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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

铁观音产地安溪小传

  3
Issuing time:2021-09-29 13:27

到安溪,喝铁观音茶去。”


一想到这句话,下意识就总会冒出另一句:“清水祖师的脸,为什么是黑的?”




这两句话有必然联系吗!为什么这两个句子像对联一样地黏合在我的念头里!自然地涌出,一定有某种内在的东西,被推动着。——它们自身在运动。




明心见性前,清水祖师去大静山求法于明松禅师。




师父泡了一杯安溪铁观音茶,在禅定中等他。


清水祖师在师父那里又学了三年,而开悟得道,他没什么著作留下来,但他修桥数十座,身力行各种善事。




我从北方到南方,经过一个岛屿,来到安溪。我能见到清水祖师吗?清水祖师的道场和圆寂之地清水岩,我能去吗?




人生第一次。一天里喝了那么多的铁观音好茶,进了那么多的好人家,每家都有不同的茶香等我们端起来。




安溪,家家户户都有一个大茶盘,只要你进了门,就会请你喝各种各样的乌龙茶。




2021年5月22日黄昏。我们从安溪西坪镇往北,赶往尚卿乡。盘山公路的垂直高度,可以轻易地想象千年前,这里的路途艰险。




从一座茶山爬上另一座茶山,到处都是茶树,像一位位女神,安安静静地不理世间事,尽享自我之美。




第二天一早,群山中的一条小道,引我们下落到一个山丘旁。




热烈的水,唤醒铁观音茶叶本来的香味。茶叶展开的翅膀,大口大口地呼吸着。




清的香味,浓的甘甜,在水的柔软中,我们今天去朝圣的是一个锈的年代,锈是一种美,它在那个美的年代里,独树一帜。这种锈美对于我,与美玉相得益彰。走到哪里,我都能回忆起铁的硬度,何况,在青阳铁场还可以握住千年以前的铁。




铁证,并不想说明什么,它们沉默地挤在一起,慢慢地隐进大山之中,在梦里,它们回到矿山,听着树林向上生长的喷薄之力。




泉州在宋代,矿冶业大发展,安溪青阳铁场,赫赫有名。




古代著作《尸子》写道“春为青阳,夏为朱明。”青阳,一个春天般的名字,落户安溪,与铁联系在一起。





青阳铁场分布在不同的山丘里,几座大的山峰之下都有铁厂的遗址。




安溪处于闽东火山断坳带,岩浆频繁而强烈地活动,给冶铁提供了丰富的矿石。群山之中至今留存有古老的矿洞。




我们所到的下草埔,是青阳铁场其中的一个遗址。冶铁场北高西低,东西相夹,形成一个风口。




我们站在那里,看着千年以前的工人在忙上忙下,泥土的炉子里,流动着铁的红色。在这5000多平方米的山丘上,能持续炼铁500年,这里包含了很多冶铁业的新发明。




安溪县城西北有蓬莱山,山上有清水岩,清水岩上有清水祖师。




清水祖师,俗姓陈,名荣祖,1037年出生,福建永春人,自幼在大云院出家,法号普足。公元1101年,在清水岩坐化,人称“清水祖师”。




永春,位于安溪北,两县相邻。


2010年,“清水祖师信仰”被列入国家级非物质文化遗产。在台湾,供奉清水祖师的寺庙有200多座。





“清水祖师的脸为什么是黑的?”


我想到的回答是,安溪的茶为什么好喝!安溪所处的纬度,安溪的阳光,空气中的水分,群山起伏的线条,植物生长的土壤,让安溪的茶好喝。




清水祖师的脸是黑的,但他内心光明,普照世间人。




人们把矿石一篓篓地背出矿洞,走在群山里。




下草埔炼出来的铁,通过最近的湖头、蓬莱渡口,顺流而下,过南安,到泉州港。




福建人与世界各地,商贸活动频繁。




我曾经在南太平洋漂航过四十九天,在有些与中国都没有建交的岛国上,有福建人开的超市,有些岛屿,这些超市成为唯一的商贸交易场所。




有了发达的冶铁业,数百年的发展,人们自然会想到把铁进一步深加工,形成新的产业。铁与藤就这样结合在一起,做成工艺品和生活用品。世界各地的文化,都很诚恳地被安溪人展现在自己的手艺上。




下草埔冶铁遗址博物馆正在建设中。我逐字逐句地读着上面的说明文字,青洋村村民余庄林跑过来,他反复强调考古队领队北京大学教授的一句话,“考古工作正在进行中,这些文字和表述不够精准,有些东西待考,千万不能用于宣传。”不等我回复,余庄林又说了两遍,脸被急促的表达憋红了。




我喜欢做事认真的人,我向他保证,只参考性地学习,不拍照,不宣传。




余庄林,安溪青洋人,两个孩子的父亲,女孩读高一,男孩上初中。他说在当地,自己已经算晚婚,他的朋友三十八岁就做爷爷了。




余庄林十六岁与堂兄开大货车,开了十二年,实在太累,太惊险。他就给茶商开了两年的小车,自己一个人又开拼车干了十一年。




2019年,乡干部委托他给考古人员开车。每天七点一十,余庄林准点到村部把考古工作人员接到下草埔。余庄林又申请当考古队里的工人,工地上数他最年轻,他是1979年出生的,考古队也需要帮手。余庄林如愿以偿。




余庄林的家在下草埔遗址两公里外的青洋村。老人们说,之前的青洋是太阳的阳,不是海洋的洋。




青洋村百分之九十八的人都姓余。1037年,余姓的祖上才来到安溪。村民的房子,建在两山相夹的一条长长的小盆地里。




青洋村家家信奉清水祖师、协天大帝、观音菩萨和土地公公。




村民到安溪清水岩寺的清水祖师像前,诚恳地跪拜,说出自己的想法,把清水祖师那里的香灰恭请回家,长年累月地供奉祭拜。





每年正月初六,是清水祖师的诞辰日,青阳村,甚至是安溪人,都会在这一天祭拜清水祖师。




“清水祖师是佛教还是道教的神?”


我第一次听到余庄林的笑声,“这个我不能答复你,祖宗就是这么传下来的,不知道是道教还是佛教。”




他后来又说,我们这里信奉佛教。


安溪县有数十个供奉清水祖师的庙,尚卿乡就有灵显堂、龙鹫堂、回龙宫、北山殿等四座庙。




数百年以来,清水祖师信仰随着闽南人到了台湾、南洋,分炉宫庙数以千计。




二十年前,茶叶价格比较高。青洋村也有很多老的茶树,新茶树也种了些。




大部分村民都是自己加工茶,商人上门收,他们摘掉茶梗,装包后卖出去。




余庄林家以前每年有四、五千斤茶青卖。六斤茶青能做一斤成品茶。




但购买茶青的钱,加上人工、电气水等费用,每斤茶的成本要七、八十元钱,但有些茶只能卖到四、五十元一斤。亏本的买卖,做茶的人就减少了。




青洋村五年前还有七、八户人家在做茶。




后来只有三户人家了。




现在,村里没人做茶了,利润不好。




村民自己也是买茶喝。青洋村有三千八百多人。




青阳铁场位于安溪县西北部,生产时间集中在宋元时期。下草埔遗址没有发现明、清两朝的遗存物。炼铁厂往北移到了潘田冶场等地方。




为什么会移走?不是矿的问题。因为即使在当代,矿石也还在开采,现在是因为环境治理,才把矿给停了。




宋元时期的安溪,森林茂密,炼铁需要炭,需要火,导致当时的树林大面积破坏。这应该也是铁场转移的原因之一。




安溪有一俗谚:“到安溪必到清水岩,到清水岩必有所得。”




我想说的是:“到安溪,喝茶去。”




我已到,亦已得。



英语翻译

Go to Anxi for tea. "


When I think of this sentence, another sentence will always pop up subconsciously: "Why is Patriarch Qingshui's face black?"




Is there an inevitable connection between these two sentences! Why are these two sentences stuck in my thoughts like couplets! Gushing out naturally, there must be something inside that is being pushed. -They are moving by themselves.




Before Mingxin saw nature, Qingshui Patriarch went to Dajingshan to seek Dharma from Zen Master Mingsong.




picture




The master made a cup of tea and waited for him in meditation.


Patriarch Shimizu studied with Master for another three years, and he was enlightened. He didn't have much books to stay, but he repaired dozens of bridges and did all kinds of good deeds.




I went from north to south, passing an island, and came to Anxi. Can I see Patriarch Shimizu? Master Qingshui’s dojo and Qingshuiyan, the place of silence, can I go?




For the first time in life. I drank so many good teas in a day, entered so many good houses, and each had a different tea fragrance waiting for us to bring it up.




In Anxi, every household has a large tea tray, as long as you enter the door, you will be invited to drink all kinds of oolong tea.




At dusk on May 22, 2021. We headed north from Xiping Town, Anxi to Shangqing Township. The vertical height of the winding road can easily imagine that the road here was difficult and dangerous thousands of years ago.




Climbing from one tea mountain to another, there are tea trees everywhere, like a goddess, quietly ignoring world affairs and enjoying the beauty of oneself.




Early the next morning, a path in the mountains led us to a hillside.




The warm water awakens the original fragrance of tea. Tea leaves spread their wings, breathing heavily.




Clear scent, strong sweetness, in the softness of water, what we are going on our pilgrimage today is an age of rust, rust is a kind of beauty, and it is unique in that age of beauty. This kind of rusty beauty complements the beautiful jade to me. Wherever I go, I can recall the hardness of iron. What's more, I can hold iron thousands of years ago in Qingyang Iron Field.




There is hard evidence, but they don't want to explain anything. They squeezed together in silence and slowly hid in the mountains. In their dreams, they returned to the mine, listening to the gushing power of the woods growing upwards.




In the Song Dynasty, Quanzhou had a great development in mining and metallurgy, and Anxi Qingyang Ironworks was well-known.




The ancient work "Shizi" wrote that "Spring is Qingyang, and Xia is Zhuming." Qingyang, a spring-like name, settled in Anxi and is associated with Tie.




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The Qingyang Iron Field is distributed in different hills, and there are iron factory ruins under several large peaks.




Anxi is located in the volcanic fault zone of eastern Fujian, where magma is frequently and intensely active, which provides abundant ore for iron smelting. There are still ancient mines in the mountains.




The Xiacaopu we visited was one of the sites of the Qingyang Iron Works. The iron smelting yard is high in the north and low in the west, sandwiching east and west, forming a tuyere.




We stood there and watched the workers who were working thousands of years ago, the red iron flowing in the clay stove. On this hill of more than 5,000 square meters, iron smelting can continue for 500 years, and it contains many new inventions in the iron smelting industry.




There is Penglai Mountain in the northwest of Anxi County. There is Qingshui Rock on the mountain and Qingshui Patriarch on the Qingshui Rock.




Qingshui Patriarch, surnamed Chen, named Rongzu, was born in 1037 in Yongchun, Fujian. He was a monk in Dayunyuan since his childhood, with a common name. In 1101 AD, he was seated in Qingshuiyan, known as "the ancestor of Qingshui."




Yongchun is located in the north of Anxi, and the two counties are adjacent.


In 2010, the "Faith of Qingshui Patriarch" was included in the national intangible cultural heritage. In Taiwan, there are more than 200 temples dedicated to Patriarch Qingshui.




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"Why is Patriarch Shimizu's face black?"


The answer I thought of was, why is Anxi's tea delicious! The latitude of Anxi, the sunshine of Anxi, the moisture in the air, the undulating lines of the mountains, and the soil where plants grow make Anxi's tea delicious.




Patriarch Shimizu's face is black, but his heart is bright, shining all over the world.




People carried baskets of ore out of the mine and walked in the mountains.




The iron smelted from Xia Caopu passes through the nearest Hutou and Penglai Ferry, and then flows down the river through Nan'an to Quanzhou Port.




People in Fujian and all over the world have frequent business activities.




I have sailed in the South Pacific for forty-nine days. In some island countries that have no diplomatic relations with China, there are supermarkets run by Fujianese, and in some islands, these supermarkets have become the only places for business transactions.




With a well-developed iron smelting industry and hundreds of years of development, people will naturally think of further processing iron to form a new industry. Iron and rattan are combined in this way to make handicrafts and daily necessities. Cultures from all over the world are sincerely displayed by Anxi people in their crafts.




The Xiacaopu Iron Smelting Site Museum is under construction. I read the above explanatory text word by word, and Yu Zhuanglin, a villager of Qingyang Village, ran over. He repeatedly emphasized a sentence from the professor of Peking University, the leader of the archaeological team, "Archaeological work is in progress. These words and expressions are not accurate enough. Some things need to be tested. , Must not be used for publicity.” Yu Zhuanglin said twice before waiting for my reply, his face turned red with the hasty expression.




I like people who are serious about things, and I promise him that they will only study for reference, not taking pictures or publicity.




Yu Zhuanglin, a Qing foreigner from Anxi, is the father of two children. The girl is in the first year of high school and the boy is in junior high school. He said that he was married late in the local area, and his friend became a grandfather at the age of thirty-eight.




Yu Zhuanglin drove a large truck with his cousin at the age of sixteen. After driving for twelve years, it was too tired and too thrilling. He drove a small car for tea merchants for two years, and drove a carpool by himself for eleven years.




In 2019, the township officials commissioned him to drive the archaeologists. Every day at 7:10, Yu Zhuanglin went to the village to pick up the archaeological staff from Xia Caopu. Yu Zhuanglin also applied to be a worker in the archaeological team. He was the youngest on the construction site. He was born in 1979. The archaeological team also needs help. Yu Zhuanglin got his wish.




Yu Zhuanglin's home is in Qingyang Village, two kilometers away from the Xiacaopu site. The old people said that the previous Qingyang was the sun of the sun, not the ocean of the ocean.




Ninety-eight percent of people in Qingyang Village have the surname Yu. In 1037, the ancestors of Yu's surname came to Anxi. The villagers’ houses were built in a long small basin sandwiched by two mountains.




Every family in Qingyang Village believes in Qingshui Patriarch, Xietian the Great, Guanyin Bodhisattva and Land Father.




The villagers went to the statue of Qingshui Patriarch in Anxi Qingshuiyan Temple, bowed sincerely, expressed their thoughts, and invited the ash from Qingshui Patriarch's home to worship them for many years.




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Every year on the sixth day of the first lunar month is the birthday of Master Qingshui. Qingyang Village and even Anxi people will worship Qingshui Master on this day.




"Is Qingshui the god of Buddhism or Taoism?"


I heard Yu Zhuanglin's laugh for the first time, "I can't answer you about this. This is how the ancestors passed it down. I don't know if it is Taoism or Buddhism."




He later said that we believe in Buddhism here.


There are dozens of temples dedicated to Qingshui Patriarch in Anxi County, and there are four temples in Shangqing Township: Lingxiantang, Longjiutang, Huilonggong, and Beishandian.




For hundreds of years, the Qingshui Patriarch's beliefs have followed the Hokkiens to Taiwan and Southeast Asia, and thousands of temples have been divided into furnaces.




Twenty years ago, tea prices were relatively high. There are also many old tea trees in Qingyang Village, and some new tea trees have been planted.




Most of the villagers processed their own tea, and merchants came to collect it. They removed the tea stalks, packaged them and sold them.




The Lin family in Yuzhuang used to sell four to five thousand catties of tea every year. Six catties of green tea can make one catty of finished tea.




But the cost of buying tea greens, plus labor, electricity and water costs, cost 70 to 80 yuan per catty of tea, but some teas can only be sold for 40 to 50 yuan per catty. Loss-making transactions reduce the number of tea producers.




In Qingyang Village, there were seven or eight households making tea five years ago.




Later, there were only three families.




Now, no one in the village makes tea, and the profit is not good.




The villagers themselves buy tea and drink. There are more than 3,800 people in Qingyang Village.




Qingyang Ironworks is located in the northwest of Anxi County, and its production time is concentrated in the Song and Yuan dynasties. No remains of the Ming and Qing dynasties have been found at the Xiacaopu site. The iron smelter moved north to Pantian smelter and other places.




Why would it be removed? It's not a problem with mines. Because even in modern times, ore is still being mined, and now it is because of environmental management that the mine has been shut down.




During the Song and Yuan dynasties, Anxi had dense forests and needed charcoal and fire for ironmaking, which led to extensive destruction of the forests at that time. This should also be one of the reasons for the transfer of the iron yard.




There is a saying in Anxi: "You must go to Qingshuiyan when you go to Anxi, and you must get something when you go to Qingshuiyan."




What I want to say is: "Go to Anxi and have tea."




I have arrived, and I have got it.


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