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铁观音茶叶的氨基酸

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Issuing time:2021-09-15 15:40

氨基酸是什么


我们都或多或少知道“氨基酸”这个东西,自孩提开始,爸妈给买的补品上,很多都赫赫写着“氨基酸”。于是我们都大致有些记忆——氨基酸是个对人体有益的好东西。今天,我们追求纯天然的好东西,那么我们又从哪里找这种纯天然的氨基酸呢?吃的有紫菜、肉类、豆类、菇类等等,而喝的,其实铁观音茶叶就是个实实在在的不错的选择。




氨基酸元素组成


茶叶中含有约1%~4%的氨基酸,已发现的有26种,包含20种蛋白质氨基酸和6种非蛋白质氨基酸,其中,最主要的有茶氨酸、谷氨酸、天门冬氨酸和精氨酸。尤其是茶氨酸,几乎为茶叶所特有,占茶叶干物质的1%~2%,约占所有氨基酸含量的50%。于是我们讨论茶叶的氨基酸,最主要研究的就是茶氨酸。




茶树氨基酸的组成:


安溪铁观音茶叶当中,氨基酸是氮素循环的一类非常重要的代谢产物,也就是氮素营养被根部吸收,然后转运到茶树的芽叶等各部位,从而使茶树慢慢长高长大,积累越来越多天然的氨基酸,被人发现从而加以利用。


茶叶氨基酸不仅代表着茶树营养的供给与转化,也与茶叶的品质有着直接而重要的关系,其重要的程度几乎是不可或缺的。


氨基酸与茶叶品质


回答一开始提出的问题,茶叶氨基酸的味道大多都具有鲜、爽、甜的特点,部分氨基酸还略带微酸。


如果茶叶当中氨基酸含量较高,那么口感就会表现出鲜、爽、甜,如果具有刺激味的茶多酚的含量也比较恰当,那么这个茶的口感就表现出醇爽的特点。




实质上氨基酸是组成茶叶滋味最重要的三大类物质之一(茶多酚、氨基酸、咖啡碱),茶汤口感好不好,很大程度上就取决于这三类物质的含量与比例关系。




部分氨基酸还表现出一定的良好香气,如腥甜、海苔味、鲜甜、紫菜气味等等,这些感觉在日式蒸青茶或者一些名优细嫩绿茶当中常被发现,这是由于这些茶当中,普遍氨基酸含量都较高。此外,有些氨基酸还能与其它物质相结合,在制茶过程中参与良好香气的形成。


因此,铁观音茶叶氨基酸这类物质与茶叶品质的关系可以简单的总结为滋味的三国之一与香气的良莠。


哪些茶叶含氨基酸多


先说一个最简单的窍门:茶叶带毫毛越多,氨基酸含量往往越高。




有时我们在冲泡茶叶时,汤面上漂浮着一层白白的细毛,很多朋友以为这茶汤不干净,以为是灰尘,但其实不然,这是茶叶自身生长的毫毛,越嫩的部位含茶毫越多,而茶毫的主要组成物质就有氨基酸。


因此,无论白毫也好,金毫也好,大家品茶时最好瞅个仔细,认真辨别清楚是真浑浊还是“假浑浊”。


茶叶氨基酸有分布规律


除了简单的窍门,茶叶氨基酸在不同的茶树品种、种植环境、栽培措施和加工工艺下,会表现出更多的分布规律,这是由茶叶氨基酸这类物质的合成原理以及生化物理特性所决定的。我们了解这些,对把握茶叶的品质会有更清晰的概念。




1.对不同的茶树品种:小叶种含氨基酸比大叶种多,而小叶种的细嫩部位含量又比粗老部位多。因此,我们似乎都在追寻嫩的茶,总感觉越嫩的茶叶,品质越好,这其实也不无道理。




2.对不同的种植环境:北方的茶生长维度高,气温相对低,光照相对弱,所含氨基酸多,而南方的茶生长维度低,气温相对高,光照相对弱,所含氨基酸相对也低。在同一纬度,高海拔的高山茶比低海拔的低山茶氨基酸含量高,人们常说的“高山云雾出好茶”跟这个就很有关系。




3.采用遮阴种植方法的茶树氨基酸含量相对较高,如日本煎茶。有些茶园种植遮阴树就是为了遮挡部分太阳光,从而使茶叶生成更多的氨基酸。




4.在不同的制茶工艺所制成的六大茶类当中,不发酵的名优绿茶和后发酵控制良好的黑茶所含的氨基酸较多。前者工艺可最大限度保留鲜叶原有氨基酸,后者工艺可在后发酵过程合成大量氨基酸(主要通过微生物作用)。


氨基酸有什么功效


在人的生理过程中,氨基酸是合成多肽及蛋白质的基本单位,通常两个氨基酸脱去一个分子水就变成二肽,n个氨基酸脱去n-1个分子水后就会变成多肽或者大分子蛋白质。茶叶的氨基酸提供了人体生理代谢所必需的氨基酸,从而促使人体生理机能的正常运作。


相关实验证明,安溪铁观音茶叶氨基酸有助于大脑进入状态,对人的思维、记忆、学习等脑力活动具有良好的辅助作用。

英语翻译

What are amino acids


We all know more or less about the "amino acid" thing. Since we were children, many supplements bought by parents have the words "amino acid". So we all have some memories-amino acids are a good thing for the human body. Today, we are pursuing purely natural good things, so where do we find this purely natural amino acid? We eat seaweed, meat, beans, mushrooms, etc., and drink, in fact, tea is a real thing. Good choice in the.




Amino acid composition


Tea contains about 1% to 4% of amino acids. 26 species have been discovered, including 20 protein amino acids and 6 non-protein amino acids. Among them, the main ones are theanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and Arginine. In particular, theanine is almost unique to tea, accounting for 1% to 2% of the dry matter of tea and about 50% of all amino acids. So we discuss the amino acids of tea, the main research is theanine.




The composition of tea tree amino acids:


In tea, amino acids are a very important metabolite of the nitrogen cycle, that is, nitrogen nutrition is absorbed by the roots, and then transported to the buds and leaves of the tea tree and other parts, so that the tea tree will grow taller and accumulate more slowly. More and more natural amino acids have been discovered and used.


Tea amino acids not only represent the supply and transformation of tea tree nutrition, but also have a direct and important relationship with the quality of tea. Its importance is almost indispensable.


Amino acids and tea quality


To answer the question raised at the beginning, most of the amino acids in tea have the characteristics of freshness, refreshing and sweetness, and some amino acids are slightly sour.


If the content of amino acids in tea is high, the taste will be fresh, refreshing and sweet. If the content of tea polyphenols with pungent taste is also appropriate, then the taste of this tea will show the characteristics of mellow and refreshing.




In fact, amino acids are one of the three most important substances in the taste of tea (tea polyphenols, amino acids, caffeine). The taste of tea soup depends largely on the content and proportion of these three substances.




Some amino acids also show a certain good aroma, such as fishy sweetness, seaweed taste, fresh sweetness, seaweed smell, etc. These feelings are often found in Japanese steamed green tea or some famous and delicate green tea. This is because these teas, Generally, the content of amino acids is relatively high. In addition, some amino acids can also be combined with other substances to participate in the formation of good aroma during the tea making process.


Therefore, the relationship between tea amino acids and tea quality can be simply summarized as one of the three countries of taste and the good and bad aroma.


Which teas contain more amino acids


Let me start with one of the simplest tips: the more vellus the tea has, the higher the amino acid content.




Sometimes when we brew tea, a layer of white fine hair floats on the surface of the soup. Many friends think that the tea soup is not clean and think it is dust, but in fact it is not. This is the vellus hair that grows on the tea itself. Amino acids are the main constituents of tea mills.


Therefore, no matter whether it is Pekoe or Jinhao, it is best to take a closer look when tasting tea, and carefully distinguish whether it is true turbidity or "false turbidity."


Amino acids in tea have a regular distribution


In addition to simple tricks, tea amino acids will show more distribution laws under different tea tree varieties, planting environments, cultivation measures and processing techniques. This is determined by the synthesis principles and biochemical physical properties of tea amino acids. . We understand these and will have a clearer concept of grasping the quality of tea.




1. For different tea species: the small-leaf species contain more amino acids than the large-leaf species, and the small-leaf species have more delicate parts than the coarse and old parts. Therefore, we all seem to be looking for tender teas. We always feel that the more tender the tea, the better the quality. This is not unreasonable.




2. For different planting environments: tea in the north has a high growth dimension, relatively low temperature, relatively weak light, and contains a lot of amino acids, while tea in the south has a low growth dimension, relatively high temperature, relatively weak light, and relatively low amino acid content. . At the same latitude, the high-altitude mountain tea has higher amino acid content than the low-altitude low camellia. People often say that "high mountain clouds produce good tea" has a lot to do with this.




3. The amino acid content of tea trees that adopt shade planting methods is relatively high, such as Japanese Sencha. Some tea gardens plant shade trees to block part of the sun, so that the tea can produce more amino acids.




4. Among the six teas made by different tea-making processes, the non-fermented famous green tea and the dark tea with well-controlled post-fermentation contain more amino acids. The former process can retain the original amino acids of fresh leaves to the maximum, and the latter process can synthesize a large amount of amino acids in the post-fermentation process (mainly through the action of microorganisms).


What are the effects of amino acids


In human physiological processes, amino acids are the basic units for the synthesis of peptides and proteins. Usually two amino acids will become dipeptides after removing one molecule of water, and n amino acids will become peptides or even after removing n-1 molecules of water. Macromolecular protein. The amino acids in tea provide the amino acids necessary for the body's physiological metabolism, thereby promoting the normal operation of the body's physiological functions.


Relevant experiments have proved that tea amino acids help the brain to enter the state, and have a good auxiliary effect on people's thinking, memory, learning and other mental activities.


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