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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
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茶之魅铁观音

  3
Issuing time:2021-09-06 21:08

1


乌龙茶的品质通性----非花也自馨

乌龙茶香味独特,具天然花果香气和品种的特殊香韵。有类似兰花香、桂花香、水蜜桃香、桂皮香、栀子花香、还有许多不知名的清花香、甜花香。大自然花草繁茂,何处无芳香但由于乌龙茶这种香韵并非源于花果,因而倍显珍贵。正如茶叶老专家庄任曾经称颂“本性唯芳洁,非花也自馨。品茶重茶魂,浓丽寄清明”。其本质是由适制乌龙茶的茶树品种,在得天独厚的自然环境栽培下,采获其鲜叶,经精细加工而成。是特定生态、品种与加工技术综合作用的结果。




2


安溪乌龙茶的品质特点

品种分明,香气袭人

在安溪境内,植茶条件优越,品种资源丰富,加工技术精湛,形成了独特的生产模式,善于根据品种的生物学特性、加工性状,促使乌龙茶品质特征的形成。




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孕育了许多乌龙茶的优良品种,如西坪铁观音、罗岩黄旦、萍洲毛蟹、长坑大叶乌龙等,还有新选的清水岩杏仁茶、茶科所凤圆春,尽管品种众多,但个性分明。




安溪铁观音,铁观音既是茶名,又是茶树品种名,因身骨沉重如铁,形美似观音而得名,是闽南乌龙茶中的佳品。品质特征是外形条索圆结匀净,多呈螺旋形,身骨重实,色泽砂绿翠润,青腹绿蒂,俗称“香蕉色”;内质香气清高馥郁,汤色清澈金黄,滋味醇厚甘鲜,“音韵”明显。耐冲泡,七泡尚有余香,叶底开展,肥厚软亮匀整。由于不同乡镇的地理、人文的微小差异,也形成了“西坪韵、祥华香”之地域特征。




黄旦,也称黄金桂。外形条索紧结匀整,色泽绿中带黄,内质香气清高优雅,有天然的花香,汤色浅金黄明亮,滋味醇和回甘,叶底黄嫩明亮,红点显。此品种的冲泡特点表现在具有独特的“透天香”,“满室生香”,可谓“室雅何须大,茶香不必多”。




此外,还有毛蟹,以大坪乡为突出,具有“清花香、白心尾、倒钩刺”之特征;大叶乌龙以长坑乡为优,具有重实、清纯甘厚之特点。




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再看安溪乌龙茶的外形,紧卷重实,砂绿油润。独特的包揉工序所形成的外形松紧有度,也是有效保存做青形成的高香特征所不可忽视的环节。




总体而言,香气清高而纯美,品种韵味分明是安溪乌龙茶的品质优势,其上品在冲泡时有“香惊四座”之气势。




3


安溪茶艺

嫩柳池塘初拂水,简古纯美问春风

制茶讲科学,品茶有文化。是如今安溪茶文化的一道亮丽的风景线,苏淑勉在《大坪,我为你祝福》一文中描述过:只见红砖粉墙的楼房里,随处可见一袋袋焙熟包装的“秋香”。主人端出的全是青一色白不锈钢的巨形茶盘,配上古铜紫砂茶壶茶盏,别具一格茶乡特色。他们沿袭“没有三杯不成礼数”的风习,劝茶款款,言笑晏晏。




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安溪茶艺的推出,总结了古人的品茶经验,结合地方品茶习俗,简古纯美,主要以铁观音的特殊茶韵为本体茶性,阐明其沏泡技艺和茶艺精神内涵。其茶艺流程有:神入茶境、茶具展示、烹煮泉水、瑶池出盏、观音入宫、悬壶高冲、春风拂面、瓯里酝香、三龙护鼎、行云流水、观音出海、点水流香、香茗敬宾、欣赏汤色、细闻幽香、品香寻韵。通过茶艺,传达了“纯、雅、礼、和”的精神追求。《解放日报》主编丁锡满先生曾写道“嫩柳池塘初拂水”,笔者观后也有“简古纯美问春风”之感。




4


安溪茶乡与文学作品

自然和谐的美感世界

来自安溪茶乡人的《山花初放》、《茶乡短笛》等文学作品,是茶乡人“志寄茶韵,笔唤乡情”的一种抒怀。




茶乡人钟爱自己的凤山、兰溪、茶林,在钟希明的《漫步山村的茶园》诗文中是那么真切:“我常常漫步于山村的茶园。看!碧绿的叶子在风中跳跃着,郁郁苍苍的绿,把茶乡点缀得绚丽而多姿;听!茶林晃动传来的阵阵声响如涛,倾诉缕缕的情愫,予茶乡,予茶乡人民的心田;闻,微微的芬芳,萦绕在山谷田野,弥漫在小道溪涧。我常常漫步在山村的茶园。采,一尖嫩芽,把希望?献给亲友;撷,一朵洁白的花,把花的馨香赠给情人;掬,一捧收获的笑,把欢乐撒向人间。”




在吴小猛的《给老父》诗文中写道:“一垄垄茶园爬上山坡/爬上额头/绿色的弥漫/把日子染得金黄金黄一方方茶巾/已不忍离开你的手、脚/忘情时它还会贴紧你的脸/岁月便在你的皮肤上/涂上一片褐色嫩芽上的白毫/什么时候/悄然爬上双鬓/爬满你的头”老茶师的辛劳和执着,都真实地溶入了茶叶,而当人们品饮时领略的是清香和甘醇。




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5


安溪乌龙茶与“犁青现象”有关吗?

有待探讨

诗人犁青于1933年出生,福建安溪县人,1944年开始写作。出版作品有《千里风流一路情》《犁青山水》等二十多部,读他的诗,犹如走进阳光亮丽的园林,惠风和畅、景物清明、视野开阔;他善于把传统手法提升到现代的高度,并合理吸收和运用了当今西方先进的艺术技巧,取得了令人瞩目的成绩。




由于犁青作为一个成功的企业家又热衷于诗的创作,而且硕果累累,便有了“犁青现象”的诗评文章。孙绍振在《少年犁青之风貌》中指出“从美学理论上来说,企业经营属于实用价值,而作为艺术的诗,是超越实用价值的审美价值。实用价值是善,审美价值是美,二者并不完全统一。这一种‘犁青现象’在美学上的意义,展开深入的讨论,当有待来日。”




从西彤小秋《中国人、中国心、中国诗》一文中:“犁青的诞生,便充满着神奇生命色彩的暗示。他出生于福建安溪一个茶乡。出生于一个飘升着霞光与浓郁茶香的早上。但那一种最初的苦,却在他作为贫农的父母的算度之下,在那种暗淡日子的笼罩之中,无可避免地注入他幼小的生命。然而也许是名茶的余味无穷,才真正地注定他的秉赋和先苦后甘的生活气度。当他稚嫩的声音与遍山的叶子一同生长,一同蕴含着不可窥视的生命颜色,他便学会了用一双无邪的眼睛,去采撷艰辛生活的青绿,去演绎他心中的另一种茶-----用心灵泡出来的汁液----诗歌。”是乎对“犁青现象”作了某些诠释。




如果再次体会著名营养学家于若木于1991年底在陕西紫阳富硒茶专家评议会上作专题发言,其中谈到:“世界各国的华人都表现出优秀的品质,在校学习出类拔萃、名列前茅,在工作中大多数成绩优异,高人一筹。中国人智商是得到很多外国人承认的,这也许和茶不无关系。这并不是说他们在国外都喝茶,而是说中华民族的祖先有茶文化培育了较为发达的智力,并且把这优良的素质遗传给了后代。因此,可以说我们都是茶文化的受益者。不管你已经意识到或还未意识到,不管你现在是否有喝茶的习惯。”那么,或许对安溪茶乡、安溪乌龙茶与“犁青现象”的相关性会增进几分探讨的兴趣。




评价一杯茶的质量,微观上从色香味形和某些化学成分指标给予评定,赏析一种茶,所涉及的因素诸多,有自然属性和社会属性,本文从上述几方面所作的初探是一种尝试,安溪乌龙茶在品质风格、保健价值、人文影响、审美意趣等都有特定的作用,品饮时不仅在于一般层面上的风味和保健,更重要的是领略那种来自大山的青绿,用心去体味那种独特的芳醇,寻找那种赋予人生价值的特质

英语翻译

1


The quality of oolong tea is not a flower but also self-satisfying

Oolong tea has a unique fragrance, with a natural floral and fruit fragrance and a special fragrance of varieties. There are fragrances similar to orchid, osmanthus, peach, cinnamon, gardenia, and many unknown floral and sweet floral fragrances. The natural flowers and plants are luxuriant, where there is no fragrance, but because the fragrance of oolong tea does not originate from flowers and fruits, it is more precious. Just as the old tea expert Zhuang Ren once praised "the nature is only fragrance and clean, but the flower is also self-satisfactory. Tea is the soul of tea, and the strong beauty sends Qingming." Its essence is made from the tea plant varieties suitable for making oolong tea, cultivated in a unique natural environment, harvested from its fresh leaves, and finely processed. It is the result of the combined effect of specific ecology, variety and processing technology.




2


Quality characteristics of Anxi Oolong tea

The variety is distinct and the aroma is striking

In Anxi, the tea planting conditions are superior, the variety resources are rich, and the processing technology is exquisite, forming a unique production mode. It is good at promoting the formation of the quality characteristics of oolong tea according to the biological characteristics and processing characteristics of the variety.




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Numerous fine varieties of oolong tea have been bred, such as Xiping Tieguanyin, Luoyan Huangdan, Pingzhou Hairy Crab, Changkeng Daye Oolong, etc., as well as the newly selected Qingshuiyan Almond Tea and Fengyuanchun from Tea Branch, although there are many varieties , But distinct personality.




Anxi Tieguanyin, Tieguanyin is not only the name of tea, but also the name of the tea tree species. It is named because of its heavy bones like iron and beautiful shape like Guanyin. It is a good product among Oolong teas in southern Fujian. The quality characteristic is that the shape is round and uniform, mostly in a spiral shape, the body is heavy, the color is sandy and green, green belly and green pedicle, commonly known as "banana color"; Fresh, the "phonology" is obvious. Resistant to brewing, the seven foams still have a lingering fragrance, the bottom of the leaf is spreading, and the leaf is thick, soft and smooth. Due to the small differences in geography and humanities in different towns and towns, the regional characteristics of "Xiping Yun and Xianghuaxiang" have also been formed.




Huang Dan, also called Jingui. The appearance is tight and uniform, the color is green with yellow, the inner essence is elegant and elegant, with a natural floral fragrance, the soup is light golden and bright, the taste is mellow and sweet, and the bottom of the leaf is yellow and tender and bright, with red spots. The brewing characteristics of this variety are manifested in the unique "scented fragrance" and "scented room full of fragrance".




In addition, there are hairy crabs, which are prominent in Daping Township, with the characteristics of "clear floral fragrance, white heart tail, and barb thorns"; Daye Oolong is superior to Changkeng Township, which has the characteristics of heavy solidity, purity and sweetness.




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Look at the shape of Anxi Oolong Tea, which is tightly rolled and firm, with green sand. The shape formed by the unique wrapping and kneading process has a degree of tightness, which is also a link that can not be ignored in the effective preservation of the high fragrance characteristics formed by the green.




In general, the aroma is high and pure, and the variety and flavor are clearly the quality advantages of Anxi Oolong tea. The top grade has a "fragrant four" aura when brewing.




3


Anxi Tea Art

The tender willow pond is blowing in the water at the beginning, and the simplicity of the ancient and pure beauty asks the spring breeze

Tea-making emphasizes science, and tea-tasting has culture. It is a beautiful landscape of Anxi tea culture today. Su Shumian described it in the article "Daping, I Bless You": I saw bags of baked and packaged "autumn fragrance" everywhere in the red brick and white walls of the building. What the owner brought out was a giant tea tray made of blue and white stainless steel, accompanied by a bronze teapot and teapot, with unique characteristics of the tea village. They followed the habit of "no three cups are improper", persuading tea to pay, and laughed.




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The introduction of Anxi tea art summarizes the tea-tasting experience of the ancients, combined with local tea-tasting customs, simple and ancient and pure, and mainly uses the special tea rhyme of Tieguanyin as the main tea nature to clarify its brewing skills and the spiritual connotation of tea art. The tea art process includes: God enters the tea world, tea set display, cooking spring water, Yaochi out of the jade, Guanyin enters the palace, hanging pots high, spring breeze blowing, Ou scented, three dragons protecting the tripod, traveling clouds and flowing water, Guanyin going out to sea, spotting water flow Fragrant, fragrant tea to honor guests, appreciate the color of the soup, smell the fragrance, taste the fragrance and find the rhyme. Through tea art, the spiritual pursuit of "purity, elegance, courtesy, and harmony" is conveyed. The editor-in-chief of "Liberation Daily" Mr. Ding Ximan once wrote that "the tender willow pond is blowing in the water".




4


Anxi Tea Village and Literary Works

A beautiful world of natural harmony

Literary works such as "The First Release of Mountain Flowers" and "The Piccolo of the Tea Country" from the people of Anxi tea village are a kind of expression of the people of the tea village "to send the charm of tea and call the nostalgia".




People in the tea village love their own Fengshan, Lanxi, and tea forests. It is so true in Zhong Ximing's poem "Walking in the Tea Garden of the Mountain Village": "I often walk in the tea garden of the mountain village. Look! The green leaves are jumping in the wind. The lush green color embellishes the tea township beautifully and colorfully; listen! The sound of the tea forest swaying like a wave, pour out the feelings of the tea town, to the heart of the tea township people; smell, the slight fragrance , Linger in the valleys and fields, pervading the small roads and streams. I often stroll in the tea gardens in the mountain villages. Picking a sprout, presenting hope to relatives and friends; picking, a white flower, giving the fragrance of the flower to a lover; , A smile of harvest, spreading joy to the world."




In Wu Xiaomeng's poem "To the Father", he wrote: "A ridge of tea plantation climbs up the hillside/climbs up to the forehead/green is permeated/dyes the day golden and golden square tea towel/I can’t bear to leave your hands and feet/ It will stick to your face when you forget your feelings/years will apply to your skin/paint a piece of pekoe on the brown bud/when/quietly climb up the temples/cover your head"The old tea master’s hard work and Perseverance is truly melted into the tea, and when people drink it, they appreciate the fragrance and sweetness.




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5


Is Anxi Oolong Tea related to the "Plowing Phenomenon"?

To be discussed

The poet Li Qing was born in 1933 in Anxi County, Fujian Province. He began writing in 1944. His published works include "A Thousand Miles of Love", "Plowing Green Mountains and Waters" and other more than 20 books. Reading his poems is like walking into a sunny garden. The breeze is peaceful, the scenery is clear and the sights are clear. He is good at raising traditional techniques to Modern height, and reasonable absorption and use of modern Western advanced artistic skills, and achieved remarkable results.




Because Li Qing, as a successful entrepreneur, is keen on poetry creation, and has achieved fruitful results, there is a poetry review article about the "Plowing Phenomenon". Sun Shaozhen pointed out in "The Style of Young Plowing Green", "From the aesthetics point of view, business management belongs to practical value, and poetry as art is aesthetic value that transcends practical value. Practical value is good, and aesthetic value is beauty. Both It's not completely unified. The aesthetic significance of this "plowing phenomenon" will be discussed in depth, and it will be awaited in the future."




From Xitong Xiaoqiu's "Chinese People, Chinese Heart, Chinese Poems": "The birth of Li Qing is full of hints of magical colors of life. He was born in a tea village in Anxi, Fujian. A rich tea morning. But the initial bitterness, under the calculation of his parents as a poor peasant, inevitably infused his young life in the shadow of that gloomy day. But perhaps it was The infinite aftertaste of the famous tea is truly doomed to his endowment and the life of bitterness and sweetness. When his immature voice grows with the leaves all over the mountains, together with the color of life that cannot be seen, he has learned to use it. A pair of innocent eyes, to pick the green and green of hard life, to interpret another kind of tea in his heart-the juice made with the soul-poetry." It is almost a "plough phenomenon". Certain interpretations.




If you experience again the famous nutritionist Yu Ruomu made a special speech at the Ziyang Selenium-enriched Tea Expert Council in Shaanxi at the end of 1991, in which he said: "Chinese people from all over the world have shown excellent quality, and they are outstanding in school learning. Most of the performances at work are excellent and superior. Chinese IQ is recognized by many foreigners, which may have something to do with tea. This is not to say that they all drink tea abroad, but that the ancestors of the Chinese nation have tea. Culture has cultivated more developed intelligence and passed on this excellent quality to future generations. Therefore, it can be said that we are all beneficiaries of tea culture. Whether you are aware of it or not, whether or not you drink tea now Habits.” So, perhaps the relevance of Anxi Tea Township, Anxi Oolong Tea and the "Plowing Phenomenon" will increase some interest in discussion.




To evaluate the quality of a cup of tea, microscopically evaluate the color, flavor, shape and certain chemical components. Appreciating a tea involves many factors, including natural and social attributes. Try, Anxi Oolong tea has a specific role in quality, style, health value, humanistic influence, aesthetic interest, etc. When drinking, it is not only the flavor and health care on the general level, but more importantly, the taste of the green and green from the mountains. Savour the unique mellowness and look for the qualities that give life value


Article classification: 铁观音百科
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