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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

芦田铁观音茶场

  1
Issuing time:2021-09-08 15:05

为提高国有农场的内生动力、发展活力和整体实力,这几年,在安溪县政府的坚强领导下,在安溪县农业农村局、芦田镇党委政府的通力合作、积极推动下,历经几十年风雨的芦田茶场完成改制。未来,芦田铁观音茶场孕育新发展的生机。





位于安溪县芦田镇福岭村的标准化生态铁观音茶园,采用自动喷灌




曾经创造辉煌



“芦田茶场创办于1959年,是安溪较早创建的国营茶场,也是国家乌龙茶外贸定点出口厂之一。最鼎盛时,仅芦田一镇的茶产量就占了整个安溪县的10%。”原芦田茶场福谭分场老场长王世祥自豪地讲述起茶场曾经的辉煌。




芦田茶场改制前,有职工520人,年产茶叶达70多万斤,下分5个管理区、26个分场、一个精制场、一个小水电厂,有生产股、劳工股、供销股和财政股等一套完善的业务管理机构。




每当谈及国营茶场的劳动和生活时,从那个时期走过来的老人们无不怀念那段时光,大家都对自己的工人身份感到十分光荣。那时,茶场高音喇叭会在下班时放起《东方红》《大海航行靠舵手》等歌曲。劳动之余,茶场还常组织篮球赛、唱歌、跳舞等活动,极大丰富他们的业余生活。




据当年的茶场职工回忆,那时候茶场的正式员工大多是转业的退伍军人、上山下乡的知青和本科、专科毕业生,但垦荒开辟新茶园需大量熟悉劳动技术的工人,茶场就招募了许多临时工。




在当时,国营茶场招收工人,不仅报名人数众多还要面临严格考核。茶场还会根据生产目标完成情况对临时工进行考核,不合格的会被辞退,最后能够转正的只有30%。




时任生产股股长的林玉池介绍说,那时他刚从福安茶校毕业,拿着不到40元的工资就在芦田扎了根,这一干就是38年。在他负责茶叶生产期间,国营茶场的特级铁观音、特级黄金桂等产品在首届中国食品博览会上获得了三个银质奖和一个铜质奖。




茶园如画,振兴乡村。(林思南 摄)




说起芦田铁观音茶叶品质优良的原因,林玉池解释,“环境优越、品种纯正、熟悉茶性的工人、标准化的厂房等都是芦田茶叶优质高产必不可少的条件。”不仅如此,为提高茶叶产量和质量,国营茶场还时常会开茶叶生产的技术交流会和培训会,鼓励各分场之间相互竞争,评比优胜的会有奖励,这更激发茶场劳动生产的热情。




国营茶场时期,林玉池老人还独创“化肥换草”的茶园管理方式,把县里批下来的化肥卖给当地农民,让农民到茶山上割草,用作茶园肥料。一来可以保持土地水分,二来避免施用化肥带来的土壤板结,保持土壤松散。由此,芦田茶产业绿色生产的传统可见一斑。




一季茶要采20—25天,各分场初制的毛茶要送到精制厂进行精加工,最忙碌的时候厂里会有几百个女工同时捡梗。毛茶初制需要大量的体力劳动,这使得茶场里的工人以男工为主,而通过这个共同劳动的契机,不少男工与女工喜结良缘。




因为茶叶获奖,茶场被奖励了一台黑白电视机,这成了老人们对国营茶场印象最深的事情之一。彼时一位来自泉州的知青,会一点电子技术,就带人拿着天线到处找信号。当时那台电视机只能接收3个频道,但每天播放电视时都会吸引一大批周围的村民,村里的老人更是对这个物件感到新奇……




还有让大家记忆深刻的是,1980年,茶学界泰斗张天福带领科研人员聚集在芦田茶场,主持攻关省重点课题“乌龙茶做青工艺与设备研究”,芦田茶场一度因课题实验而蒙上一层神秘面纱。经过科学攻关,课题组终于掌握人工控制气候条件下的乌龙茶“做青”工艺。从此,茶叶“靠天吃饭”的古老定律被打破。





芦田茶场每位分场长各自带4名党员制茶能手开展研究




改制轻装前进



上世纪90年代末,国有企业改革后,芦田茶场将茶园土地承包给员工,南坑分厂18名员工就承包部分茶园,后来这些人员选择外出打工,田地一度无人管理。




为防止国有资产流失, 2017年年底,安溪县农业农村局通过招投标方式,聘请专业测绘公司协助完成土地权籍调查工作。为限时完成工作进度,县农业农村局带队多次到县自然资源局、县档案馆查找,同时走访多个部门获得农场2006年以前办理土地证的材料,拷贝农场的行政勘界图。县农业农村局和测绘公司负责人对已发林权证的面积进行查缺补漏,分析问题、解决困难,为茶场提前完成所有国有土地使用权确权发证工作提供了坚实的基础。“通过卫星定位坐标,进行土地确权,办理土地证与林权证,进一步保证了茶厂的土地不被侵占。”芦田茶场老员工说。




在土地确权的同时进行了社会职能改革。在过去,作为一个大茶厂,芦田茶场就像一个小型的社会,长期承担着社会管理和公共服务职能,主要包括社会治安综合治理、养老优抚、民兵训练、文化体育、广播电视、计划生育管理、基本医疗、公共卫生、侨务、移民安置、林业养护、“三供一业”、辖区道路建设维护、茶场带村、基础教育补助等各类社会行政性、事业性和服务性职能。2014年以来,芦田茶场进行农垦国有农场办社会职能改革,将芦田茶场承担的社会管理和公共服务职能纳入政府统一管理,确保工作有序衔接、职能履行到位,2019年7月成立崇信社区居委会,推荐茶场的职工至新成立的居委会任居委会主任、党支部书记等职,全面完成政企分开。现有芦田茶场干部职工10人,其中管理人员5人,退休工人105人(全部移交社会化管理),社会保障全覆盖,社会职能已全部剥离。




此外,2020年,在县政府的支持下,芦田镇政府、芦田茶场、县农业投资发展有限公司三方配合,成功解决了芦田茶场遗留的350万元债务问题。




注重茶旅结合



完成了土地确权和社会职能改革的芦田茶场轻装前进,华丽转身。




茶旅结合,成为新动力。云岭茶庄园位于国家现代农业产业园三产融合示范点中心综合功能区。其前身是创国营芦田茶场福潭管区,处戴云山脉境内,属安溪县芦田镇福岭村辖区,海拔600—750米,占地面积1800余亩,属亚热带季风气候。茶树品种以铁观音、本山、毛蟹、黄旦、梅占、台湾金萱为主。




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游客尽享植茶乐




“庄园建设以生态为底色、茶叶为主题、文化为灵魂、旅游为纽带。”安溪县农业农村局副局长谢景欣说,通过景观环境改造提升,以保留历史的痕迹,记住安溪茶人的记忆与乡愁,采用“记忆中的材料”以自然朴实的风格对周边景观进行改造,让整个庄园有历史的回忆及独特的文化底蕴。




安溪县农业投资发展有限公司董事长曾经得告诉记者,云岭茶庄园与厦门、泉州市区、漳州距离均在2小时车程范围内,具有明显的区位优势。




据了解,庄园第一期主体建筑包括四合院、民宿及茶叶初制加工厂。四合院保留了国营老茶厂的古厝原貌,全新建成的民宿以中式建筑风格为主,顶楼特设露天茶室。




“云岭茶庄园秉承全面贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念,尊重茶产业发展规律、城镇化规律和市场经济规律,以‘茶’为核心元素,打造绿色发展技术集成示范区,打造安溪茶叶新文化IP符号,打造海丝茶路新名片,探索茶旅结合新路、乡村产业振兴新路、金融资本和社会资本进入茶山茶园新路。”安溪县政府有关负责人说。




作为国家级现代农业产业园示范点,如今,云岭茶庄园集生产加工、茶文化传播、研发创新、旅游观光、休闲体验为一体,成为茶主题运动、健康、田园休闲、度假目的地,也成为展示安溪茶业形象的一大平台和窗口。目前,云岭茶庄园年接待游客10万人次。




云岭茶庄园带动周边发展,为乡村振兴注入活力。福岭村作为云岭茶庄园的辖区,近水楼台先得月。福岭村2019年3月被确定为福建省省级乡村振兴试点村,2019年11月,被国家农业农村部评为中国美丽休闲乡村。以此为契机,芦田镇党委政府聘请了海口市城市规划设计研究院到该村开展修建性详细规划。根据规划,福岭村将持之以恒抓好人居环境提升,突出茶叶抓好特色产业发展,用好资源打造人才孵化基地,找准结合点位助推三产融合。芦田镇借云岭茶庄园的东风,以现代旅游经营服务理念和管理方式为支撑,以满足游客多元化需求和旅游消费转型升级为目标,依托福岭村自然和人文资源,推介福岭村的好山好水和好茶,提升了福岭村的影响力和知名度。




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一杯清茶饱含芦田老场长们对茶场的感情




规划建设田园综合体



据介绍,1984年至2014年芦田茶场和芦田镇实行镇场合一,一套班子两块牌。芦田茶场的各个分场如今仍分布于镇区各个角落。“我们希望可以结合乡村振兴战略,盘活茶场资源,将国有茶场企业化,以此推动芦田全域发展。”安溪县农业农村局有关负责人说。




据介绍,芦田拥有丰富的野生动植物资源,优美的生态环境,保持了较原始的风貌。国营茶场大量建筑保留了闽南古厝的风格,老四合院,青砖石墙,瓦顶房,体现浓厚的茶庄园文化韵味、回忆“知青下乡”激情燃烧的岁月、见证“传统安溪铁观音”匠心工艺的传承。4000多亩的原始森林,内有整片傲然挺拔的松柏,国家二级保护树种大柳杉,一片高大“活化石”之称的刺桫椤群等丰富的动植物资源;梅占茶发源地等;通过提供各种绿色纯天然食品、健康餐饮服务,结合茶山本身的天然资源,在此可以深度感受安溪铁观音茶文化;亲身参与体验采茶、制茶、品茶等环节,在茶园中放松身心。




芦田将以生态保护为前提,挖掘本地文化特色,规划以云岭茶庄园为龙头,带动紫云山、小九寨(石盘水库)、祥洋水库、瀑布栈道、内地原始森林、乡村田园、闽南特色古厝等旅游资源进行整合,开发养生养老、会议度假、农业休闲、山地运动、亲水游乐、户外拓展、植物观光认知等旅游产品,营造山清水秀、空气清新、安逸幽静、景色迷人的环境,开发绿意浓浓、野趣十足的多样化绿野乡村,打造精品自驾游、乡村旅游。

In order to improve the endogenous power, development vitality and overall strength of state-owned farms, in the past few years, under the strong leadership of Anxi County Government, the cooperation and active promotion of Anxi County Agriculture and Rural Bureau and the Party Committee and Government of Lutian Town have gone through dozens of years. The restructuring of the Lutian Tea Farm in the year of wind and rain has been completed. In the future, the Lutian tea farm will give birth to new development opportunities.




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A standardized ecological tea garden located in Fuling Village, Lutian Town, Anxi County, using automatic sprinkler irrigation




Once created brilliance



"Lutian Tea Farm was founded in 1959. It is an earlier state-owned tea farm established in Anxi and one of the designated export factories for national oolong tea. At its peak, the tea output of Lutian Town alone accounted for 10% of the entire Anxi County." Wang Shixiang, the old head of the Futan branch of the Lutian Tea Farm, proudly described the past glory of the tea farm.




Before the restructuring of the Lutian Tea Farm, there were 520 employees and an annual output of more than 700,000 catties of tea. A complete set of business management institutions such as the financial unit.




When talking about labor and life in state-owned tea farms, the old people who came from that period always miss that time, and everyone feels very honored as a worker. At that time, the tea house tweeter would play songs such as "Dongfanghong" and "Navigating the Sea by the Helmsman" at the end of get off work. Outside of work, the tea field often organizes basketball games, singing, dancing and other activities, which greatly enriches their spare-time lives.




According to the memories of the tea farm employees, at that time, most of the formal employees in the tea farm were veterans who had changed jobs, educated youth who went to the mountains and the countryside, and graduates of undergraduates and junior colleges. Temporary workers.




At that time, the state-run tea farms recruited workers, not only with a large number of applicants, but also facing strict assessments. The tea shop will also assess temporary workers based on the completion of production targets. Those who fail to pass will be fired, and only 30% of them will be able to become regular employees.




Lin Yuchi, the head of the production unit at the time, said that he had just graduated from Fu'an Tea School and took root in Lutian with a salary of less than 40 yuan. This work lasted 38 years. During the period when he was in charge of tea production, the special grade Tieguanyin and special grade Jingui from the state-owned tea farm won three silver awards and one bronze award at the first China Food Expo.




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The picturesque tea gardens revitalize the countryside. (Photo by Lin Sinan)




Speaking of the reasons for the good quality of Lutian tea, Lin Yuchi explained that “a superior environment, pure varieties, workers who are familiar with tea properties, and standardized workshops are all essential conditions for high-quality and high-yield Lutian tea.” Not only that, but to increase tea production. In addition to quality, the state-owned tea farms often hold technical exchange meetings and training sessions for tea production to encourage competition among the various branches. The winners of the competition will be rewarded, which inspires the enthusiasm of tea production.




During the state-run tea farms, the old man Lin Yuchi also created the original tea garden management method of “changing fertilizers for grass”. He sold the fertilizers approved by the county to local farmers, and asked them to cut grass on the tea hills and use them as fertilizer for the tea gardens. First, it can keep the soil moisture, and second, it can avoid soil compaction caused by the application of chemical fertilizers and keep the soil loose. As a result, the tradition of green production in the Lutian tea industry can be seen.




It takes 20-25 days to pick tea in a season. The raw tea made in each branch must be sent to the refinery for finishing. At the busiest time, there will be hundreds of female workers picking up the stems at the same time. The initial production of Maocha requires a lot of manual labor, which makes the workers in the tea farm mainly male workers. Through this opportunity of working together, many male and female workers have married.




Because of the tea prize, the tea farm was awarded a black and white TV, which became one of the things that the old people have the deepest impression of the state-run tea farm. At that time, an educated youth from Quanzhou, who knew a little electronic technology, took someone to look for signals everywhere with an antenna. At that time, the TV set could only receive 3 channels, but every day when the TV was broadcast, it attracted a large number of surrounding villagers, and the old people in the village were even more curious about this object...




What also impresses everyone is that in 1980, tea scholar Zhang Tianfu led scientific research personnel to gather at the Lutian tea farm to preside over the provincial key project "Oolong tea making technology and equipment research." Layers of mystery. After scientific research, the research team finally mastered the "greening" process of oolong tea under artificially controlled climate conditions. Since then, the old law of “relying on the sky” for tea has been broken.




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Each branch head of the Lutian tea farm brings 4 party members and tea masters to conduct research




Restructuring and moving forward lightly



In the late 1990s, after the reform of state-owned enterprises, Lutian Tea Farm contracted tea garden land to employees, and 18 employees of the Nankeng branch contracted part of the tea garden. Later, these people chose to go out to work, and the land was once unmanaged.




In order to prevent the loss of state-owned assets, at the end of 2017, the Anxi County Agriculture and Rural Bureau hired a professional surveying and mapping company to assist in the completion of land ownership investigations through bidding. In order to complete the work progress within a limited time, the County Agriculture and Rural Bureau led a team to the County Natural Resources Bureau and the County Archives for several times. At the same time, they visited multiple departments to obtain the materials of the farm before 2006 and copy the administrative boundary map of the farm. The heads of the County Agriculture and Rural Bureau and the surveying and mapping company checked the deficiencies in the area of the issued forest tenure certificates, analyzed the problems and solved the difficulties, and provided a solid foundation for the tea farm to complete the confirmation and issuance of all state-owned land use rights ahead of schedule. "Using satellite positioning coordinates, confirming land rights, applying for land certificates and forest rights certificates, has further ensured that the land of the tea factory will not be invaded." An old employee of the Lutian tea farm said.




The reform of social functions was carried out while land rights were confirmed. In the past, as a large tea factory, the Lutian tea farm was like a small society. It had long-term responsibility for social management and public service functions, including comprehensive management of social security, pension and special care, militia training, culture and sports, radio and television, and family planning management. , Basic medical care, public health, overseas Chinese affairs, immigration resettlement, forestry maintenance, "three supplies and one industry", road construction and maintenance in the jurisdiction, tea farms and villages, basic education subsidies and other social administrative, institutional and service functions. Since 2014, Lutian Tea Farm has carried out the reform of the social functions of the state-owned farms of land reclamation, and incorporated the social management and public service functions undertaken by the Lutian Tea Farm into the unified government management to ensure the orderly connection of work and the fulfillment of functions. In July 2019, the Chongxin Community Neighborhood Committee was established. , Recommend the staff of the tea shop to the newly established neighborhood committee to serve as the director of the neighborhood committee, party branch secretary, etc., to complete the separation of government and enterprise in an all-round way. There are 10 cadres and employees in the Lutian tea farm, including 5 managers and 105 retired workers (all handed over to socialized management), with full coverage of social security, and all social functions have been stripped away.




In addition, in 2020, with the support of the county government, the Lutian Town Government, the Lutian Tea Farm, and the County Agricultural Investment Development Co., Ltd. cooperated to successfully solve the 3.5 million yuan debt problem left by the Lutian Tea Farm.




Focus on the combination of tea and travel



After completing land rights confirmation and social function reform, the Lutian Tea Farm moved forward lightly and turned gorgeously.




The tea brigade has become a new driving force. Yunling Tea Manor is located in the comprehensive functional area of the Demonstration Point of the Integration of Tertiary Industries in the National Modern Agricultural Industrial Park. Its predecessor was the Futan District of Chuangguo Lutian Tea Farm, located in the Daiyun Mountains and under the jurisdiction of Fuling Village, Lutian Town, Anxi County. It has an altitude of 600-750 meters and covers an area of more than 1,800 acres. It has a subtropical monsoon climate. The main tea species are Tieguanyin, Benshan, Hairy Crab, Huangdan, Meizhan, and Taiwan Jinxuan.




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Tourists enjoy tea planting




"The construction of the manor takes ecology as the background, tea as the theme, culture as the soul, and tourism as the link." said Xie Jingxin, deputy director of the Anxi County Agriculture and Rural Bureau. Memory and homesickness, using "materials in memory" to transform the surrounding landscape in a natural and simple style, so that the entire manor has historical memories and unique cultural heritage.




The chairman of Anxi County Agricultural Investment Development Co., Ltd. once had to tell reporters that Yunling Tea Manor is within a 2-hour drive from Xiamen, Quanzhou, and Zhangzhou, which has obvious geographical advantages.




It is understood that the main building of the first phase of the manor includes a courtyard, a homestay, and a tea processing factory. The courtyard retains the original appearance of the old state-owned tea factory. The newly built homestay is mainly in Chinese architectural style, with an open-air tea room on the top floor.




"Yunling Tea Manor adheres to the development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing, respects the law of tea industry development, urbanization and market economy, and uses'tea' as the core element to create a green development technology integration demonstration zone. , To create a new cultural IP symbol for Anxi tea, to create a new business card for Haisi Tea Road, and to explore the combination of new roads for tea tourism, new roads for rural industry revitalization, financial capital and social capital to enter the new roads of Chashan and tea gardens." Anxi county government officials said.




As a national-level modern agricultural industrial park demonstration site, Yunling Tea Estate now integrates production and processing, tea culture dissemination, R&D innovation, tourism and leisure experience, and has become a tea-themed sports, health, pastoral leisure, and holiday destination. It has become a large platform and window to show the image of Anxi tea industry. Currently, Yunling Tea Estate receives 100,000 tourists annually.




Yunling Tea Estate drives the surrounding development and injects vitality into the revitalization of the countryside. As the jurisdiction of Yunling Tea Manor, Fuling Village has the advantage of being near the water. Fuling Village was identified as a provincial-level rural revitalization pilot village in Fujian Province in March 2019. In November 2019, it was rated as China's Beautiful Leisure Village by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. Taking this as an opportunity, the Party Committee and Government of Lutian Town hired the Haikou Urban Planning and Design Institute to carry out detailed constructive planning in the village. According to the plan, Fuling Village will persevere in improving the living environment, highlight the development of specialty tea industry, make good use of resources to build a talent incubation base, and find the right combination to promote the integration of the tertiary industry. Taking advantage of the east wind of Yunling Tea Manor, Lutian Town is supported by modern tourism operation and service concepts and management methods to meet the diversified needs of tourists and the transformation and upgrading of tourism consumption. Relying on the natural and human resources of Fuling Village, it promotes the development of Fuling Village. Good mountains, good water and good tea have enhanced the influence and popularity of Fuling Village.




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A cup of tea is full of the feelings of the old heads of Ashita for the tea farm




Planning and construction of a rural complex



According to reports, from 1984 to 2014, Lutian Tea Farm and Lutian Town implemented the first township, with two cards for one team. The various branches of Lutian Tea Farm are still distributed in every corner of the town. "We hope that we can combine the strategy of rural revitalization, revitalize tea farm resources, and turn state-owned tea farms into enterprises, so as to promote the development of Lutian." Anxi County Agriculture and Rural Bureau said the relevant person in charge.




According to reports, Lutian has rich resources of wild animals and plants, beautiful ecological environment, and maintains a more primitive style. A large number of buildings in the state-owned tea farm retain the style of the ancient homes in southern Fujian. The old courtyard houses, blue brick walls, and tiled roofs reflect the strong cultural flavor of the tea estate, recall the passionate years of the "Educated Youth Going to the Countryside", and witness the "Traditional Anxi Tieguanyin" Inheritance of craftsmanship. More than 4,000 acres of virgin forest, there are a whole piece of proud pine and cypress, the national second-class protected tree species large cedar, a piece of tall "living fossil" called the thorny spinel group and other rich animal and plant resources; the birthplace of Mei Zhan tea, etc.; Provide a variety of green pure natural food, healthy catering services, combined with the natural resources of the tea mountain itself, you can experience the Anxi Tieguanyin tea culture in depth; participate in the experience of tea picking, tea making, tea tasting and other links, and relax in the tea garden.




Lutian will take ecological protection as the premise, excavate local cultural characteristics, and plan to take Yunling Tea Manor as the leader to drive Ziyun Mountain, Xiaojiuzhai (Shipan Reservoir), Xiangyang Reservoir, waterfall plank road, inland virgin forest, rural countryside, and southern Fujian. Integrate tourism resources such as characteristic ancient homes, and develop tourism products such as health care and elderly care, conference vacations, agricultural leisure, mountain sports, water amusement, outdoor development, plant sightseeing awareness and other tourism products to create an environment with beautiful mountains and clear waters, fresh air, tranquility and charming scenery , To develop diversified green countryside with strong greenery and full of wild interest, and create high-quality self-driving tours and rural tourism.


Article classification: 铁观音百科
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