要诀在于“适当高温、投量适量、翻炒均匀、闷炒为主、扬炒配合、快速短时”。炒青后的工序是:初揉—初焙—初包揉—复焙—复包揉—足火—毛茶。


揉捻,通过揉搓、挤压,挤出茶汁,卷曲成形。


包揉,使铁观音颗粒紧结重实,同时,进一步摩擦叶细胞,加速非酶性氧化,使茶叶砂绿油润。


烘焙,安溪铁观音是制茶中的干燥作业,作用是为了抑制酶性氧化,蒸发水分和软化叶子,并起热化作用,消除苦涩味,促使滋味醇厚。

英语翻译

The production of Tieguanyin requires multiple complicated processes


The formation of Tieguanyin's high-quality quality stems from the traditional, unique and exquisite craftsmanship, and its production has to go through many processes.


Caiqing. In order to ensure the perfect shape of Tieguanyin, the extraction technology is particularly particular: picking mature new shoots 2-3 leaves by hand with "tiger's mouth to the core"; Broken leaf tips, without a single piece, without fish leaves and old stems. Anxi Tieguanyin tea maker Wu Shifu specially reminded: Fresh leaves should not be placed in bags or baskets for a long time after picking. They should be placed in a cool place in time, and the fresh leaves should be loosened to prevent the freshness from being damaged by wind and sun. .


The second life of tea is given by tea growers and tea makers. Drying, drying, shaking, frying, kneading, kneading, baking... Tea is reborn in Wu Shifu's precise grasp of the "degree" of tea making.


Sun green. Use sunlight heat to evaporate the moisture of fresh leaves, promote fermentation, and eliminate grass gas. The suitable degree of tanning is generally until the leaves lose their luster, the leaves are darker green, the top is drooping, the stems are curved and not straight, and the hand is slightly elastic. After drying, the fresh leaves should be moved indoors for drying and further spreading cool to dissipate the heat of the fresh leaves, redistribute the water in the stems and leaves, and restore the state that is close to unsuned. The suitable degree of drying is that the tea stems are green and full of water, and the leaf surface is fresh but without water.


Shaking green is the key to making green. When fresh leaves are shaken in a green shaker, the leaves collide with each other and scratch the edge cells of the leaves, thereby accelerating the oxidation and fermentation of the leaves. After the first shake, the fresh leaves need to be left standing for a period of time, and the second shake is performed. Shaking and leaving to dry alternately, the fresh leaves undergo a series of biochemical changes between the movement and the still. How to grasp the appropriate degree of shaking the green? First touch the leaves to see if they are soft; second, see whether the leaves form "green leaves and red borders"; third, smell the smell, whether the blue qi has subsided, and whether the floral fragrance is revealed.


Frying is also called finishing. Using high-temperature roasting, destroys the activity of enzymes in the fresh leaves, solidifies the quality, and promotes the volatilization of aromatic substances. The key to Tieguanyin's stir-frying is "appropriate high temperature, appropriate amount, uniform stir-frying, main stir-frying, coordinated stir-frying, and quick and short time." The process after stir-frying is: initial kneading-initial baking-initial package kneading-re-baking-compound package kneading-foot fire-Maocha.


Knead, through kneading, squeezing, squeeze out the tea juice, and curl into shape.


Packing and kneading make the Tieguanyin granules firm and firm. At the same time, it further rubs the leaf cells to accelerate non-enzymatic oxidation and make the tea sand green and oily.


Baking is a drying operation in tea making. Its function is to inhibit enzymatic oxidation, evaporate water and soften the leaves, and act as a heat to eliminate bitterness and astringency, and promote a full-bodied taste.


Article classification: 铁观音
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