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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
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铁观音 白茶、岩茶、红茶、绿茶、普洱茶,究竟是春茶好,还是秋茶好?

  1
Issuing time:2021-09-13 10:46

《1》


白露将至,早晚微凉。


陆游写,四时俱可喜,最好新秋时。


九月,秋高气爽,云淡风轻。


九月,是学子们的开学月。


九月,随着茶山天气转凉,光照和煦,部分产茶区陆续开始采摘秋茶。


茶圈里的热门话题,再度被送上讨论热榜——到底是春茶好,还是秋茶好?




有人觉得,显然是春茶更好。


一年之计在于春,显而易见春茶的养分更高,风味更好。


但也有人搬出铁观音里的“春水秋香”理论。


认为两者各有所长,不分伯仲。


在春茶与秋茶之间,到底孰优孰劣?


答案不能一概而论。


买茶时,要落到具体实处,不宜一刀切!




《2》


绿茶里,以春茶为贵。


阳春三月,万物复苏。


桃红柳绿,莺歌燕舞。


经过一个寒冬的蛰伏后,茶树在春风吹拂下,冒出无数细嫩的新芽与新叶。


碧绿葱翠,鲜嫩欲滴。


这些一年中最纤细、最嫩绿的芽叶,是不少名优绿茶的制作原料。


比如,西湖龙井、黄山毛峰、安吉白茶、洞庭碧螺春等。


绿茶的风味,重清香,贵鲜爽。


而在春季茶树新梢上,芽叶内部蕴藏更加丰富的茶氨酸物质,能够为茶汤加持清甜鲜爽感。


且,春茶芽叶细嫩,外形条件更出色。




在绿茶的审评品鉴里,茶叶外观的占比不少。


不夸张的说,绿茶审评对外形的重视,几乎能与香气、滋味等平分秋色。


略高于汤色、叶底的评分占比。


可见,注重外形细嫩,看重茶味清爽的绿茶,当然是以春茶为贵。


千百年来,无数喜欢喝绿茶的茶客,也抱有追新茶、追春茶的尝鲜心理。


待到春风二三月,石炉敲火试新茶。


且将新火试新茶,诗酒趁年华。


浮生若梦,为欢几何,莫负春光,且饮春茶。


在绿茶里,从古到今,一概以春茶为主。


毕竟,喝绿茶的茶客,对春茶有着执着的审美偏好!




《3》


红茶里,高端茶以春茶为主。


以桐木红茶为例。


以桐木为中心的武夷山国家自然生态保护区,海拔高,森林覆盖率高,拥有众多野茶资源。


是正山小种、金骏眉等红茶的诞生地。


从当地茶农那听到的说法是,桐木当地的红茶以春茶为主。


正山小种、金骏眉等,与外地红茶有所不同。


桐木红茶的特点是,鲜爽感强,茶味鲜醇饱满。


喝完茶后嘴巴里能有一阵舒适的沁爽感,高山韵明显。




茶香层次丰富,花香、果香、蜜香等,香气持久,层次分明。


且花香雅致有格调。


如同置身山野时,扑鼻而来皆是野花香,闻起来一点也不腻。


正因如此,桐木关内的正山小种、金骏眉等凭自身实力,在茶圈走红多年。


为实现桐木红茶的独有风味,原料以春茶为主。


因当地平均海拔超过千米,海拔高,早春气温低,茶树发芽慢。


比起其他产区,桐木关内的红茶,往往要等到4月左右才开始采茶。


不早不迟,得时节精华,才能成为好茶!


但和绿茶一样,红茶也属于大宗茶类,产量规模庞大。




除了高端红茶外,市面上大量分布着便宜中低端红茶。


价格低一些的,甚至几十元就能买一斤。


不过,它们的原料大多采用秋茶,甚至是夏茶。


一来,这个季节的茶青,茶多酚物质含量高。


后期制茶时能更多转化为茶黄素、茶红素等,体现红茶红叶红汤特色。


二来,不少大型茶产区(主产非红茶),春茶原料价格高,大多用于制作绿茶或其他收益更高的茶叶。


剩余的夏秋茶,才是加工成红茶。


当然,这种退而求其次的原料,做出来的中低端红茶。


只能以量取胜,实则质量并不高。




《4》


武夷岩茶里,主流只做春茶。


春茶季时,茶树经过冬天休整后,厚积薄发,内含物质丰富。


等到谷雨前后,大批岩茶品种达到“开面采”的采茶标准。


叶肉肥厚,芳香物质和茶味物质积累丰富。


做出来的茶,能体现岩茶“重水求香”本色,香、水、韵兼备。


通常,岩茶春茶季的持续时间,集中在四、五月。


过了五一节后,大部分岩茶品种已经采茶完毕。


待到五月中旬,连晚生种茶树采摘(发芽较迟的品种)也已收官。


一年一度的春茶季,正式画上句号。




民谚里,茶到立夏一夜粗。


夏季雨热充足,光照强烈,茶树们叶大枝粗,纤维变老,养分物质含量少,苦涩物质含量高。


即便工艺在再高,做出来的茶仍旧苦涩味薄,品质不佳。


而岩茶里,秋季同样不提倡采茶。


据武夷山茶农朋友的说法,为了照顾品质,对岩茶原料要以春茶为主,不做秋茶。


且,武夷岩茶的工序复杂。


基本上,四五月采下来的岩茶,六七月除了少部分轻焙火茶上市外,大部分岩茶还在焙火。


到了秋季,大批焙火足的岩茶,才能迎来上新。


此时正是各家岩茶的上市销售旺季,少有茶农能匀出精力再去做茶!




《5》


白茶,春茶秋茶各有特色。


春白茶,茶味更鲜、更淳、毫香馥郁、花香清雅。


秋白茶,汤感更沉稳,不易泡苦,花香甜美悠扬。


福鼎白茶的春茶季,集中在三、四月。


而秋茶季,以九月、十月为主。


春季时,早春低温,春寒料峭,茶树新生芽叶有着厚实的白毫。


此时的白毫银针、牡丹王等,茶味鲜醇,毫香浓郁,汤感淳和,富含茶氨酸在内的多种养分物质。


而随后出产的大部分白牡丹(包括一级、二级等)、春寿眉(包括一级春寿眉、春尾寿眉等)。


一如既往,延续春茶的清雅特点。


花香清越,茶味稠润,鲜爽怡人。






过了九月,白露将至。


眼下秋白茶里的闪亮明星——白露寿眉即将开采。


入秋后,秋高气爽,阳光明媚。


白天,有利于茶树通过光合作用积攒有机物。


入夜后,山间气温低,茶树因呼吸作用产生的消耗减少。


适宜的昼夜温差,让秋茶积攒下不输于春茶的丰厚内质。


冲泡白露寿眉时,会发现它的蜡质厚,耐泡表现好,汤感饱满,茶味甘润,花香更甜美。


用打比方来概括白茶的春、秋茶特点。


春白茶清新鲜醇,像娇憨可人的二八少女。


而秋白茶的风味沉稳,更多几分轻熟风韵!






《6》


普洱茶,高端茶以春茶为主。


普洱,主产区是云南。


在各大名山头里,普洱茶的春料价格更贵。


同一山头的茶青,春茶价格要高于秋茶,有的甚至要高出好几倍。


一年之计在于春,春茶内部积累的养分、风味物质更充足。


做出来的普洱,风味会更层次丰富,茶味饱满,更加耐泡。


但相对而言,春茶价高。


且,部分喝普洱不喜“霸气”感的茶客,会更愿意欣赏秋茶的柔和感。


从购茶选择看,普洱秋茶在部分茶客心里,不失为性价比之选。


不过要注意一个问题。




山头好,价格高,品质出色的春茶原料。


以市场行情看,做茶时肯定是加工成普洱茶收益更高。


除此外,当地有不少茶产区,会让夏茶、秋茶另谋出路。


做茶出路不局限在普洱茶,而是扩大到红茶、云南白茶等。


曾有一年,我们在七月时去了趟云南。


发现当地有农户,将夏茶采下来加工成白茶,将青叶摊在萎凋槽内。


外形看起来,这些茶的模样粗枝大叶。


比起福鼎白茶里的秋寿眉,梗叶要更张牙舞爪与狂放不羁,看起来根本不像同一物种。


这里且不论,云南白茶的树种、工艺是否符合白茶加工要求。


光是从用料上,按这样做茶就已经输了。


没有上好的原料,没有精心制茶加工,怎么做出好茶?




《7》


提到春茶与秋茶的对比,不少人会提春水秋香的说法。


其实,春水秋香是铁观音里的概念,不是所有茶叶都适用。


岩茶,不产秋茶。


而白茶,单论茶香而言,秋茶毫香没有春茶浓郁。


所以,在学茶时不宜生搬硬套,一概而论!


不过前文里说了这么多,春茶更高一筹的例子。


再来看铁观音,它较为例外,能为秋茶扳回一局。


铁观音作为闽南乌龙茶,曾火遍一时。




素有“春水秋香”美誉的铁观音,很多老茶客在买茶时会更看重秋茶。


因为,安溪当地气候特殊,秋季降雨少,秋高气爽。


入秋后,随着气温降低,天气凉爽,茶青内部可形成大量的芳香物质。


为部分独具高香特色的铁观音,奠定先机。


对不少喝茶看重茶香的茶友而言,这样的茶显然更能博得好感。


可见,凡事无绝对。


春茶,未必永远那么好。


秋茶,未必永远落人一步!

"1"


Bailu is approaching, it will cool down sooner or later.


Lu You wrote that the four seasons are gratifying, and the new autumn season is best.


In September, the autumn is high and the air is fresh, the clouds are light and the breeze is light.


September is the first month for students.


In September, as the weather in Chashan turns cooler and the sun is warmer, some tea-producing areas begin to pick autumn tea one after another.


Hot topics in the tea circle are once again on the hot list for discussion-is spring tea better or autumn tea better?




Some people think that spring tea is obviously better.


One year's plan is spring, and it is obvious that spring tea has higher nutrients and better flavor.


However, some people have moved out of Tieguanyin's theory of "Chun Shui Qiu Xiang".


I think the two have their own strengths and are equally equal.


Between spring tea and autumn tea, which one is better?


The answer cannot be generalized.


When buying tea, it is necessary to focus on the specifics, not one size fits all!




"2"


In green tea, spring tea is expensive.


In March, everything recovers.


Peach red willow green, Ying Ge Yan dance.


After a cold winter dormant, the tea tree sprouts numerous tender buds and new leaves under the spring breeze.


Green and verdant, fresh and tender.


The most slender and greenest buds and leaves of the year are the raw materials for many famous green teas.


For example, West Lake Longjing, Huangshan Maofeng, Anji White Tea, Dongting Biluochun, etc.


The flavor of green tea is rich in fragrance and fresh and refreshing.


On the new shoots of tea trees in spring, there are more abundant theanine substances in the buds and leaves, which can add sweetness and freshness to the tea soup.


In addition, the spring tea buds and leaves are delicate and the appearance conditions are better.




In the evaluation and tasting of green tea, the appearance of tea accounts for a lot.


It is not an exaggeration to say that the importance of green tea review on appearance can almost equal the aroma and taste.


Slightly higher than the proportion of soup color and leaf bottom.


It can be seen that the green tea that pays attention to the delicate appearance and the refreshing tea taste is of course the most expensive spring tea.


For thousands of years, countless tea customers who like to drink green tea also have a taste of chasing new tea and spring tea.


Until the spring breeze in February and March, the stone stove beats the fire to try new tea.


And try new tea with new fire, poem and wine take advantage of the age.


Floating life is like a dream, it is a joyous geometry, not to lose the spring, and drink spring tea.


In green tea, from ancient times to the present, spring tea has always been the mainstay.


After all, tea consumers who drink green tea have a persistent aesthetic preference for spring tea!




"3"


Among black teas, high-end teas are mainly spring teas.


Take paulownia black tea as an example.


The Wuyishan National Natural Ecological Reserve, centered on paulownia, has high altitude, high forest coverage, and many wild tea resources.


It is the birthplace of black tea such as Lapsang Souchong and Jin Junmei.


What I heard from local tea farmers is that the local black tea of Tongmu is mainly spring tea.


Lapsang Souchong and Jin Junmei are different from other black teas.


The characteristics of paulownia black tea are that it has a strong sense of freshness and a full-bodied tea flavor.


After drinking the tea, there is a pleasant refreshing feeling in the mouth, and the mountain rhyme is obvious.




The tea fragrance is rich in layers, such as floral, fruity, honey, etc., with a long-lasting aroma and distinct layers.


And the floral fragrance is elegant and stylish.


Just like when you are in the mountains, the smell of wild flowers is tangy, and it doesn't smell greasy at all.


For this reason, Lapsang Souchong and Jin Junmei in Tongmuguan have been popular in the tea circle for many years.


In order to realize the unique flavor of paulownia black tea, spring tea is the main raw material.


Because the local average altitude is more than one thousand meters, the altitude is high, and the temperature is low in early spring, tea trees germinate slowly.


Compared with other producing areas, the black tea in Tongmuguan often has to wait until around April before picking tea.


Sooner or later, only the essence of the season can become a good tea!


But like green tea, black tea also belongs to the bulk tea category, with a huge production scale.




In addition to high-end black teas, there are a large number of cheap, middle- and low-end black teas on the market.


The price is lower, even tens of yuan can buy a catty.


However, most of their raw materials are autumn tea or even summer tea.


For one thing, this season's tea is green, and the content of tea polyphenols is high.


In the later stage of tea making, it can be converted into theaflavins and thearubicins, which reflects the characteristics of black tea, red leaves and red soup.


Secondly, in many large tea producing areas (mainly producing non-black tea), the price of spring tea raw materials is high, and most of them are used to make green tea or other higher-yield teas.


The remaining summer and autumn tea is processed into black tea.


Of course, this kind of low-end black tea is made with the best raw materials.


You can only win by quantity, but the quality is not high.




"4"


In Wuyi Rock Tea, the mainstream only makes spring tea.


During the spring tea season, the tea trees will accumulate and grow thinly after resting in the winter, and they are rich in substances.


By the time of Gu Yu, a large number of rock tea varieties reached the standard of "open-face mining" for tea picking.


The mesophyll is thick and rich in aromatic substances and tea-flavored substances.


The tea made can reflect the nature of rock tea's "heavy water for fragrance", and it has both fragrance, water and rhyme.


Generally, the duration of the spring tea season of rock tea is concentrated in April and May.


After May Day, most of the rock tea varieties have been picked.


Until mid-May, even the late tea planting (the late-germinating variety) has come to an end.


The annual spring tea season officially ends.




In the folk proverbs, tea arrives at Lixia overnight.


In summer, there is plenty of rain and heat and strong sunlight. The tea trees have large leaves and thick branches, old fibers, low nutrient content, and high bitter content.


No matter how high the craftsmanship is, the tea made will still have a weak bitterness and poor quality.


In rock tea, tea picking is also not recommended in autumn.


According to friends from Wuyishan tea farmers, in order to take care of the quality, the raw materials of rock tea should be spring tea instead of autumn tea.


Moreover, the process of Wuyi Rock Tea is complicated.


Basically, the rock teas harvested in April and May, except for a small number of light roasted fire teas on the market in June and July, most of the rock teas are still roasted.


In the autumn, a large number of rock teas that have been roasted enough to be roasted can usher in new ones.


At this time, it is the peak sales season for various rock teas, and few tea farmers can spare their energy to make tea!




《5》


White tea, spring tea and autumn tea have their own characteristics.


Spring white tea, the tea taste is fresher, purer, rich in fragrance, and elegant floral.


Autumn white tea, the soup feels more stable, not easy to soak, and the floral fragrance is sweet and melodious.


The spring tea season of Fuding white tea is concentrated in March and April.


The autumn tea season is mainly in September and October.


In spring, the early spring is cold and the spring is cold, and the new buds and leaves of tea trees have thick pekoe.


At this time, Baihao Yinzhen, Peony King, etc., the tea tastes fresh and mellow, the fragrance is rich, the soup feels pure and peaceful, and it is rich in various nutrients including theanine.


And most of the white peony (including first-level, second-level, etc.) and spring longevity eyebrows (including first-level spring longevity eyebrows, spring tail longevity eyebrows, etc.) produced subsequently.


As always, continue the elegant characteristics of spring tea.


The floral fragrance is clearer, the tea flavor is thick, fresh and pleasant.






After September, Bailu is approaching.


At present, the shining star in autumn white tea-Bailu Shoumei is about to be mined.


After the fall, the autumn is high and fresh and the sun is shining brightly.


During the day, it is helpful for tea trees to accumulate organic matter through photosynthesis.


After nightfall, the temperature in the mountains is low, and the consumption of tea trees due to respiration is reduced.


The suitable temperature difference between day and night allows autumn tea to accumulate rich endoplasm that is not inferior to spring tea.


When brewing Bailu Shoumei, you will find that it has thick wax, good foam resistance, full soup, sweet tea flavor, and sweeter floral fragrance.


Use an analogy to summarize the characteristics of white tea in spring and autumn.


The spring white tea is fresh and mellow, like a charming and charming young girl.


The flavor of autumn white tea is calm, and it is more lightly cooked!






《6》


Pu'er tea, high-end tea is mainly spring tea.


Pu'er, the main producing area is Yunnan.


In the famous hills, the spring material of Pu'er tea is more expensive.


The price of green tea on the same mountain, spring tea is higher than autumn tea, and some are even several times higher.


One year's plan is spring, and the accumulated nutrients and flavor substances in spring tea are more abundant.


The Pu'er made will have a richer flavor, a fuller tea flavor, and more resistant to foaming.


But relatively speaking, spring tea prices are high.


Moreover, some tea consumers who do not like the "dominant" feeling of Pu'er will be more willing to appreciate the softness of autumn tea.


From the perspective of tea purchase, Pu'er autumn tea is a cost-effective choice in the hearts of some tea customers.


But there is a problem to be aware of.




Good mountain, high price, excellent quality spring tea raw materials.


In terms of market conditions, it must be more profitable to process Pu'er tea when making tea.


In addition, there are many tea-producing areas in the local area that will allow summer tea and autumn tea to find another way out.


The way to make tea is not limited to Pu'er tea, but expanded to black tea, Yunnan white tea, etc.


There was a year when we went to Yunnan in July.


It was discovered that a local farmer picked summer tea and processed it into white tea, spreading the green leaves in the withering trough.


From the outside, these teas look thick and leafy.


Compared with the autumn longevity eyebrows in Fuding's white tea, Geng Ye is more flabby and unruly, and it doesn't look like the same species at all.


Regardless of here, whether the species and technology of Yunnan white tea meet the requirements of white tea processing.


Just in terms of materials, if you press this way, tea has already lost.


Without good raw materials, without careful tea processing, how to make good tea?




《7》


When it comes to the comparison between spring tea and autumn tea, many people will mention the idea of spring water and autumn fragrance.


In fact, Chunshui Qiuxiang is a concept in Tieguanyin, not all teas are applicable.


Rock tea does not produce autumn tea.


In terms of white tea, the fragrance of autumn tea is not as strong as spring tea.


Therefore, it is not advisable to make a rigid method when learning tea, generalize it!


But I have said so much in the previous article, an example of a better spring tea.


Looking at Tieguanyin again, it is an exception, which can bring back a game for Autumn Tea.


Tieguanyin, as the southern Fujian oolong tea, has been popular for a while.




Tieguanyin, known as "Spring Water and Autumn Fragrance", many old tea customers will pay more attention to autumn tea when buying tea.


Because of the special climate in Anxi, there is little rainfall in autumn and the autumn is high and fresh.


After the fall, as the temperature drops and the weather is cool, a lot of aromatic substances can be formed inside the tea green.


Lay an opportunity for some unique high-scented Tieguanyin.


For many tea lovers who value the aroma of tea, this kind of tea is obviously more favorable.


It can be seen that there is no absolute in everything.


Spring tea may not always be so good.


Autumn tea may not always fall behind!


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