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乌龙茶色香韵味
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铁观音到底该怎么采摘呢

  1
Issuing time:2021-09-08 12:16

1

老嫩程度的把握



铁观音的采摘标准是:待新梢长到3~5叶快要成熟,而顶叶六七成开面时采下1芽2叶或1芽3叶的叶梢,俗称"开面采"。




小开面





小开面阶段,茶叶相对比较嫩,此时开采略微有点早,采摘过于嫩,叶片中芳香类物质含量比较少,且在摇青中极易损伤幼嫩梢,产生“断芽”、“断梗”等现象,影响正常的“走水消青”,造成品茶浸出物含量偏低,常形成香低、味苦涩且带有青气,铁观音外形、内质应有的特殊风味难以表现出来。




中开面






中开面,此时叶片老嫩程度适中,即将适合采摘。




大开面




大开面次于中开面,制作出来的铁观音茶叶香气高,但不幽远、不细腻。粗老叶纤维素、半纤维素等成分含量偏高,成品茶形成外形粗、色泽枯泽、黄片多、滋味淡、薄,不耐冲泡,品质较差。所以把握鲜叶采摘标准是形成铁观音品质的关键。




以上所谈,小、中、大开面,指的是采摘时机,即:对原料老嫩程度的把控。






2

一天中适合采摘的时间



铁观音的采摘,有别于其他茶。一般来说,晨起露水尚未蒸发,不适合采摘,下午16点后不适合采摘。




所以,真正要炒制一泡好茶,最佳采摘时间为:11点——16点。11点之前,茶叶含有露水或露水刚蒸发,鲜叶水分含量太高,所制成茶叶品质较差。16点之后,由于太阳即将下山,不利于晒青,故不适宜采摘。




3

天气原因



这个比较好理解,一般是有雨不采,晴有云不采,雨后第二天不采。想做一泡好茶,天气问题必须遵守。




以上三点,是客观问题必须遵守的采摘规则,当然还有其他小细节不能违反:


a.人为损伤叶片不采;


b.虫咬叶片不采;


c.鱼尾叶片不采;


e.病态叶片不采;






4

采摘方式



当然,采摘方式不一样,对制作来说,影响也是极为大的。


采摘方式一般分为:手采法、刀割法(剪刀、镰刀)和机采法三种。




手采法






想做高档茶,只能用手采法,上百年的经验告诉我们,手采的茶,更加匀整,更有利于走水,这即为“虎口对芯”采摘法。此法最大的缺点是极为伤手指头,感恩采茶的茶农们。




刀割法




刀割法,一般用镰刀或剪刀,此法仅次于手采法。




机采法




机采法,没有选采功能,采出来的原料老、嫩、大、小参差不齐,断叶、碎叶太多,大家可以想象,此法适用低档茶的大面积生产。




说了这么多,对于铁观音采摘,大家应该有更多的了解了。

1

Grasp the degree of tenderness



The standard for picking Tieguanyin is: when the new shoots grow to 3~5 leaves are about to mature, and when the top leaves are sixty to seventy percent open, the leaf tips of 1 bud and 2 leaves or 1 bud and 3 leaves are picked, commonly known as "open face picking".




Small open noodles





In the small opening stage, the tea is relatively tender. At this time, the extraction is a little bit early, the picking is too tender, the content of aromatic substances in the leaves is relatively small, and the young shoots are easily damaged during shaking, resulting in "broken buds" and "broken buds". Phenomenon such as "stem" affects the normal "running out of water to reduce greenness", resulting in low content of tea extracts, often resulting in low aroma, bitter taste and greenishness, and the special flavor of Tieguanyin's appearance and internal quality is difficult to express come out.




Open noodles






For the mid-open noodles, the leaves are moderately old and tender, and they are about to be suitable for picking.




Wide open noodles




The large open noodles are inferior to the middle open noodles, and the tea made from it has a high aroma, but it is not remote and delicate. The content of crude leaf cellulose, hemicellulose and other components is relatively high, and the finished tea has a rough shape, dull color, more yellow flakes, light taste, thinness, and is not resistant to brewing, and the quality is poor. Therefore, grasping the standard of fresh leaf picking is the key to forming the quality of Tieguanyin.




In the above discussion, small, medium, and large open noodles refer to the timing of picking, that is, the control of the raw material's aging and tenderness.






2

Suitable time of day for picking



The picking of Tieguanyin is different from other teas. Generally speaking, the morning dew has not evaporated, so it is not suitable for picking, and it is not suitable for picking after 16:00 in the afternoon.




Therefore, to really make a good tea, the best picking time is: 11 o'clock-16 o'clock. Before 11 o'clock, the tea contains dew or the dew has just evaporated, and the moisture content of the fresh leaves is too high, and the quality of the tea made is poor. After 16:00, because the sun is about to go down, it is not conducive to drying, so it is not suitable for picking.




3

weather reason



This is easier to understand. It is generally rain but not picking, sunny but not picking clouds, and not picking the next day after rain. If you want to make a good tea, you must comply with the weather.




The above three points are the picking rules that must be followed for objective issues. Of course, there are other small details that cannot be violated:


a. Man-made damaged leaves are not harvested;


b. Insects bite the leaves without picking them;


c. The tail leaves are not picked;


e. Sick leaves are not picked;






4

Picking method



Of course, the different picking methods have a huge impact on the production.


The picking methods are generally divided into three types: hand picking, knife cutting (scissors, sickle) and machine picking.




Manual method






If you want to make high-end tea, you can only pick it by hand. Hundreds of years of experience tells us that hand-picked tea is more even and more conducive to water. This is the "tiger's mouth-to-core" picking method. The biggest shortcoming of this method is that it hurts the fingers very much and is grateful to the tea farmers who pick tea.




Knife cut




The knife cutting method generally uses a sickle or scissors, and this method is second only to the manual method.




Machine mining method




The machine harvesting method does not have the function of selection. The raw materials are old, tender, large and small, and there are too many broken and broken leaves. You can imagine that this method is suitable for large-scale production of low-grade tea.




Having said that, everyone should know more about picking.


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