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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
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铁观音山头茶

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Issuing time:2021-09-09 14:09

安溪各茶叶主产乡镇生产的铁观音茶叶风格各异,同一产区的不同山头,甚至同一山头不同高度的茶园,茶叶也有所区别。这就形成了星罗棋布各具特色的“安溪铁观音山头茶”!



采集不同山头土石,研究茶风味



最近,外地一些批发商为了迎接铁观音秋茶销售旺季,到安溪进货。晋江安海建设茶行的连建设就是其中一位。



连建设祖籍安溪蓬莱,二十多年来,每年茶叶上市,他都会回安溪收购铁观音。他非常注重铁观音的山头风土,此次,他就前往安溪祥华的新岭山。据介绍,新岭山在未开发之前,山场是常绿阔叶林且土层深厚,表层为风化土壤、砾石土壤;中层为砾壤,具有油脂,呈黑色、红色、紫色、黄色、粉白色,或五色壤。土壤中的岩石呈多色、油性、可风化的特点,有机质丰富。连建设认为,不同地域生产、加工的铁观音,口味都不同。新岭山产出多韵鲜香型铁观音,含碳、氮元素相对更为丰富,叶片肥厚。在建设茶行,记者看到一罐罐标注采集地、时间等要素的土壤。为了全面了解土壤对铁观音茶质的影响,连建设深入到安溪各个乡镇,采集土壤样本进行研究。他还采集来自不同产茶区的石头,岩石同样也是他研究的重点。





研究不同茶区的石头、土壤,有助于全面了解它们对铁观音茶质的影响。




多样性,主产区茶叶风格各不同



业内人士告诉记者,安溪铁观音是一种特殊农产品,讲求“天、地、人、种”四者和谐,安溪几大茶产区的铁观音既有普遍性又有各自的个性,可谓百茶争芳,平分秋色。多样性就是安溪铁观音的最大魅力!




祥华铁观音主要特点:其一口味纯正,指该茶入口后茶味充溢,鲜有其他异味;其二汤醇,即汤水厚实,有稠感,俗称“茶水好”;其三回甘强,指茶水入口吞咽后,留于口齿舌部的感觉清甘爽朗,且强烈持久,让人久久回味,意犹难尽。此外,由于祥华铁观音耐久寻味,焙火的茶多用祥华茶拼配。




感德铁观音主要特点:首先,其香气浓郁,无论闻盖杯,或是汤入口,甚至冲泡揭盖之际,其香之浓,几可溢室,令人跃跃欲试。其次,汤水色泽相对清淡,尤其头泡、二泡茶更是如此;三泡之后,其汤色呈黄绿色,清醇见底。最后,汤水入口,细搅可感其带微酸,口感特殊,而且酸中有香,香中含酸。




名山名茶主要依托于茶庄园种植




西坪铁观音主要特点:汤浓、韵明、微香。“汤浓”指所泡茶汤呈金黄色,色泽亮丽,色度较深;“韵明”指安溪铁观音特有的“观音韵”明显,喝后口喉有爽朗感觉;“微香”则指比较而言,其汤味虽香,但悠悠然,不强烈。




龙涓铁观音主要特点是:其一口味纯正,指该茶入口后茶味充溢,鲜有其他异味;其二汤醇,即汤水厚实,有稠感,俗称“茶水好”;其三回甘强,指茶水入口吞咽后,留于口齿舌部的感觉清甘爽朗,且强烈持久,让人久久回味,意犹难尽。




安溪尝试打“山头茶”



即便是同一区域,不同山头的铁观音也各不相同。龙涓南崎自然村全村19户人家近百人,一季秋茶,19户户均收入超过50万元。南崎主要得益于其独特的地理条件,产区多数山高雾浓,茶叶制法传统。南崎茶口味纯正,茶水入口吞咽后,留于口齿舌部的感觉清甘爽朗,且强烈持久,让人久久回味。感德大岭茶则有奇特粉香。祥华新寨、旧寨茶浓缩了祥华茶的特性。安溪虎邱石山村,别称“石皮坑”,这里的铁观音生长在岩石缝中,有着神奇的“石山韵”。




虎邱石山村为打造“石山韵”,举办制茶大赛。




名山名茶对茶业具有很大的推动作用。近年来,云南普洱、武夷岩茶都在打“山头茶”。以普洱茶为例,各个产区是以不同“山头”来命名,比如老班章普洱茶、冰岛普洱茶。至于为什么要以山头来命名,大概是不管从树种树龄或是其他因素,普洱茶都很难有一个界线划分的标准,而茶山就在那里,茶树就长在茶山上,这是各个山头不变量的界线。每个山头都有自己的特点,比如海拔、日照、降水,茶山上茶树的品种、生长的环境、树龄,以及茶农对树的管养方式等都会影响到茶叶的品质。那些得“天时地利人和”的茶叶品质自然占了上风,普洱茶重“山头”之说,自然也就有其“重”的道理了。武夷岩茶则主打“三坑两涧”,“三坑两涧”是武夷岩茶最为有名的山场,即慧苑坑、大坑口、牛栏坑、流香涧、悟源涧。




安溪不少产茶名村也正在尝试打“山头茶”,虎邱石山村注册成立“石山韵茶叶专业合作社”,旨在对全村茶园统一管理,引入“公司+合作社+茶农”模式,还将通过策划举行茶事宣传活动等,期待“石山韵”焕发异彩。而谢文哲主编《安溪寻茶记》一书,则选取了安溪县内32个有代表性的山头,循着茶业脉络,以人文为关注点,集故事性、历史性和资料性于一体,历数山中“重要者”。书中还配有众多摄影师为安溪拍摄的230多张照片和书法家王乃通绘制的安溪“山头图谱”。图谱包含了安溪的产茶名山、各种名茶及涉茶名人。




安溪县农业农村局谢景欣表示,学习法国葡萄酒讲究“风土”个性的发展经验,依托“名山名茶”,讲故事、讲环境、讲微域气候,以及不同山头因土壤、海拔、日照、温差、湿度等差异形成的茶品个性,可以展现“百变观音”的文化内涵和神奇魅力,推动质量管控、组织创新、品牌发展进一步向主产区延伸拓展。以前,安溪的名山名茶主要依托于产茶名村,这些村在《安溪寻茶记》均有收录。在新时期,则主要依托茶庄园,茶庄园要有生态、名山、名品、名师、名人,还要有高端产品,有品牌带动。

The tea produced in the main tea-producing townships in Anxi has different styles. The tea is also different in different hilltops in the same producing area, and even in tea gardens with different heights on the same hilltop. This has formed the "Shantou Tea" dotted with distinctive features!



Collect different hilltop soils and rocks to study the flavor of tea



Recently, some wholesalers from other places went to Anxi to buy goods in order to welcome the peak season of Tieguanyin autumn tea sales. Jinjiang Anhai Jianshe Tea Company's Lianjian is one of them.



Lian Jianjian’s ancestral home is Penglai, Anxi, and he will return to Anxi to buy Tieguanyin every year when tea is on the market for more than 20 years. He pays great attention to the terroir of Tieguanyin. This time, he went to Xinling Mountain in Xianghua, Anxi. According to reports, before the development of Xinling Mountain, the mountain farm was an evergreen broad-leaved forest with deep soil layers. The surface layer was weathered soil and gravel soil; the middle layer was gravel soil with oil, black, red, purple, yellow, and powder. White, or five-color soil. The rocks in the soil are multi-colored, oily, weatherable, and rich in organic matter. Lian Jianjian believes that Tieguanyin produced and processed in different regions has different tastes. Xinling Mountain produces Tieguanyin with rich rhyme and flavor, which contains more carbon and nitrogen elements, and has thick leaves. In the construction of the tea shop, the reporter saw a can of soil with elements such as the place of collection and time. In order to fully understand the influence of soil on the quality of Tieguanyin tea, Lianjian went to various villages and towns in Anxi to collect soil samples for research. He also collects stones from different tea-producing areas, and rocks are also the focus of his research.





Studying the stones and soil in different tea areas will help to fully understand their influence on the quality of Tieguanyin tea.




Diversity, different tea styles in main producing areas



An industry insider told reporters that Anxi Tieguanyin is a special agricultural product, which emphasizes the harmony of "heaven, earth, people, and species". Tieguanyin in several major tea producing areas in Anxi has both universality and individual personality. It can be described as a hundred tea. Contend for Fang, evenly split. Diversity is the greatest charm of Anxi Tieguanyin!




The main characteristics of Xianghua Tieguanyin: First, the taste is pure, which means that the tea is full of flavor after the tea is imported, and there are few other peculiar smells; the second is rich in soup, that is, the soup is thick and thick, commonly known as "good tea"; the third is sweet and strong. It means that after swallowing the tea in the mouth, the feeling left in the mouth, tongue, and tongue is refreshing, strong and lasting. In addition, because Xianghua Tieguanyin is long-lasting, the roasted tea is mostly blended with Xianghua tea.




The main characteristics of Gande Tieguanyin: First of all, its aroma is strong, no matter when you smell the lid of the cup, or the entrance of the soup, or even when the lid is brewed, the fragrance is almost overflowing, making you eager to try. Secondly, the color of the soup is relatively light, especially for the first bubble and second bubble tea; after the third bubble, the color of the soup is yellow-green and the clear alcohol bottoms out. Finally, when the soup is in the mouth, it is slightly acidic when stirred carefully, and the taste is special, and the acid is fragrant, and the fragrant contains acid.




Famous mountain famous tea is mainly planted on tea estates




The main characteristics of Xiping Tieguanyin: Tangnong, Yunming, and slightly fragrant. "Tang Nong" refers to the golden-yellow, bright color and deep chroma of the tea; "Yunming" refers to the distinctive "guanyin rhyme" of Anxi Tieguanyin, and the mouth and throat have a hearty feeling after drinking; "slightly fragrant" refers to the comparison and In other words, although the soup tastes fragrant, it is leisurely and not strong.




The main characteristics of Longjuan Tieguanyin are: First, the taste is pure, which means that the tea is full of flavor after the tea is imported, and there are few other peculiar smells; the second is the soup, that is, the soup is thick and thick, commonly known as "good tea"; the third is sweet and strong , Refers to the tea that is left in the mouth and tongue after swallowing, the feeling is refreshing, strong and lasting, making people have a long aftertaste, and the meaning is still inexhaustible.




Anxi tries to make "shantou tea"



Even in the same area, Tieguanyin on different hills is different. Longjuan Nanqi Natural Village has 19 households with nearly a hundred people. In one season of autumn tea, the average income of 19 households exceeds 500,000 yuan. Nanqi mainly benefits from its unique geographical conditions, most of the producing areas are high in the mountains and dense in fog, and the tea manufacturing method is traditional. Nanqi tea has a pure taste. After the tea is swallowed, it leaves the mouth and tongue with a refreshing, strong and long lasting aftertaste. Gande Daling tea has a peculiar powdery fragrance. Xianghua Xinzhai and Jiuzhai tea condense the characteristics of Xianghua tea. Anxi Huqiu Shishan Village, also known as "Shipi Keng", where Tieguanyin grows in the crevices of the rocks, has a magical "stone mountain rhyme".




Huqiu Shishan Village held a tea-making competition to create the "Stone Mountain Rhyme".




Famous mountain famous tea has a great promotion effect on the tea industry. In recent years, Yunnan Pu'er and Wuyi rock tea have been making "shantou tea". Taking Pu'er tea as an example, each producing area is named after different "mountains", such as Laobanzhang Pu'er tea and Icelandic Pu'er tea. As for why it is named after the mountain, it is probably because it is difficult to have a standard for dividing Pu'er tea regardless of the age of the tree species or other factors. The tea mountain is there, and the tea tree grows on the tea mountain. This is an invariant for each mountain. Boundaries. Each hill has its own characteristics, such as altitude, sunshine, precipitation, the variety of tea trees on the tea hill, the growing environment, the age of the trees, and the way the tea growers manage the trees will affect the quality of the tea. The quality of tea that has the right time, place and people naturally prevails. Pu'er tea emphasizes "mountain top" and naturally has its "heavy" reason. Wuyi Yancha focuses on "three pits and two streams". The "three pits and two streams" are the most famous mountain fields of Wuyi rock tea, namely Huiyuankeng, Dakengkou, Niulankeng, Liuxiangjian, and Wuyuanjian.




Many famous tea-producing villages in Anxi are also trying to promote "shantou tea". Huqiu Shishan Village has registered and established the "Shishanyun Tea Professional Cooperative", aiming to manage the whole village's tea gardens in a unified way and introduce the "company + cooperative + tea farmer" model. Through the planning and holding of tea promotion activities, we look forward to the radiance of "Shishan Yun". The editor-in-chief of Xie Wenzhe selected 32 representative hills in Anxi County, following the tea industry, focusing on humanities, and integrating story, history and information. Count the "important" in the mountains. The book also includes more than 230 photos taken by many photographers for Anxi and the "Mountain Map" of Anxi drawn by calligrapher Wang Naitong. The map contains famous tea-producing mountains, various famous teas and celebrities in Anxi.




Xie Jingxin of the Agriculture and Rural Bureau of Anxi County said that learning French wines’ experience in the development of “terroir” personality, relying on “famous mountains and famous teas”, tell stories, talk about the environment, talk about micro-climate, and different hills due to soil, altitude, sunshine, temperature difference, The individuality of tea products formed by differences in humidity can show the cultural connotation and magical charm of "Variety Guanyin", and promote quality control, organizational innovation, and brand development to further extend to the main producing areas. In the past, Anxi's famous mountain and famous tea mainly relied on famous tea-producing villages, and these villages were included in "Anxi Searching for Tea". In the new era, it mainly relies on tea estates, which must have ecology, famous mountains, famous products, famous teachers, and celebrities, as well as high-end products and brand-driven.


Article classification: 铁观音
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