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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

“一杯好喝的铁观音茶”是怎么来的

  1
Issuing time:2021-09-09 13:53

十月的铁观音茶乡安溪,到处弥漫着秋茶的香气。在这收获的季节,人们热火朝天地各自忙碌着:茶农忙着采制茶叶;茶商忙着收购、拼配、包装茶叶,人人脸上洋溢着丰收的喜悦。茶乡各级政府和企业、商会也争相举办茶王赛等各种茶事活动,为茶乡这片热土再添一把火。




从采摘开始


严格按三叶开面标准



无论是铁观音茶叶制作还是收购、拼配茶叶,茶农、茶商、茶人都非常认真,匠心做好茶的观念深入人心。



三叶开面标准采摘





近日,记者来到安溪县湖上乡长林村产茶大户苏维金家,临近中午,当天第一批从山上采摘下来的鲜叶刚刚运抵加工厂,苏维金马上让农户把茶青倒在布上面平铺开来。他蹲下身子仔细查看茶青,“这片叶子不是三叶开面,要清出去,不能用。马上通知山上的采茶工,要严格按照三叶开面的标准采摘。”他一面说,一面指挥。苏维金从15岁开始做茶,至今已经40年,他认为,茶叶是有灵性的,你对它好,它就会回馈你。因此,他坚持用心做茶,以质取胜,渐渐小有名气。想做出一泡好茶,茶青是基础。这几年,他更是专注于管好茶青。“有5户茶农跟着我,我让他们按照我的标准管理茶园,如果他们做到了,3年内我就奖励他们1万元。”现在3年过去,5户茶农都如约收到了奖金。“对于他们管理的茶园,茶青我实行保底价收购,今年的茶青保底价是每斤11元。”今年秋茶,苏维金一共收购了2万多斤茶青,做出了4000多斤毛茶,毛茶均价达到150元,深受茶商喜爱,今年制作的毛茶已售罄。



匠心做好茶




茶农用心做茶,茶商用心收茶,用心精制加工。10月17日,在安溪茶都冠和茶业的精制加工室内,二三十名拣茶工正在紧张地拣梗。冠和茶业有关负责人吴世能在拣梗室内来来回回巡视,密切注视着拣出的茶叶,如果个别茶叶拣梗出现瑕疵,他都会第一时间向拣茶工指出来,以确保每颗茶叶都圆润肥厚。从10月1日到17日,吴世能已连续奋战了17天,每天仅睡3个小时。前些天主要奔走于各合作农户家里,收购茶叶,后面几天则忙于加工拼配。





好茶的叶底




安溪居民谢先生是一家小型茶业公司的老板,今年秋季仅收购900斤毛茶,能拣成400多斤净茶。他的公司麻雀虽小,却五脏俱全,“我公司的清香型铁观音有4个档次。”谢先生说,每个档次的茶叶都对应着不同的消费人群,一旦一个档次的茶叶质量把关不好,就极有可能走失客户。“我是有惨痛教训的,前几年,他最高峰时,每年可以销售2000斤茶叶。后来,因为过于依赖合作基地,把茶叶的采制和加工都交给合作基地完成,自己疏于把关,导致产品出了问题,流失了很多大客户。如今一年的销售量仅剩五六百斤。”今年秋茶,谢先生痛定思痛,对每个档次的茶叶都非常认真应对,今年秋茶,他已经3次前往安溪祥华的基地。对合作基地提供的茶样,不再直接采信,而是一而再再而三地进行比对,好中选优,往往一个档次的茶要比对10多个茶样。有好几个晚上将近12点,合作基地的茶样刚刚送到安溪县城,他就立马赶去审评。“往年合作基地拣梗结束后,我就直接卖了。”谢先生说,今年在合作基地拣梗的基础上,他又安排工人再拣掉20%—30%的‘赤片’等影响茶叶品质的物质。近日,当他把茶样送到客户手中时,得到客户的一致好评。“丢掉一个客户很容易,但想要再发展一个客户却非常难。一定要用匠心做好茶。”




把烘焙研透


缺点火候都不行



好茶也要找到好的买家,今年茶商的信心提升了,到安溪的客商多了,客商进的茶多了,囤的茶多了。




好茶一字摆开接受审评




陈伟福祖籍安溪,现在在海南省三亚市经营绿上淳茶业,已经好多年没有在秋茶上市季回安溪了。“往年我都是让安溪的批发商给我寄茶样,双方议定好价格,我再让批发商成批寄给我。”今年秋茶季,他回到安溪,一待就是10天。每天白天,他都在有经验的茶师傅的带领下,深入感德、祥华的茶农家中收茶。“每天收购的量不多,大概100斤毛茶。”晚上回到安溪县城,他又和茶师傅研究烘焙,一直研究到深夜。“前几年,我回到安溪学习过烘焙,但总感觉缺少点火候,这次我一定要把烘焙学到家。”陈伟福说,如今,三亚那边喝浓香型铁观音的客户越来越多,浓香型铁观音不仅好卖,价格也比较高。




在湖上乡沙堤村,安溪铁观音名匠陈繁荣的茶叶加工厂已运作起来。陈繁荣从今年春茶开始,就成立双旅茶业公司,并开始招募投资者入股,投资者按每股2万元核算,目前已有38人入股。当时约定,项目运营后第一年,如果卖出茶叶,投资者就收回本金和分红;如果卖不出茶叶,则由公司按每股300斤毛茶的标准提供给投资者(视为投资者收回投资成本),再从第二年开始分红。“今年秋茶,我们做了3000多斤毛茶,每斤毛茶均价将近200元。”陈繁荣说,公司平时由安溪铁观音大师刘协宗,安溪铁观音名匠陈宁石、刘协明、陈繁荣等人对茶农进行管理,茶季时指导茶农做茶,品质相当好,因此实现了“日日清”,一点都没剩。采访现场,记者见到几位该公司的股东,其中一位股东在北京已经经营茶叶生意十来年。前几年,茶叶生意不景气,他把北京的店面从5家关到剩下1家。“今年,我又重燃了信心。我既是双旅公司的股东,也是双旅公司的客户,今年秋茶我就收购了上千斤。”他表示,股东中有不少人以前都有各自的小品牌,以后他们都会统一使用“双旅”品牌,抱团发展。




茶叶审评




记者了解到,不少茶商今年囤货量较往年增加了。冠和茶叶收购量增加了30%,祥华春色满园茶叶专业合作社收购量也比往年增加,并有望得到安溪大型茶企的采购订单。




众口来品评


茶事活动中脱颖而出



从10月20日起,各种茶事活动接踵而至,让人目不暇接。今年各级政府和商会、企业举办的茶王赛数量为历年最多。



茶人们信心十足,收购完茶叶一起品茶




10月20日,安溪县剑斗镇党委政府举行“富硒茶、健康品、万人饮”活动。今年以来,剑斗镇万铁茶业负责人兰培生在剑斗镇党委、政府的积极引导和大力支持下,与中国农业大学和西北农业科技大学专家密切合作,以安溪铁观音茶种生态嫩芽为原料,借助含硒肥料对茶园土壤进行改造,使基地茶叶大幅提升硒元素含量,生产出兼具传统工艺特色的安溪富硒茶,受到了许多茶人的喜爱和业界的广泛关注。在此基础上,他还大力探索茶农包销合作模式,致力以茶叶生产工艺创新,带动周边茶农因茶兴业、以茶致富,助力安溪县脱贫攻坚、教育扶贫和乡村振兴。据介绍,近年来,在全民健康理念的影响下,健康茶饮风尚正在各地流行。具有一定降脂减肥、预防心脑血管疾病、防癌和抗毒灭菌功效的富硒茶,受到不少爱茶人士的青睐。富硒茶此前常见于湖北恩施、梅州蕉岭等地。如今,一些富有前瞻意识和创新精神的新时代安溪茶人,在秉承传统制茶技艺的同时,敏锐觉察到富硒茶的健康价值和产业前景。同日,感德镇政府举办“感德茶馆杯”2020年秋季铁观音茶王赛,次日,又举办秋季茶王品鉴会系列活动。




连日来,茶乡安溪几乎每天都有茶事活动。安溪县政府以及安溪各茶叶主产乡镇几乎都举办了茶王赛,有不少乡镇在排定茶王赛日期时,不得不对照日程表,考虑怎么与其他乡镇错开。商会、茶企、民间组织承办的茶王赛也很多。企业组织的茶王赛和斗茶赛如八马茶业秋季茶王赛、知茗直播基地举办的2020年秋“知茗杯”安溪铁观音(清香型)斗茶赛;民间斗茶赛如安溪民间斗茶交流协会举办的2020年“茗王星”杯安溪铁观音(清香型)民间斗茶赛。





茶人们聚在一起研茶




业内人士表示,今年秋茶季是近年来举办茶王赛最多的一次。茶王赛的奖金不断刷新纪录,由安溪县人民政府主办、泉州市泉安企业商会承办、安溪县茶业管理委员会办公室协办的首届“泉安杯”秋季清香型铁观音茶王赛金奖奖金高达188888元,独占鳌头。该茶王赛将于11月2日和3日收样,11月5日和6日初赛,11月29日总决赛和颁奖。




记者了解到,目前,“泉安杯”茶王赛的前期筹备工作进展顺利。筹备期间泉安企业商会会长谢贵林多次到安溪沟通协调,安溪县委县政府主要领导也高度重视,安溪县委书记高向荣、安溪县政府县长吴毓舟批示同意举办,安溪县委副书记、安溪县茶业管理委员会主任庄稼祥担任茶王赛领导小组组长,安溪县政府副县长肖印章担任常务副组长。“作为在泉州发展的安溪人,我们有责任进一步繁荣泉州地区安溪铁观音老市场,辐射周边县市安溪铁观音市场。”谢贵林表示,这也是商会承办茶王赛的初衷。与此同时,茶王赛的举办还能弘扬安溪县委、县政府“四心、四化”的兴茶理念,加强安溪铁观音宣传推介,助推安溪茶产业健康发展。

Anxi, a tea town in October, is filled with the aroma of autumn tea. In this harvest season, people are busy with each other: tea farmers are busy picking tea; tea merchants are busy buying, blending, and packaging tea, and everyone is full of joy of harvest. All levels of government, enterprises, and chambers of commerce in the tea township are also vying to hold various tea events such as the Tea King Competition, adding another fire to the hot land of the tea township.




Start from picking


Strictly follow the three-leaf opening standard



Whether it is tea making or purchasing or blending tea, tea farmers, tea merchants, and tea people are very serious, and the idea of making tea with ingenuity is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.



Standard picking of three leaf open noodles





Recently, the reporter came to the home of Su Weijin, a big tea producer in Changlin Village, Hushang Township, Anxi County. Near noon, the first batch of fresh leaves picked from the mountain had just arrived at the processing plant. Su Weijin immediately asked the farmers to pour the green tea on the cloth and spread it out. Open. He squatted down to check the tea greens carefully, "This leaf is not three-leaf open noodles. It must be cleared out and cannot be used. Immediately notify the tea pickers on the mountain to strictly follow the standards for three-leaf open noodles." He said. Direct one side. Su Weijin started making tea at the age of 15, and it has been 40 years. He believes that tea is spiritual, and if you treat it well, it will give you back. Therefore, he insisted on making tea with heart, winning by quality, and gradually became famous. To make a good tea, green tea is the foundation. In recent years, he has focused more on managing tea greens. "There are five tea farmers following me. I asked them to manage the tea garden according to my standards. If they do, I will reward them with 10,000 yuan within three years." Now three years later, all five tea farmers have received bonuses as promised. "For the tea gardens they manage, I will purchase tea greens at a guaranteed reserve price. This year's guaranteed reserve price for tea greens is 11 yuan per catty." This autumn tea, Su Weijin purchased more than 20,000 jins of tea greens and made more than 4,000 jins of Maocha. The average price of Maocha reached 150 yuan, which is very popular among tea merchants. The Maocha made this year has been sold out.



Ingenuity to make tea




Tea farmers make tea with heart, and tea shoppers collect tea with heart, and refine and process with heart. On October 17, in the refined processing room of Guanhe Tea Industry, Anxi Tea Capital, twenty or thirty tea pickers were nervously picking stems. The relevant person in charge of Guanhe Tea Industry Wu Shineng patrolled back and forth in the picking room, closely watching the picked tea leaves. If there are defects in individual tea picking stems, he will point it out to the tea picker as soon as possible to ensure that each tea Both are round and plump. From October 1st to 17th, Wu Shineng has been fighting for 17 consecutive days, sleeping only 3 hours a day. A few days ago, I mainly rushed to the homes of various cooperative farmers to buy tea, but in the next few days I was busy processing and blending.





The bottom of the good tea




Mr. Xie, a resident of Anxi, is the owner of a small tea company. He bought only 900 kilograms of Maocha this fall, which can produce more than 400 kilograms of pure tea. Although his company Sparrow is small, it has five internal organs. "Our company's fragrance-type Tieguanyin has four grades." Mr. Xie said, each grade of tea corresponds to a different consumer group. Once the quality of a grade of tea cannot be checked. Well, it is very likely to lose customers. "I have a bitter lesson. In the past few years, at his peak, he could sell 2,000 jin of tea per year. Later, because he relied too much on the cooperative base, he left the tea harvesting and processing to the cooperative base and neglected to control it. This led to product problems and the loss of many major customers. Today’s annual sales volume is only five or six hundred catties.” This autumn tea, Mr. Xie learned from the pain, and took every grade of tea very seriously. This year’s autumn tea, he Have been to Anxi Xianghua's base 3 times. The tea samples provided by the cooperative bases are no longer directly accepted, but are compared again and again, and the best is selected. Often, there are more than 10 tea samples of one grade of tea. There were several evenings when the tea samples from the cooperative base had just been delivered to Anxi County, and he rushed to review them immediately. "In previous years, I sold the stems directly after picking the stems from the cooperative base.” Mr. Xie said, this year, based on the stems picking from the cooperative base, he arranged for workers to pick out 20%-30% of the'red chips' that affect the tea. Quality substance. Recently, when he delivered the tea samples to the customers, he received unanimous praise from the customers. "It is easy to lose a customer, but it is very difficult to develop another customer. You must make tea with ingenuity."




Grind the roast


The shortcomings are not good



Good tea must also find good buyers. This year, the confidence of tea merchants has increased. There are more merchants coming to Anxi, merchants buying more tea, and hoarding more tea.




Haocha opened for review




Chen Weifu's ancestors were from Anxi, and now he runs the Lushangchun tea industry in Sanya City, Hainan Province. He has not returned to Anxi during the autumn tea season for many years. "In previous years, I always asked the wholesalers in Anxi to send me tea samples. The two parties agreed on the price, and I then asked the wholesalers to send them to me in batches." This autumn tea season, he returned to Anxi and stayed there for 10 days. Every day during the day, under the leadership of an experienced tea master, he collects tea from the tea farms in Shende and Xianghua. "The amount purchased every day is about 100 kilograms of Maocha." When he returned to Anxi County in the evening, he and the tea master studied baking until late at night. "A few years ago, I returned to Anxi to learn baking, but I always felt that there was a lack of ignition time. This time I must learn baking at home." Chen Weifu said. Nowadays, more and more customers in Sanya drink strong-flavor Tieguanyin. Many, Luzhou-flavored Tieguanyin is not only easy to sell, but the price is also relatively high.




In Shadi Village, Hushang Township, Anxi Tieguanyin master craftsman Chen Fanrong's tea processing plant has started operation. From the beginning of this year's Spring Tea, Chen Fanrong established the Shuanglu Tea Company and began to recruit investors to invest in shares. The investors are calculated at 20,000 yuan per share. Currently, 38 people have invested in shares. At that time, it was agreed that in the first year after the project was operated, if the tea was sold, the investor would get back the principal and dividends; if the tea could not be sold, the company would provide the investor with a standard of 300 kilograms of Maocha per share (deemed as an investor) Recover the investment cost), and then start to pay dividends from the second year. "This autumn tea, we made more than 3,000 catties of Maocha, and the average price per catty of Maocha is nearly 200 yuan." Chen Fanrong said that the company usually consists of Anxi Tieguanyin master Liu Xiezong, Anxi Tieguanyin masters Chen Ningshi, Liu Xieming, Chen Fanrong and others to tea farmers It manages and guides the tea farmers to make tea during the tea season. The quality is quite good, so it has realized the "clear every day", and there is nothing left. During the interview, the reporter met several shareholders of the company, one of whom had been in the tea business in Beijing for more than ten years. In the past few years, the tea business was sluggish, and he shut down five stores in Beijing to one store. "This year, I have rekindled my confidence. I am both a shareholder of Shuanglv Company and a customer of Shuanglv Company. This year's Autumn Tea I have acquired thousands of kilograms." He said that many of the shareholders had their own opinions before. Small brands, in the future, they will use the "Double Travel" brand uniformly and develop together.




Tea review




The reporter learned that many tea merchants have increased their stockpiles this year compared to previous years. The purchase volume of Guanhe tea increased by 30%, and the purchase volume of Xianghua Chunse Manyuan Tea Professional Cooperative also increased compared with previous years, and it is expected to receive purchase orders from large tea companies in Anxi.




Comment from everyone


Stand out in tea events



Starting from October 20th, various tea events have followed one after another, which is dizzying. This year, the number of tea king competitions held by governments at all levels, chambers of commerce and enterprises is the largest in the past.



The tea people are confident and enjoy tea together after buying tea




On October 20th, the Party Committee and Government of Jiandou Township, Anxi County held the "Selenium-enriched tea, health products, drinking for ten thousand people" activity. Since the beginning of this year, Lan Peisheng, the person in charge of Wantie Tea Industry in Jiandou Township, under the active guidance and strong support of the Party Committee and the government of Jiandou Township, has worked closely with experts from China Agricultural University and Northwest Agricultural University of Tender buds are used as raw materials to transform the soil of the tea garden with the help of selenium-containing fertilizers, which greatly increases the selenium content of the base tea, and produces Anxi selenium-enriched tea with traditional craftsmanship, which has been loved by many tea people and has received extensive attention from the industry. On this basis, he also vigorously explored tea farmers' underwriting cooperation model, committed to innovating tea production technology, spurring neighboring tea farmers to flourish and get rich with tea, helping Anxi County to fight poverty, education and poverty alleviation and rural revitalization. According to reports, in recent years, under the influence of the concept of national health, the trend of healthy tea drinking is becoming popular everywhere. The selenium-enriched tea with certain effects of lowering fat and losing weight, preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, preventing cancer and anti-toxic and sterilizing, is favored by many tea lovers. Selenium-enriched tea was previously commonly found in Enshi, Hubei, Jiaoling, Meizhou and other places. Nowadays, some new era Anxi tea people full of forward-looking consciousness and innovative spirit, while adhering to the traditional tea making skills, are keenly aware of the health value and industrial prospects of selenium-enriched tea. On the same day, the Gande Town Government held the "Gande Teahouse Cup" Tieguanyin Tea King Competition in the fall of 2020. The next day, a series of activities of the Autumn Tea King Tasting Meeting were held.




For the past few days, there have been tea events almost every day in Anxi, a tea town. The Anxi County Government and the major tea-producing towns in Anxi almost all held the Tea King Tournament. When scheduling the Tea King Tournament, many townships had to check their schedules and consider how to stagger with other towns and villages. There are also many tea king competitions hosted by chambers of commerce, tea enterprises, and non-governmental organizations. The tea king competition and tea fighting competition organized by enterprises, such as the eight horse tea industry autumn tea king competition, and the Zhiming live broadcast base in the autumn of 2020, the "Zhiming Cup" Anxi Tieguanyin (clear fragrance) tea fighting competition; folk tea fighting competitions such as Anxi The 2020 "Ming Wang Xing" Cup Anxi Tieguanyin (Clear Fragrance) Folk Tea Fighting Competition organized by the Civil Tea Fighting Association.





Tea people gather together to study tea




According to industry insiders, this autumn tea season is the most held in recent years. The prize money of the tea king race keeps breaking new records. The gold prize of the first "Quan'an Cup" Autumn Fragrance Tieguanyin Tea King Tournament, sponsored by the Anxi County People’s Government, undertaken by the Quanzhou Quan’an Enterprise Chamber of Commerce, and co-organized by the Office of the Anxi County Tea Industry Management Committee, is as high as 188888 yuan, the top spot. The tea king competition will be sampled on November 2nd and 3rd, preliminary rounds on November 5th and 6th, and finals and awards on November 29th.




The reporter learned that the preparatory work for the "Quan'an Cup" Tea King Tournament is progressing smoothly. During the preparation period, Xie Guilin, president of Quan'an Enterprise Chamber of Commerce, visited Anxi many times to communicate and coordinate. The main leaders of Anxi County Party Committee and Government also attached great importance to it. The director of the management committee, Jiaxiang Zhuang, served as the leader of the tea king competition leading group, and Xiao Yinzhang, the deputy magistrate of Anxi County Government, served as the executive deputy leader. "As Anxi people developing in Quanzhou, we have the responsibility to further prosper the Anxi Tieguanyin Old Market in Quanzhou, and radiate the surrounding counties and cities of Anxi Tieguanyin Market." Xie Guilin said that this is also the original intention of the Chamber of Commerce to host the tea king competition. At the same time, the holding of the tea king competition can also promote the Anxi County Party Committee and County Government's "four hearts and four modernizations" tea concept, strengthen the promotion of Anxi Tieguanyin, and promote the healthy development of Anxi tea industry.


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