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乌龙茶色香韵味
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一泡浓香型安溪铁观音是怎么来的?

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Issuing time:2021-09-06 20:58

浓香型铁观音,色泽明亮,香气浓郁,口味甘醇,有着三百年多年的历史。而今,在勤劳智慧的福安溪人手里她又焕发新姿,安溪制茶师傅不断提升制作工艺水平,强力打造浓香型铁观音品牌……安溪铁观音香“浓”之路越走越宽阔。




今天,让我们随着一位有着30年烘焙经验的王师傅一起去看看,一泡好的浓香型铁观音是怎么炼成的?





选材

高山传统正枞





安溪一位有着30年烘焙经验的王师傅认为,烘焙浓香铁观音用的原料是清香型(正味)铁观音。所选清香型铁观音必须是传统制作的高山茶,茶叶冲泡后叶底要均匀。选好清香型(正味)铁观音是烘焙高品质浓香型铁观音的基础。高山茶叶片更肥厚,所含元素更丰富,用传统方法制作的清香型(正味)铁观音,无论烘焙多久,都不会散发异味。




看来,要加工好浓香铁观音,还要有一套过硬的清香铁观音鉴定本领,那如何鉴别传统正味的清香型铁观音呢?




清香型铁观音冲泡两三遍后,叶底全部泛黄,如果叶底或有部分叶底仍是青绿色,焙到熟透所需时间,比叶底均匀泛黄的传统炒制茶多一倍以上。而且烘到一定时间,会有异味,且青黄两种叶片掺杂着烘,味更杂,所以选材时,不能仅看外观,一定要冲泡看叶底。




挑选烘焙原材料时,还倾向新枞茶树的茶叶,且只烘焙春、秋两季茶。新枞茶茶元素比老枞丰富,烘焙出来的茶叶,香气更加浓郁,夏、暑两季茶叶碱度高,不宜烘焙。




每年春茶、秋茶大量上市期间,做茶师傅还要采购大量的清香(正味)铁观音,去除茶梗、老叶、红片等杂物,再把同季、同级的茶叶进行拼配处理,留备茶闲时烘焙。




烘焙

厚度、温度、适度



原料准备好之后,烘焙就开始了。




王师傅从事先预热十几分钟的烘焙箱里,取出一张张烘筛,把茶叶倾倒下去,轻轻摊匀。“铺茶讲究厚薄适中”,较常用的16层烘焙箱,每层铺2-2.5斤茶,薄筛烘焙,受火均匀,且速度快,保证成品滋味醇正。太厚则受火不均,茶叶杂味蒸发较慢,且容易余积,影响醇度。




“烘焙分三个阶段,去水分、去杂味、焙香味。”去除水分是烘焙第一步;去杂味对隔年清香型茶或等级较低茶尤为重要;焙香味,要掌握好温度,烘焙时间,一般分成轻、中、足火三种类型,温度分别在100-120度、115-135度、125-145度之间。




根据多年实践,结合烘焙过程中的温度变化,总结出三种烘焙方法——顺焙、加温焙、反焙。顺焙恒温,分一次或两次完成,因为每提高一次温度,就蒸发一次香气,所以顺焙最保香,适合品质高的当季传统清香型铁观音;加温焙要先调好一定温度,烘焙一段时间后,再提高温度,直至烘去涩味,茶叶火味较浓;反焙是先高温,焙去异味、杂味,焙出火香味,再降温慢烘,使茶叶中的各种成分完全释放,最后加温烘出火香、米香味,适合隔年茶和偏青茶。





试样

颜色、汤水、香气




那么要烘焙到什么程度,才能出炉?烘焙具体的温度、时间并不完全固定,在烘焙过程中要不断试茶样,直至试到自己认可。




因为加工者水平、偏好、经验各不相同,茶叶质量也有差异,判断茶叶烘焙工序是否完成,也没统一标准。一般情况下,要焙到味清水亮,茶汤回甘、顺滑,不青不涩,完全熟透。




如果没有达到加工者的要求,则要适当改变温度或者延长烘焙时间。高温提香不宜长,否则火味会太浓;低温保水也不宜长,否则水会空。根据试样情况,再对烘箱温度进行调节。通常烘焙时间越长,试样时茶叶浸泡时间也要越长。




制茶师傅们焙茶像照料子女一样细心,每次离开烘焙车间,都交待值班工人,注意时间、温度,到点叫他来试样。三更半夜、大清早,吃饭时间,只要到取样试茶时间,他准时到车间。这还不够,至关重要的收尾提温,他也亲自操作。浓香铁观音加工之辛苦或许莫过于此。





保存

自冷、常焙、提升




烘焙结束后,就要进行摊凉冷却、包装保存。




将成茶从烘焙箱里倾倒出来,摊开放在通风处自然冷却。自然冷却,效果最好,最保香。冷却时间也须注意,不宜太长,凉了就收,否则再吸入空气中的水分,会影响火候效果。千万不能为了快速冷却,用电风扇散热。另外,判断是否完全冷却,须轻轻用手或脸贴近成茶去感受,不能频繁用手触摸。




收藏保存依火度而定。轻火烘焙通常能保存2-3个月,可以用真空袋小袋包装,放入冷冻库,延长保质期。中火、足火用真空袋包装,一般可保存半年到一年。




倘若浓香铁观音要保存多年,就要经常重焙保质,就像热冷饭一样。一般情况下,每年都要进行一次,这还要结合茶叶的具体情况。

英语翻译

Luzhou-flavored Tieguanyin, bright in color, rich in aroma, and sweet in taste, has a history of more than 300 years. Now, in the hands of the industrious and intelligent Fuanxi people, she has a new look. Anxi tea masters continue to improve the level of production technology, and forcefully build the fragrant Tieguanyin brand... Anxi Tieguanyin fragrant "strong" road is getting wider and wider.




Today, let us take a look at a master Wang who has 30 years of baking experience. How is a good, strong-flavored Tieguanyin made?





Material selection

Alpine Tradition Zheng Cong





A master Wang with 30 years of baking experience in Anxi believes that the raw material used for baking the fragrant Tieguanyin is Tieguanyin with a fresh flavor (regular flavor). The selected fragrance type Tieguanyin must be traditionally made high mountain tea, and the bottom of the leaves should be even after brewing. Choosing a good fragrance (zhengwei) Tieguanyin is the basis for baking high-quality aromatic Tieguanyin. The leaves of high mountain tea are thicker and richer in elements. The fresh-scented (zhengwei) Tieguanyin made by traditional methods will not emit any peculiar smell no matter how long it is baked.




It seems that in order to process the strong fragrance Tieguanyin, it is necessary to have a set of excellent Qingxiang Tieguanyin identification skills, so how to identify the traditional and right-flavored Tieguanyin?




After brewing the fragrance Tieguanyin two or three times, the bottom of the leaves will all turn yellow. If the bottom of the leaf or part of the bottom of the leaf is still green, the time required for roasting to maturity is longer than that of traditional roasted tea with uniform yellowing of the bottom of the leaf. More than doubled. And after baking for a certain period of time, there will be a peculiar smell, and the two kinds of green and yellow leaves are mixed with baking, and the taste is more mixed.




When choosing raw materials for baking, the tea leaves from the Xincong tea tree are also preferred, and only the spring and autumn teas are baked. Xincong tea has richer elements than old ones, and the roasted tea has a stronger aroma. The tea has high alkalinity in summer and summer, so it is not suitable for baking.




Every year when spring tea and autumn tea are on the market in large quantities, a tea master also purchases a large amount of Tieguanyin (zhengwei) Tieguanyin, removes tea stems, old leaves, red slices and other sundries, and then mixes tea of the same season and the same level. Process and reserve the tea for roasting at leisure.




Baking

Thickness, temperature, moderate



After the ingredients are ready, baking begins.




Master Wang took out the baking sieve from the baking box that had been preheated for more than ten minutes, poured the tea leaves, and spread them gently. "Put the tea with moderate thickness", the more commonly used 16-layer baking box, each layer is laid with 2-2.5 kg of tea, and the thin sieve is baked. The fire is even and the speed is fast to ensure that the finished product has a mellow taste. If it is too thick, it will be unevenly affected by fire, and the off-flavors of tea will evaporate slowly, and it will be easy to accumulate, which will affect the mellowness.




"Baking is divided into three stages: moisture removal, odor removal, and roasting aroma." Removing moisture is the first step in baking; removing odor is especially important for fresh-flavor teas or lower-grade teas in the next year; for roasting aroma, you must master the temperature, The baking time is generally divided into three types: light, medium, and full fire, and the temperature is between 100-120 degrees, 115-135 degrees, and 125-145 degrees.




According to years of practice, combined with temperature changes during the baking process, three baking methods are summarized-forward baking, heated baking, and reverse baking. Shun-baking at a constant temperature is completed once or twice. Because every time the temperature is increased, the aroma will evaporate once, so Shun-baking is the most fragrant, suitable for high-quality seasonal traditional fragrance Tieguanyin; heating up the baking must first adjust the temperature After baking for a period of time, increase the temperature until the astringency is removed and the tea has a stronger fire taste; reverse roasting is to first high temperature, roasting to remove peculiar smells and unpleasant tastes, roasting the fire aroma, and then reduce the temperature and dry slowly, so that the various types of tea in the tea The ingredients are completely released, and finally heated and baked to produce a fire and rice fragrance, which is suitable for tea and green tea every other year.





Sample

Color, soup, aroma




So to what extent must it be baked before it can be baked? The specific temperature and time of baking are not completely fixed. During the baking process, you should keep trying tea samples until you get your approval.




Because the level, preference, and experience of the processors are different, the quality of tea is also different, and there is no uniform standard for judging whether the tea baking process is completed. Under normal circumstances, the tea should be roasted until the taste is clear and watery, and the tea soup is sweet, smooth, not green or astringent, and fully cooked.




If it does not meet the requirements of the processor, the temperature should be appropriately changed or the baking time should be extended. It is not advisable to keep the fragrance at high temperature for a long time, otherwise the fire will be too strong. According to the condition of the sample, adjust the temperature of the oven. Generally, the longer the baking time, the longer the soaking time of the tea leaves in the sample.




The tea masters are as careful as taking care of their children. Every time they leave the baking workshop, they tell the workers on duty, pay attention to the time and temperature, and ask him to take samples when they arrive. In the middle of the night, early in the morning, during dinner time, as long as it’s time for sampling and tea testing, he arrives at the workshop on time. This is not enough, the crucial finishing touches to raise the temperature, he also operates it himself. Perhaps the hard work of processing the fragrant Tieguanyin is nothing more than this.





save

Self-cooling, constant baking, upgrading




After baking, it is necessary to cool down, pack and store.




Pour the finished tea out of the baking box and spread it out in a ventilated place to cool naturally. Naturally cooled, the effect is the best, and the fragrance is the most preserved. The cooling time should also be paid attention to, it should not be too long, it should be closed when it is cold, otherwise the moisture in the air will be inhaled, which will affect the fire effect. Do not use electric fans to dissipate heat for rapid cooling. In addition, to judge whether it is completely cooled, you must lightly touch it with your hands or face close to the tea, and do not touch it frequently with your hands.




The collection and preservation depends on the fire intensity. Light-fire baking can usually be stored for 2-3 months. It can be packaged in a vacuum bag and placed in a freezer to extend the shelf life. Medium heat and full heat are packed in vacuum bags, and generally can be stored for six months to one year.




If the fragrant Tieguanyin is to be preserved for many years, it must be re-baked frequently to maintain its quality, just like hot and cold rice. Under normal circumstances, it must be carried out once a year, and this must be combined with the specific conditions of the tea.


Article classification: 铁观音百科
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