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中国茶叶种类 绿茶、红茶、黄茶、青茶、白茶、黑茶 花茶

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Issuing time:2021-09-07 15:03

中国的茶叶种类很多,分类也自然很多,但被大家熟知和广泛认同的就是按照茶的色泽与加工方法分类,即传统七大茶系分类法:绿茶、红茶、黄茶、青茶、白茶、黑茶和花茶七大茶系。


绿茶是我国产量最大的茶类,其制作过程并没有经过发酵,成品茶的色泽、冲泡后的茶汤和叶底均以绿色为主调,较多地保留了鲜叶内的天然物质。其中茶多酚咖啡因保留鲜叶的85%以上,叶绿素保留50%左右,维生素损失也较少,从而形成了绿茶“清汤绿叶,滋味收敛性强“的特点。由于营养物质损失少,绿茶也对人体健康更为有益,对防衰老、防癌、抗癌、杀菌、消炎等均有特殊效果。


绿茶是历史最早的茶类,距今至少有3000多年。古代人类采集野生茶树芽叶晒干收藏,可以看作是广义上的绿茶加工的开始。但真正意义上的绿茶加工,是从公元8世纪发明蒸青制法开始,到12世纪又发明炒青制法,绿茶加工技术已比较成熟,一直沿用至今,并不断完善。


绿茶中的名茶主要有以下几种:西湖龙井、浙江碧螺春、鸠坑毛尖、雁荡毛峰、普陀佛茶、洞庭碧螺春、南京雨花茶、金坛雀舌、六安瓜片、黄山毛峰、太平猴魁、黄山银毫、休宁松萝、婺源茗眉、双井绿、得雨活茶、信阳毛尖等等。


红茶是我国最大的出口茶,出口量占我国茶叶总产量的50%左右,属于全发酵茶类。它因干茶色泽、冲泡后的茶汤和叶底以红色为主调而得名。但红茶开始创制时被称为“乌茶”,因此,英语称其为“Black tea”,而并非“Red tea”。


红茶中的名茶主要有以下几种:九曲红梅、越红工夫、宜兴红茶、苏红工夫、宁红工夫、祁门红茶、宜红工夫、湖红工夫、金骏眉、坦洋工夫、英德红茶、荔枝红茶等等。


由于杀青、揉捻后干燥不足或不及时,叶色变为黄色,于是人们发现了茶的新品种­­--黄茶。黄茶具有绿茶的清香、红茶的香醇、白茶的愉悦以及黑茶的厚重,是各阶层人群都喜爱的茶类。其品质特点是“黄叶黄汤“,这种黄色是制茶过程中进行闷堆渥黄的结果。


黄茶中的名茶主要有以下几种:莫干黄茶、霍山黄芽、北港毛尖、沩山毛尖、君山银针、广东大叶青等等。


白茶是我国的特产,一般地区并不多见。由于人们采摘了细嫩、叶背多白茸毛的芽叶,加工时不炒不揉,晒干或用文火烘干,使白茸毛在查的外表完整地保存下来,这就是它呈白色的缘故。


白茶中的名茶主要有以下几种:白毫银针、白牡丹、贡眉、福鼎白茶、月光白。


黑茶因其茶色呈黑褐色而得名。由于加工制造过程中一般堆积发酵时间较长,所以叶片多呈现暗褐色。其品质特征是茶叶粗老、色泽细黑、汤色橙黄、香味醇厚,具有扑鼻的松烟香味。黑茶属深度发酵茶,存放的时间越久,气味越重厚。


黑茶中的名茶主要有以下几种:花砖茶、黑毛茶、黑砖茶、黄金砖、青砖茶、六堡散茶、金尖茶、普洱茶砖、金瓜贡茶。


青茶主要指乌龙茶,属于半发酵茶,在中国几大茶类中,具有鲜明的特色。它融合了红茶和绿茶的清新与甘鲜,品尝后齿颊留香,回味无穷。


青茶因其在分解脂肪、减肥健美等方面有着显著功效,又被称为“美容茶“、”健美茶“,受到海内外人士的喜爱和追捧。


青茶中的主要名茶有以下几种:凤凰水仙,武夷肉桂,武夷岩茶,冻顶乌龙,凤凰单纵黄金桂,安溪铁观音,本山等等。


花茶又称熏花茶、香花茶、香片,属于再加工茶,是中国独特的一个茶叶品种。花茶由精制茶胚和具有香气的鲜花混合,使花香和茶味相得益彰,受到很多人尤其是偏好重口味的北方朋友青睐。


花茶具有清热解毒、美容保健等功效,适合各类人群饮用。随着人们生活水平提高,时尚生活越来越丰富,花茶也增添了许多品种,例如保健茶、工艺茶、花草茶,等等。


常见的花茶主要有:茉莉花茶、玉兰花茶、珠兰花茶、玫瑰花茶、菊花茶、千日红、女儿环、碧潭飘雪等等。

英语翻译

There are many types of tea in China, and there are many natural classifications, but what is well known and widely recognized is the classification according to the color and processing method of tea, that is, the traditional seven tea classification methods: green tea, black tea, yellow tea, green tea, white tea, Seven tea series of black tea and scented tea.


Green tea is the tea with the largest output in my country. Its production process has not undergone fermentation. The color of the finished tea, the tea soup and the bottom of the leaves after brewing are all with green as the main tone, and more of the natural substances in the fresh leaves are retained. Among them, the tea polyphenol caffeine retains more than 85% of the fresh leaves, the chlorophyll retains about 50%, and the loss of vitamins is also less, thus forming the characteristics of green tea "clear soup, green leaves, strong taste and astringency". Due to the less loss of nutrients, green tea is also more beneficial to human health, and has special effects on anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-cancer, sterilization, and anti-inflammatory effects.


Green tea is the earliest tea in history, at least 3,000 years ago. Ancient humans collected wild tea buds and leaves and dried them, which can be regarded as the beginning of green tea processing in a broad sense. However, the real green tea processing started from the invention of the steamed green method in the 8th century, and then in the 12th century.


The famous teas in green tea mainly include the following types: West Lake Longjing, Zhejiang Biluochun, Jiukeng Maojian, Yandang Maofeng, Putuo Buddha Tea, Dongting Biluochun, Nanjing Yuhua Tea, Jintan Buxue, Liuan Melon, Huangshan Maofeng, Taiping Houkui, Huangshan Yinhao, Xiuning Usnea, Wuyuan Mingmei, Shuangjing Green, Deyu Huocha, Xinyang Maojian and so on.


Black tea is my country’s largest export tea, which accounts for about 50% of my country’s total tea output, and belongs to the category of fully fermented teas. It is named after the color of dry tea, the reddish color of the tea soup and the bottom of the leaves after brewing. But black tea was called "black tea" when it was first created. Therefore, it is called "Black tea" in English instead of "Red tea".


The famous teas in black tea mainly include the following types: Jiuqu Hongmei, Yuehong Gongfu, Yixing Black Tea, Su Hong Gongfu, Ninghong Gongfu, Qimen Black Tea, Yihong Gongfu, Huhong Gongfu, Jin Junmei, Tanyang Gongfu , Yingde black tea, litchi black tea and so on.


Due to insufficient or untimely drying after finishing and rolling, the color of the leaves changed to yellow, so people discovered a new tea variety-yellow tea. Yellow tea has the fragrance of green tea, the mellow aroma of black tea, the pleasure of white tea and the weight of dark tea. It is a tea that people of all walks of life love. Its quality characteristic is "Yellow Leaf Yellow Soup". This yellow color is the result of suffocating yellow leaves during the tea making process.


The famous teas in yellow tea mainly include the following types: Mogan yellow tea, Huoshan Huangya, Beigang Maojian, Weishan Maojian, Junshan Yinzhen, Guangdong Dayeqing and so on.


White tea is a specialty of our country, and it is rare in general areas. Because people pick the tender buds with white hairs on the backs of the leaves, they do not fry or knead them during processing, dry them in the sun or use a slow fire to dry them,


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