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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
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兰花香铁观音形成条件

  2
Issuing time:2021-09-16 22:29

一、铁观音自带品种香


铁观音茶叶中营养成分的高低对于香气的形成起着重要的作用,铁观音所含的有机化学成分,如茶多酚、儿茶素、多种氨基酸等,明显高于其他茶类。数千年来,中国人从天然的茶树上摘下芽和叶子,根据不同茶叶的特质,利用不同的工艺,加工成六大茶类。由于茶叶中含有的芳香物质不同,通过加工后转化成风格迥异的各种香气。铁观音中含有较多的类胡萝卜素、巨型淀粉粒、成熟鳞腺等特殊物质,这就形成乌龙茶独特的香气和风味基础。且铁观音游离氨基酸含量高、酯型儿茶素占儿茶素比例高,成就了安溪铁观音韵厚而幽长。


二、产地和气候决定


一般带有兰花香的铁观音大部分来自优质的铁观音茶区福建省安溪县的“内安溪”境内,这里产茶条件得天独厚,茶叶品质优良。内安溪坐落在戴云山南麓,这里群山环抱,峰峦绵延,云雾缭绕,年平均气温15—18度,无霜期260—324天,年降雨量1700—1900毫米,相对湿度78%以上。土质大部分为酸性红壤,PH值4.5—5.6,土层深厚,尤其适合种植铁观音。铁观音的产地安溪位于东南沿海和山脉之间,拥有绝佳的地理气候,这对铁观音的香气形成构成了优越的条件。


三、发酵决定


未经发酵的茶,是属菜香型;让其轻轻发酵,如20%左右,就会变成花香型;让其再重一点的发酵,如30%左右,就会变成坚果香型,让其再重一点的发酵,如60%左右,会变成成熟果香型;若其全部发酵,则变成糖香型。铁观音的兰花香就是在发酵过程中产生的。一般带有兰花香的茶叶是轻发酵的清香型铁观音,传统浓香型铁观音主要的香味特点是“花果香”。为什会这样呢?说出来原因也简单,主要是这“兰花香”是铁观音鲜叶自带的一种品种香气,晴天中午采摘的鲜叶,就会散发出一阵阵的兰花香味,而轻发酵工艺能够最大程度保留了铁观音的这种原始香味,因而兰香显著。而传统铁观音浓香型它的发酵程度比较重,因而香味更为熟化了一些,鲜味不足,不过花果香却突显,这两者都能形成极品茶。


铁观音制作工艺中的发酵:

(1)晒青:也称萎凋,铁观音制作工艺的第一道工序,利用太阳光照射、自然吹风或室内加温,使鲜叶适度散失部分水分,适当破坏叶绿素,散发青草气味,叶质变软;

(2)凉青:第二道工序,将茶青置于凉青架上,使茶青散失叶内的热气,并继续缓慢地散发水分,促使叶梗水分重新分布和均匀调节,即“走水”,从而促进决定铁观音品质的物质成分逐步形成;

(3)摇青:是铁观音茶香韵品质形成的最关键步骤,目的是让茶青在外力的作用下,擦破叶缘部分细胞组织,溢出茶汁与空气接触,引起多酚类化合物局部酶促氧化,形成“绿叶红镶边”的奇特现象,同时使叶子内含物质进一步分解、转化、缩合,形成铁观音独特的色、香、味。这一工序是通过多次反复的摇青和凉青这一动一静的交替进行完成的,其过程称为“做青”。摇青的作用,有相关的研究报道,大意是当茶叶组织受到损伤或破坏时会释放出香气,而催化产生的物质中,水杨酸甲酯是诱导多种防御反应的信号物质;萜烯醇类具有抗菌作用;3-己烯醇分别具有对害虫的毒性和吸引害虫天敌的直接或间接防御作用。不只是茶叶,其他植物的叶子受到损伤也会释放出气味,只是气味不一定是香味而已。铁观音在摇青的过程中,会产生兰花香气,这是铁观音所独有的品种香。在这一过程中,摇青越重,发酵的程度会越高。传统中发酵铁观音一般经4-5次摇青和凉青完成,发酵较重。轻发酵清香铁观音一般经2-3次摇青和凉青完成,发酵较轻。


四、制茶师傅技术决定


茶师制茶技术决定,高端铁观音才有高雅的兰花香。茶叶的好坏,除了鲜叶基础、气候条件之外,最重要的就是“什么人制作”,这一点很重要,因为同样的条件下,不同的人制作的茶叶品质有可能天差地别,有的是极品茶,有的是低端茶。茶叶是否含有兰花香铁观音,茶师的制作是关键点。

英语翻译

1. Comes with a variety of incense


The level of nutrients in tea plays an important role in the formation of aroma. Tieguanyin contains organic chemical components, such as tea polyphenols, catechins, and various amino acids, which are significantly higher than other teas. For thousands of years, the Chinese have plucked buds and leaves from natural tea trees, and processed them into six major teas based on the characteristics of different teas and using different techniques. Due to the different aromatic substances contained in tea, they are transformed into various aromas with different styles after processing. Tieguanyin contains more carotenoids, giant starch grains, mature scales and other special substances, which form the basis for the unique aroma and flavor of oolong tea. In addition, Tieguanyin's high free amino acid content and ester-type catechins account for a high proportion of catechins, which makes Tieguanyin's rhyme thick and long.


2. Origin and climate decision


Generally, most of the Tieguanyin with the fragrance of orchids comes from the high-quality Tieguanyin tea area, "Nei'anxi" in Anxi County, Fujian Province. The tea-producing conditions here are unique and the tea quality is excellent. Neian River is located at the southern foot of Daiyun Mountain, surrounded by mountains, stretched peaks and ridges, clouds and mists, the annual average temperature is 15-18 degrees, the frost-free period is 260-324 days, the annual rainfall is 1700-1900 mm, and the relative humidity is above 78%. Most of the soil is acid red soil, with a pH value of 4.5-5.6, and a deep soil layer, which is especially suitable for planting Tieguanyin. Anxi, where Tieguanyin is produced, is located between the southeast coast and the mountains. It has an excellent geographical climate, which constitutes superior conditions for the formation of Tieguanyin's aroma.


3. Fermentation decision


Unfermented tea is vegetable-flavored; let it ferment gently, such as about 20%, and it will become floral; let it ferment a little bit more, such as about 30%, and it will become nut-flavored. , Let it ferment a little bit more, such as about 60%, it will become a mature fruit flavor; if it is fully fermented, it will become a sugar flavor. The orchid fragrance of Tieguanyin is produced during the fermentation process. Generally, tea leaves with orchid fragrance are lightly fermented Tieguanyin, and the main scent characteristic of traditional strong-flavor Tieguanyin is "flower and fruit fragrance." Why is this happening? The reason is simple. The main reason is that this "orchid fragrance" is a kind of fragrance of Tieguanyin fresh leaves. Fresh leaves picked at noon on a sunny day will give off a burst of orchid fragrance, and the light fermentation process can maximize The original fragrance of Tieguanyin is retained, so the orchid fragrance is prominent. The traditional strong-flavor type has a heavier degree of fermentation, so the aroma is more mature, and the umami taste is insufficient, but the floral and fruity aroma is prominent, both of which can form the best tea.


Fermentation in the production process of Tieguanyin:

(1) Sun-greening: also known as withering, the first process of Tieguanyin's production process, using sunlight, natural blowing or indoor heating, so that the fresh leaves will lose part of the water moderately, properly destroy the chlorophyll, emit the smell of grass, and change t


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