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点茶、斗茶、茶百戏

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Issuing time:2021-09-15 16:01

点茶


宋代饮茶时仍用茶饼,但大多已不再直接烹煮茶叶,称为点茶。点茶时,将已经碾细的茶末直接投入茶碗,然后冲入沸水,略加搅拌后即行饮用。


点茶前,用沸水冲洗杯盏,预热饮具,以使“盏热而茶难冷,难冷而茶味不变”。将茶粉放进盏中,用最好的汤瓶和水加以冲点,点水时要直沏而入,水柱有力,不能时断时续。然后“调膏”,根据茶盏的大小,用勺挑上一定量的茶末放入茶盏,再注入瓶中沸水,调和茶末如浓膏油。最后用茶筅击拂,终成茶汤。


斗茶


正是在点茶方式的基础上,宋人创造出了一种被称为“斗茶”的饮茶娱乐方式。


“斗茶”也称“茗战”,就是比赛茶叶与点茶技艺的高下。斗茶之风始于五代,宋代时极为流行,从文人士大夫直至平民百姓,无不热衷此道。苏东坡就曾对盛行岭南惠州一带的“斗茶”有“岭外惟惠俗喜斗茶”的记述。


斗茶从最初以评比茶的品质为目的,后来就广为流行,成为民间百姓的一种游戏。斗茶前先要将茶末碾碎过筛,茶末越细越好,这样入水后才能漂浮起来,也容易产生汤花并聚集起来,从而“尽茶之色”。


追求奢华的宫廷斗茶,重视“浮”和“色”。点茶之色以纯白为上,青白为次,同时要求斗茶用的茶粉要经过精碾细筛的工艺,必须要细。


注重茶的内在品质的民间斗茶,则注重茶的“香”和“味”,不计茶汤色白色绿而注重茶之香、味的品鉴。


斗茶的输赢主要是看茶面汤花的色泽、均匀度以及茶盏与茶汤相接处的水痕。汤花均匀、色泽鲜白为上品。汤花长时间紧贴盏壁而不退散,是为上好,称为“咬盏”,而汤花散逸较快,则称“云脚涣乱”。


分茶(茶百戏)


分茶是随着点茶技艺的不断提高而产生的。分茶又称茶百戏、水丹青、汤戏、茶戏等,是一种能使茶汤纹脉形成物象的古茶道,不仅能使茶汤形成丰富的泡沫,还能在茶汤中形成文字和图案,更加提高了点茶的艺术性和娱乐性,也使斗茶活动更为兴盛。


分茶这种游艺大约始见于唐,由于古时候没有微博也没有DV可供记录,我们只好在文学作品中一窥分茶游艺的盛况。


唐代刘禹锡在《西山兰若试茶歌》描述:“骤雨松声入鼎来,白云满碗花徘徊。”描述了茶汤显现图案的雏形。


在宋代,由于受到朝廷和文人的推崇,分茶十分盛行。北宋陶谷在《荈茗录》中已说到一种叫“茶百戏”的游艺:“茶至唐始盛。近世有下汤运匕,别施妙诀,使汤纹水脉成物象者,禽兽虫鱼花草之属,纤巧如画。但须臾即就散灭。此茶之变也,时人谓之茶百戏。”陶谷所记述的“茶百戏”,便是后来的分茶了,玩法是一样的。


喜爱“茶百戏”的文人很多,其中就有著名词人李清照,她写有有“生香熏袖,活火分茶”,“豆蔻连梢煎熟水,莫分茶”等词句。宋徽宗赵佶也精于分茶。可见宋时,上自帝王,下至文人、僧徒,以致“赶趁人”,都会玩分茶。


入元以后,雅致的点茶道和分茶艺术开始衰落。但至明清仍有点茶流传和分茶余韵,据清代高鹗《茶》:“瓦铫煮春雪,淡香生古瓷。晴窗分乳后,寒夜客来时。”清代后期未见玩分茶的详细记载,这朵茶艺奇葩已经失传了。

英语翻译

Order tea


In the Song Dynasty, tea cakes were still used for tea drinking, but most of them no longer boil tea directly, which is called Diancha. When ordering tea, put the ground tea powder directly into the tea bowl, then pour it into boiling water, stir it slightly, and drink it immediately.


Before ordering tea, rinse the cup with boiling water and preheat the drinking utensils so that "the cup is hot and the tea is difficult to cold, and the tea is difficult to cold and the taste of the tea remains unchanged." Put the tea powder in the cup, and use the best soup bottle and water to make a little. When you pour the water, make it straight. The water column is strong and not intermittent. Then "adjust the cream", according to the size of the tea cup, use a spoon to pick a certain amount of tea powder into the tea cup, and then pour boiling water in the bottle to mix the tea powder like a thick ointment oil. Finally, use the tea pot to blow it, and finally it becomes a tea soup.


Bucket tea


It was on the basis of the way of ordering tea that the people of Song Dynasty created a tea-drinking entertainment method called "fighting tea".


"Tea fighting" is also called "Ming Zhan", which is the competence of tea competition and tea ordering skills. The style of fighting tea began in the Five Dynasties. It was extremely popular in the Song Dynasty. From literati and doctors to common people, everyone was keen on it. Su Dongpo once described the "doucha" which was popular in the Lingnan Huizhou area, "the only vulgar and the vulgar outside the ridge is like the tea".


From the beginning, the purpose of fighting tea was to evaluate the quality of tea. Later, it became popular and became a game of the folks. Before fighting tea, crush the tea powder and sieve. The finer the tea powder, the better, so that it can float after entering the water, and it is easy to produce soup flowers and gather together, so as to "full the color of the tea."


Pursuing luxury palace tea, pay attention to "floating" and "color". The color of ordering tea is pure white first, and blue and white second. At the same time, the tea powder used for bucket tea must be finely ground and finely sieved.


Folk fighting tea, which pays attention to the inherent quality of tea, pays attention to the "fragrance" and "taste" of the tea, ignoring the white and green color of the tea soup, but paying attention to the taste and taste of the tea.


The winning or losing of fighting tea mainly depends on the color and uniformity of the tea noodle soup and the water mark at the junction of the tea cup and the tea soup. The soup is uniform and the color is bright white. The soup flower sticks to the wall of the cup for a long time without retreating, which is the best, and it is called "biting the cup", while the soup flower dissipates quickly, and it is called "cloud foot chaos".


Dividing Tea (Tea Play)


Tea distribution is produced with the continuous improvement of tea-ordering skills. Tea-separation is also known as Tea Baixi, Shuidanqing, Tang Opera, Tea Opera, etc. It is an ancient tea ceremony that can make the veins of the tea soup form an image. It can not only make the tea soup form a rich bubble, but also form characters and patterns in the tea soup. , It has improved the artistry and entertainment of ordering tea, and also made the tea fighting activities more prosperous.


The entertainment of Fencha first appeared in the Tang Dynasty. Since there was no Weibo nor DV to record in ancient times, we had to get a glimpse of the grandeur of Fencha in the literature.


Liu Yuxi of the Tang Dynasty described in "Xishan Lanruo Test Tea Songs": "The sound of a shower of loose rain enters the tripod, and the white clouds are hovering in a bowl full of flowers." He described the embryonic form of the pattern of tea soup.


In the Song Dynasty, due to the respect of the court and literati, tea was very popular. In the Northern Song Dynasty Taogu has mentioned a kind of entertainment called "Tea Opera": "Tea reaches the beginning of the Tang Dynasty. In modern times, there are soup daggers. Don't use magic tricks. Those who make soup patterns and water veins become objects, animals and animals. The genus of insects, fish, flowers and plants is delicate and picturesque. But it will disappear in a short time. This change of tea is also known as the "tea games"." The "tea games" described by Tao Gu is the later division of tea. , The gameplay is the same.


There are many literati who love "tea games". Among them is the famous poet Li Qingzhao, who wrote such phrases as "Scented sleeves with incense, separate tea with living fire", "Fried cardamom with stems in water, and don't divide tea". Song Huizong Zhao Ji was also good at dividing tea. It can be seen that in the Song Dynasty, from the emperor to the literati and the monks, and even the "rush to take advantage of the people", they all played tea.


After entering the Yuan Dynasty, the elegant tea ceremony and the art of dividing tea began to decline. But until the Ming and Qing Dynasties, there was still a bit of tea spread and the aftertaste of the tea. According to Gao E's Tea in the Qing Dynasty: "Watiao cooks spring snow, fragrantly produces ancient porcelain. After the clear windows are separated, the cold night visitors come." Late Qing Dynasty There is no detailed record of playing Fencha, this wonderful tea art has been lost.


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