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为什么中国的大部分茶叶都产自南方呢?

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Issuing time:2021-09-13 22:13

南北差异之茶叶生长环境




总体来说,茶树属于亚热带植物,最适合在温暖湿润的气候条件下生长,所以才会有安徽祁红、福建大红袍、江浙名优绿茶和云南普洱等等名茶闻名中外。当然,长江流域及长江以南的大部分地区也适合茶叶生长,只是不像海南、云南那样茶树四季长青,茶树在这些地区是要“冬眠”的。




为此,茶叶界专业人士还从土壤、阳光、温度、水分等方面总结过适合茶树生长的环境:喜酸怕碱、喜光怕晒、喜暖怕寒、喜湿怕涝,一起来补充点知识~





土壤:喜酸怕碱




茶树比较适合在弱酸性的土壤中生长,从我国西南部遍布茶园就可看出,该地的土壤大部分都是酸性土,而且科学家们还发现,喜欢生长在酸性土壤上的还有马尾松、杜鹃及蕨类植物,所以如果茶友们想开一片茶园,记得要找准这些“标识植物”哦~




阳光:喜光怕晒



茶叶中有90%以上的生物产量形成是需要光足够光合作用的,但同时茶叶也惧怕强光,所以高山茶园这种云雾缭绕,漫射光线也多的地方最适合茶叶生长了。



温度:喜暖怕寒



北方为什么产茶少?最大的原因就是冷啊。据茶业专家解析,茶树生长的起始温度为10℃左右,当然具体的温度根据茶叶品种不同而不同,但是大叶种一般为-6℃,中小叶种为-12℃至-15℃,而北方一入冬,最低温度都达到-30℃了,茶树很难存活。





水分:喜湿怕涝



茶树对土壤水分也很挑剔,一方面要求水分供应充足,不能季节性长期干旱,就比如北方一到夏秋季节就开始干旱,对茶树生长非常不利;另一方面又要求不能积水严重,比如在沼泽地,洼地,茶树的根系就会生长受阻。



南北差异之喝茶习惯




茶叶文化贯穿了我国五千多年的历史,走遍大江南北,大家会发现华人对于茶叶的喜爱是“蜜汁相似”的。但,人类生活习俗尚且存在南北差异,喝茶习惯又怎会一样?




从人的性情来看



北方人喝茶粗犷豪放,大口吃肉大口喝酒,同时也大口喝茶;而南方人就表现得清新婉约了,细细品茗,一壶茶能喝上一下午。






从茶叶偏好来看



北方人喜欢花茶,因为其香气浓郁,最主要是省时省力,适合牛饮;南方人喜欢的茶有很多种,绿茶、红茶、白茶、黑茶、青茶都想细细品味。



从茶具差异来看



南方人喝茶会根据不同茶类来配备最适合的茶具,工夫茶有专门的茶具组,闻香还要用专门的闻香杯;可北方人就追求简单,直接一个大盖碗就能沏一杯茶。




从饮茶文化来看



北方人的喝茶理由很简单,就是为了解渴,所以他们喜欢咕噜咕噜大口喝茶;而南方人喝茶更多的在于交友和谈生意,比如十三夷之前跟大家介绍的潮汕功夫茶,潮商做生意总离不开工夫茶。




不管是茶叶生长环境还是国人的喝茶习惯,南方与北方还是有很多差别的,但不管差别有多大,中国人爱茶的心是一致的。

英语翻译

The difference in the growth environment of tea from north to south




In general, tea trees are subtropical plants and are most suitable for growing in warm and humid climates. That's why Anhui Qihong, Fujian Dahongpao, Jiangsu and Zhejiang famous green tea, Yunnan Pu'er and other famous teas are famous at home and abroad. Of course, the Yangtze River basin and most areas south of the Yangtze River are also suitable for tea growth, but unlike Hainan and Yunnan, tea trees are always green all the year round. Tea trees in these areas have to "hibernate".




To this end, professionals in the tea industry have also summarized the environment suitable for tea plant growth from the aspects of soil, sunlight, temperature, moisture, etc.: like acid and alkali, light and afraid of sun, warm and cold, and wet and afraid of waterlogging. Let's add some knowledge together. ~





Soil: Acidophilus




Tea trees are more suitable for growing in weakly acidic soil. From the tea gardens in southwest my country, it can be seen that most of the soil in this area is acidic soil, and scientists have also found that masson pine also likes to grow on acidic soil. , Rhododendrons and ferns, so if tea lovers want to open a tea garden, remember to find these "identifying plants"~




Sunshine: Happy to light and afraid of the sun



More than 90% of the biological production in tea requires sufficient light for photosynthesis. At the same time, tea is also afraid of strong light. Therefore, places with clouds and mist in high mountain tea gardens are most suitable for tea growth.



Temperature: love warmth and be afraid of cold



Why is there little tea production in the north? The biggest reason is cold. According to the analysis of tea industry experts, the starting temperature of tea plant growth is about 10°C. Of course, the specific temperature varies according to different tea varieties, but the large-leaf species are generally -6°C, and the medium and small-leaf species are -12°C to -15°C. As soon as winter enters the north, the lowest temperature reaches -30°C, and it is difficult for tea trees to survive.





Moisture: likes wet and afraid of waterlogging



Tea trees are also very picky about soil moisture. On the one hand, they require sufficient water supply and cannot be seasonal and long-term droughts. For example, when the north reaches the summer and autumn season, the drought begins, which is very detrimental to the growth of tea trees. On the other hand, it requires no serious water accumulation. In swamps, depressions, the root system of tea plants will be hindered.



Differences in tea drinking habits between North and South




The tea culture runs through the history of our country for more than 5,000 years. Traveling all over the country, you will find that the Chinese people's love for tea is "similar to honey." However, human life customs still have differences between North and South, so how can the habits of drinking tea be the same?




From the perspective of human temperament



The northerners drink tea ruggedly and boldly, eating meat and drinking, and drinking tea at the same time; while the southerners behave fresh and graceful, sipping tea carefully, and one pot of tea can last an afternoon.






From the perspective of tea preference



Northerners like scented tea because of its strong aroma, which saves time and effort and is suitable for cattle. Southerners like many kinds of tea, including green tea, black tea, white tea, dark tea, and green tea.



From the difference of tea sets



Southerners will equip the most suitable tea sets according to different types of tea. Gongfu tea has a special set of tea sets, and a special smelling cup is used to smell the fragrance; but the northerners pursue simplicity and can make a cup directly with a large bowl. Tea.




From the perspective of tea drinking culture



The reason for drinking tea in the north is very simple. It is to get thirsty, so they like to slurp up tea; while southerners drink tea more for making friends and negotiating business. Gongfu tea is always indispensable for business.




Regardless of the tea growing environment or the tea drinking habits of the Chinese people, there are still many differences between the South and the North, but no matter how big the difference is, the Chinese people's love for tea is the same.


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