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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
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乌龙茶铁观音浓香型和清香型的不同

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Issuing time:2021-09-14 10:49

乌龙茶,是我国六大茶类之一,有“中国特种茶”之称。历史上,乌龙茶消费地区主要集中在闽北、闽南,广东潮州、汕头和我国台湾地区。与之相应适销的乌龙茶花色品种有:武夷岩茶、安溪铁观音、凤凰单丛、冻顶乌龙。


自从台资茶叶企业进入内地以来,市场上出现了以内地乌龙茶品种茶树鲜叶为原料,利用我国台湾茶机和初制技术生产的乌龙茶,其香气较传统乌龙茶清香,业界称之为“清香型”乌龙茶。


相应地,运用传统的初制技术生产的乌龙茶,则称为“浓香型”乌龙茶,大陆“清香型”乌龙茶从诞生的那一刻起,争议就一直不断,不少茶人、茶商、茶叶专家都视之为“另类”、“舶来品”,甚至抛出论断“不出三五年,就退出市场,自生自灭”,更有甚者从“血统理论”上进行排斥、贬损。


清香型铁观音”乌龙茶与“浓香型”乌龙茶,究竟孰优孰劣,“清香型”乌龙茶要不要发展?这个话题,一度在海峡两岸三地茶业界盛传不衰。


清香型铁观音”乌龙茶,又称“台式”乌龙茶。在闽台农业合作与交流的过程中,1990年在安溪诞生了福建省第一家经营茶叶的台资企业。截至2004年底,安溪境内共有台资茶叶企业25家。目前,福建省内台商投资的自产自销型、自产兼收购型、纯收购型以及茶叶产销与茶机结合经营的茶叶企业,共有50家。这些台资茶叶企业凡涉及茶叶生产加工领域的,无一不以“清香型”乌龙茶作为当家品种。


“清香型”乌龙茶产制技术自成一格,其外形及香气与传统乌龙茶截然不同,比起福建传统“绿叶红镶边”的安溪乌龙茶,“清香型”乌龙茶具有明显的“三绿”特点:即干茶绿、汤色绿、叶底绿。其外形为球形或半球形(俗称“绿豆形”),冲泡后在杯中显现花蕾造型,香气清香持久,茶汤明亮见底,嫩香回甘,叶底柔软。如冻顶乌龙茶,外形呈半球形,条索紧结,干茶色泽为墨绿带油光,香气清香扑鼻,滋味浓厚新鲜,入口生津,落喉甘滑,韵味强,而汤色蜜黄澄清明亮。以传统工艺生产的“浓香型”乌龙茶,包括传统工艺的铁观音、武夷岩茶等。安溪铁观音茶条卷曲、肥壮圆结、重实匀整、色泽油亮沙绿,呈青蒂绿腹晴蜓头状;汤色金黄,清澈明亮;叶底肥厚,呈绸面光泽;内质“音韵”独特,兰香馥郁;滋味醇厚甘鲜,回味悠长,有“七泡有余香”之誉。


三、“清香型”乌龙茶和“浓香型”乌龙茶的消费群体比较


铁观音茶叶市场调查人员透露,“清香型“乌龙茶消费人群主要有三个特点:一是以青年为主,21~35岁这个年龄层的比较大,而且女性又比男性多;二是知识分子居多;三是消费者爱在专卖店买茶,这主要是因为专卖店茶叶价格适宜,质量可靠,服务周到。


“浓香型”乌龙茶消费人群以老顾客为主,这批消费者对“浓香型”乌龙茶情有独钟,且他们大多事业有成,有钱有闲,有文化素养、消费力极强。


采用不同的茶叶加工方法所所制的成品具有不同的香气特征。乌龙茶的加工方法综合了红茶与绿茶加工方法的优点,兼有半发酵与炒制的过程,成茶带有花香、果香,一般称之为“制造香”。影响乌龙茶“制造香”的主要因素为:做青、包揉和烘焙。


“清香型”乌龙茶与“浓香型”乌龙茶都要求太阳晒青。因“清香型”乌龙茶做青程度较轻,如不经太阳晒青,则清香难显。相对传统安溪乌龙茶,“清香型”乌龙茶晒青程度属中度偏轻,失水率以8%~12%为宜。一般下机前经晾青翻拌3次,下机做青2次,室温20-22℃,相对湿度70%。图片


在“清香型”乌龙茶包揉造型工艺中,总围绕着保鲜保绿,快速成形这条主线,所形成的绿豆状外形,比起传统安溪乌龙茶蜻蜒头和武夷岩茶的粗壮条索形,具有较好的商品外观和较高的鉴赏价值。


烘焙是乌龙茶的最后一道工序。传统安溪乌龙茶也有补火工艺,但补火是为了干燥。“清香型”乌龙茶文火慢焙是为了使成品香气敛藏,增进茶香,弥补做青较轻、甜香不显之缺点,所以又叫“烘焙提香工艺”。如果单纯从商业角度上说,“清香型”乌龙茶与“浓香型”乌龙茶的竞争,不应该分出你我,而应该在竞争中合作,在合作中竞争,你中有我,我中有你,通过合理化的良性竞争,共同把乌龙茶市场撑大,实现共赢或多赢。发展是硬道理,特别是随着海峡两岸茶业合作向纵深推进,乌龙茶经济带呼之欲出,作为后起之秀的“清香型”乌龙茶与老当益壮的“浓香型”乌龙茶铁观音,都将是世界茶叶市场的“明日之星。”

英语翻译

Oolong tea is one of the six major teas in my country, and is known as "Chinese Special Tea". Historically, oolong tea consumption areas were mainly concentrated in northern Fujian, southern Fujian, Guangdong Chaozhou, Shantou and my country's Taiwan region. Correspondingly marketable varieties of Oolong tea are: Wuyi Rock Tea, Anxi Tieguanyin, Phoenix Dancong, and Dongding Oolong.


Since Taiwanese-funded tea companies entered the mainland, oolong tea produced from the mainland oolong tea variety tea tree fresh leaves as raw materials, using Taiwan’s tea machine and preliminary technology to produce oolong tea, has a more delicate fragrance than traditional oolong tea, and the industry calls it a "fresh fragrance type". "Oolong tea.


Correspondingly, the oolong tea produced by the traditional primary technology is called "Luzhou-flavored" oolong tea. Since the moment of its birth in mainland China, the "clear-flavored" oolong tea has been controversial. Many tea people, tea merchants, and tea Experts regard it as "alternative" and "exotic", and even throw out the thesis that "withdraw from the market within three to five years, and fend for themselves", and even reject or derogate from the "blood theory".


"Fragrant" oolong tea and "Luzhou-flavored" oolong tea, which one is better? Should we develop the "Fragrant" oolong tea? This topic was once prevalent in the tea industry across the Taiwan Straits and three places.


"Fragrant" Oolong tea, also known as "Taiwan" Oolong tea. In the process of agricultural cooperation and exchanges between Fujian and Taiwan, the first Taiwan-funded enterprise operating tea in Fujian Province was born in Anxi in 1990. As of the end of 2004, there were 25 Taiwanese-funded tea companies in Anxi. At present, there are a total of 50 tea enterprises in Fujian Province that are self-produced and self-sold, self-produced and purchased, purely purchased, and combined with tea production and sales and tea machinery. All of these Taiwan-funded tea enterprises involved in the field of tea production and processing, all of them use "fresh fragrance" oolong tea as their master variety.


"Fragrant" oolong tea production technology has its own unique style. Its appearance and aroma are completely different from traditional oolong tea. Compared with the traditional "green leaf and red border" Anxi oolong tea in Fujian, the "clear fragrance" oolong tea has obvious characteristics of "three greens". : Namely dry tea green, soup color green, leaf bottom green. Its shape is spherical or hemispherical (commonly known as "mung bean shape"). After brewing, it appears as flower buds in the cup, with a long-lasting fragrance, the tea soup is bright, tender and sweet, and the bottom of the leaves is soft. For example, Dongding Oolong tea has a hemispherical shape with tightly knotted strips. The dry tea has a dark green color with oily light, a fragrant aroma, a strong and fresh taste, fresh body fluid, sweet and smooth throat, and strong flavor, while the soup color is clear and bright with honey yellow. "Luzhou-flavor" oolong tea produced by traditional craftsmanship, including traditional craftsmanship Tieguanyin, Wuyi rock tea, etc. Anxi Tieguanyin tea sticks are curly, plump and rounded, heavy and even, with oily sandy green color, with green stalks and green belly, clear and fly-shaped; the soup is golden in color, clear and bright; the bottom of the leaves is thick and silky; the inner quality is "sound rhyme" Unique, full of orchid fragrant; mellow taste, sweet and fresh, long aftertaste, with the reputation of "seven bubbles with lingering fragrance".


3. Comparison of consumer groups of "Fragrant" oolong tea and "Luzhou-flavored" oolong tea


According to tea market investigators, there are three main characteristics of "fresh fragrance" oolong tea consumers: one is mainly young people, the age group of 21 to 35 is relatively older, and there are more women than men; second, the majority of intellectuals; Third, consumers love to buy tea in specialty stores, mainly because specialty stores have reasonable prices, reliable quality and good service.


"Luzhou-flavor" oolong tea consumers are mainly regular customers. This group of consumers have a special liking for "luan-flavor" oolong tea, and most of them have successful careers, rich and leisurely, culturally literate, and strong consumption power. .


The finished products made by different tea processing methods have different aroma characteristics. The processing method of oolong tea combines the advantages of black tea and green tea processing methods, as well as the process of semi-fermentation and frying. The finished tea has a floral and fruity fragrance, which is generally called "making fragrance". The main factors influencing the "making fragrance" of oolong tea are: making green, kneading and baking.


"Fragrant" oolong tea and "Luzhou-flavored" oolong tea both require sun exposure. Because the "fresh fragrance" oolong tea is less green, if it is not exposed to the sun, the fragrance is difficult to show. Compared with the traditional Anxi Oolong tea, the "fresh fragrance" Oolong tea has a moderately light degree of greenness, and the water loss rate should be 8%-12%. Generally, it is air-cured and mixed 3 times before leaving the machine, and 2 times after leaving the machine. The room temperature is 20-22°C and the relative humidity is 70%. picture


In the "fresh fragrance" oolong tea bag kneading process, the main line is to keep fresh and keep green, and the main line of rapid formation. The mung bean-like shape formed is compared with the thick strips of traditional Anxi oolong tea and Wuyi rock tea. It has better product appearance and higher appreciation value.


Baking is the last process of oolong tea. Traditional Anxi Oolong tea also has a fire-filling process, but the fire-filling is for drying. "Fragrant" oolong tea is slowly roasted in order to condense the aroma of the finished product, increase the aroma of the tea, and make up for the shortcomings of lighter greenness and insignificant sweetness, so it is also called the "baking and fragrant process." From a purely commercial point of view, the competition between "Fragrant" oolong tea and "Luzhou-flavored" oolong tea should not separate you and me, but should cooperate in competition and compete in cooperation. You have me and I have You, through rationalized and healthy competition, jointly expand the oolong tea market and achieve a win-win or multi-win situation. Development is the last word, especially as the tea industry cooperation between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits advances in depth, the oolong tea economic belt is about to emerge. As a rising star, the "scent-type" oolong tea and the strong-flavored "lucent-flavor" oolong tea will be the "tomorrows of the world tea market". Star."


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