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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
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一片铁观音茶叶,拓开万千百姓致富路

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Issuing time:2021-09-06 16:22

作为安溪县的支柱产业,铁观音茶业也是该县的重要富民产业,全县120万人口中有80%从事涉茶产业,农民年均纯收入有56%来自茶产业。




安溪是中国乌龙茶之乡,也是中国重要农业文化遗产地。安溪县委书记高向荣接受采访时表示:“安溪以茶为媒,持续发展壮大富民产业,加快茶产业转型升级,茶产业链条从‘一叶’向‘大业’转变,实现一、二、三产融合发展,带动茶农增收、茶企发展,助力乡村振兴。”






目前,安溪县拥有茶园面积60万亩,年产量6.2万吨,涉茶总产值191亿元,连续10年位列全国重点产茶县首位,安溪铁观音品牌价值连续五年位居中国茶叶类第一位。此外,安溪铁观音还入选首批中欧地理标志保护合作协议产品清单;安溪铁观音茶文化系统成功入选全球重要农业文化遗产预选名录。





生态厚植,成就一杯好茶铁观音


晒青、凉青、摇青、杀青、揉捻、初烘、包揉、烘干……每一泡安溪铁观音茶都要历经十道传统工序、三十六小时连续制作,被称为最精湛、最独特的制茶技艺。




近日,记者走进安溪县虎邱镇双都村,放眼望去,满山遍野都是翠绿的茶园,山坡上、沟壑间,层层叠叠地。首届安溪铁观音大师李金登从十五六岁开始就跟着父亲在村里学习制茶,几十年来日日与茶相伴,制作出来的茶叶品质独特,比如耐泡、味醇等。“一壶香茶,茶汤清澈,细饮慢呷,茶香里不仅有怡人的香气,更饱含着制茶人的艰辛与执着。”李金登说。




不过,在李金登看来,一泡好茶,除了精湛的制作工艺外,更重要的还是源于茶青的好品质。





如何提升茶青品质?近年来,安溪县推行“3+1”模式,为茶叶上好生态底色,提升茶青品质。安溪县农业农村局局长陈志明告诉记者,“3”即县域大生态、茶园小生态、土壤微生态,“1”即绿色生产技术推广,通过这四个层面立体推进,建成高标准生态茶园35万亩以上。




比如,开展茶叶有机肥替代化肥、茶园去化学农药和茶园喷灌、滴灌等。同时,还推广虫害防治等绿色防控新技术,推行“两留”(茶树留高、梯壁留草)、“两禁”(禁用“非准入”农药、禁用除草剂)、“两减”(减农药、减化肥),每年建成高标准生态茶园5万亩以上。




不仅如此,实施“生态提升”工程,推行“山长制”,持续推进茶山生态修复工程,每年实施茶山生态提升3万亩以上,治理茶园水土流失8000亩以上……




质量安全是茶叶的生命线。安溪县通过实施茶园信息化、数据化监管模式,(下转第三版) (上接第一版)构建“从茶园到茶杯”的质量安全可追溯体系。在位于安溪龙涓乡的举源茶叶专业合作社,记者随手拿起一盒茶叶,用手机扫描二维码,商品编号、茶园管理项目、采摘日期、上架时间和农残检测报告等等,立马显现。




“这样的农事记录,我们坚持好几年了。”举源茶叶专业合作社负责人刘金龙说,手机一扫,从茶园到茶杯,每一泡茶的“前世今生”一览无遗。




为了一杯好茶,安溪还制定推行《地理标志产品 安溪铁观音》等“四个标准体系”,还设立国家茶叶质量安全工程技术研究中心,合办福建农林大学安溪茶学院,打造产业创新引领阵地。



近年来,安溪大力弘扬工匠精神,在全国首开先河举办安溪铁观音大师赛,百万元重奖制茶大师,目前已选拔8位大师、26位名匠、近200名优秀制茶能手,并建立“传帮带”机制,使匠人精神得以传承。




安溪铁观音大师王清海说,县里通过打造“龙头企业+合作社+基地+茶农、家庭农场”的产地利益共同体,提高茶园管控比率,提升质量安全和组织化水平。据悉,目前,全县现有茶叶专业合作社1085个,家庭农场531家,茶园生产合作、质量联控比例达95%以上。




近年来,安溪每年随机抽检茶农、茶企的茶品样本2000多个,接受国家、省市茶叶监测抽检,合格率均达100%,茶叶出口连续14年通过输入国官方检测。




根据最新的评比结果,安溪铁观音以1426.86亿元位列区域品牌(地理标志产品)价值第一,连续第五年名列全国茶叶类区域品牌价值第一。华祥苑、八马等品牌茶企成为金砖国家领导人厦门会晤等一系列重大外交、经贸活动的茶叙用茶。





茶旅融合,从“一叶”向“大业”转型


这些年,安溪茶产业充分挖掘当地特色资源,发展乡村旅游,推动茶产业向二、三产延伸融合,实现从“单一、单层”的茶业生产经营,向“多元、立体”的全产业链转变。





山、水、茶、林、园一体化,绿线、水面、园貌、慢道、天际线……人之所至,移步皆景,处处是人与自然和谐相处的美妙手笔。




近年来,安溪在全国最早探索茶庄园业态,学习法国葡萄酒庄园经营模式,发展集生产、加工、休闲、旅游和文化展示等于一体的茶业综合体新业态,推动一二三产融合发展。




走进位于安溪县尚卿乡的国心绿谷茶庄园,记者放眼望去,只见群山环抱,云蒸霞蔚,层层茶园,青翠欲滴。这里有种茶、采茶、制茶体验区、品茗室、茶文化馆、茶艺表演区、农产品交易区、观光木屋、特色农家菜餐饮区等等,还有高空玻璃观景台、悬崖秋千、花岗岩滑道……




“每逢周末或节假日,我们这里人山人海,客房爆满,庄园收入持续增加,年接待游客20多万人次,许多游客表示来了就不想走、来过就忘不了。”国心绿谷茶庄园负责人黄清平兴奋地说,庄园已经成为网红打卡点。




泉州游客曾先生感慨地说:“在国心绿谷茶庄园里,可以喝到上等安溪铁观音、体验采茶制茶的乐趣,还可以看日出、茶园登山、茶艺比拼、休闲烧烤、轻松舞会等,休闲娱乐HIGH翻天。”




茶庄园也成为带动农民发展茶叶生产的引领者。位于安溪桃舟乡的添寿福地茶文化庄园就是一个集生产、加工、深加工、客商定制、休闲旅游等于一体的庄园。这个庄园带动周边2100多户农民建设绿色食品标准茶园万亩,从业农民每人平均年收入达3万元。




“自家的茶园也成了茶庄园建设的一部分。”对于村民吴秀春来说,随着茶庄园游的兴起,带动山茶油、土鸡鸭等农村土特产的销售,收入年年增加,生活如芝麻开花节节高。





如今,随着茶旅的不断发展,茶庄园已成为海内外游客的主题游目的地。以“茶庄园+”为开发模式,安溪目前已建成华祥苑、高建发、国心绿谷、添寿福地、中闽魏氏等22家茶庄园、茶业综合体,各类茶事体验载体、体验活动广受追捧,蓬勃发展。




云之下,岭之上。在云岭茶庄园,茶园还套种着樱花、桃树、梨树、桂花树等观光树种。每到花开时节,一树一树繁花似锦,映照着绿油油的茶园,为庄园平添几分诗意,吸引各地游客前来。




云岭茶业有限公司董事长陈加勇接受采访时说,庄园里的茶文化博物馆、制茶技艺体验中心、“茶香人家”农家乐、开茶节、铁观音大师赛……如今,云游大美茶乡,可听茶人说茶、看非遗技艺,寻名山佳茗、品茶香茶韵,尽享茶趣。




“安溪‘海丝茶源 茶旅圣地’刚被农业农村部评为中国美丽乡村休闲旅游行精品线路,我们将进一步打响这个文旅品牌,打造乌龙茶圣地,让‘茶庄园+’茶旅新模式辐射更广,让更多茶农共享一二三产融合发展的红利。”安溪县县长吴毓舟说。据统计,“茶庄园+”每年吸引消费者120万余人次,年旅游收入12亿元。

英语翻译

As the pillar industry of Anxi County, the tea industry is also an important industry for enriching people in the county. 80% of the county’s 1.2 million population are engaged in the tea industry, and 56% of the average annual net income of farmers comes from the tea industry.




Anxi is the hometown of oolong tea in China and an important agricultural and cultural heritage site in China. Gao Xiangrong, secretary of the Anxi County Party Committee, said in an interview: “Anxi uses tea as a medium to continuously develop and expand the rich people’s industry, accelerate the transformation and upgrading of the tea industry, and transform the tea industry chain from a “one leaf” to a “big industry” to achieve the integration of primary, secondary and tertiary industries. Development will drive the income of tea farmers, the development of tea enterprises, and the revitalization of the countryside."






At present, Anxi County has 600,000 acres of tea gardens, an annual output of 62,000 tons, and a total tea output value of 19.1 billion yuan. It has ranked first in the country's key tea-producing counties for 10 consecutive years, and the brand value of Anxi Tieguanyin has been ranked in the Chinese tea category for five consecutive years. The first one. In addition, Anxi Tieguanyin was also included in the first batch of products in the EU-China Geographical Indication Protection Cooperation Agreement; Anxi Tieguanyin Tea Culture System was successfully selected into the pre-selected list of important global agricultural cultural heritages.





Ecological thick planting makes a good cup of tea


Dry green, cool green, shake green, finish green, knead, bake, pack kneading, drying...Every brewing of Anxi Tieguanyin tea has to go through ten traditional processes and 36 hours of continuous production, which is called the most exquisite , The most unique tea making skills.




Recently, the reporter walked into Shuangdu Village, Huqiu Town, Anxi County. Looking around, the mountains and plains are full of verdant tea plantations. The first Anxi Tieguanyin Master Li Jindeng has been learning tea making with his father in the village since he was fifteen or sixteen. He has been with tea every day for decades, and the quality of the tea made is unique, such as resistance to foaming and mellow taste. "A pot of fragrant tea, the tea soup is clear, drink slowly, the tea fragrance not only has a pleasant aroma, but also full of the hardship and perseverance of the tea maker." Li Jindeng said.




However, in Li Jindeng's view, in addition to the exquisite craftsmanship of making a good tea, more importantly, it comes from the good quality of the tea.





How to improve the quality of tea green? In recent years, Anxi County has implemented the "3+1" model to improve the ecological background of tea and improve the quality of tea green. Chen Zhiming, director of the Agriculture and Rural Bureau of Anxi County, told reporters that "3" refers to the large ecology of the county, the small ecology of tea gardens, and the microecology of the soil, and "1" refers to the promotion of green production technology. Through these four levels, three-dimensional advancement has been made to build 350,000 high-standard ecological tea gardens. More than acres.




For example, the development of tea organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers, tea gardens to remove chemical pesticides, tea gardens sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation, etc. At the same time, it also promotes new green prevention and control technologies such as insect pest control. "(Reducing pesticides and reducing chemical fertilizers), build more than 50,000 mu of high-standard ecological tea gardens every year.




Not only that, the implementation of the "ecological improvement" project, the implementation of the "mountain leader system", and the continuous promotion of the tea mountain ecological restoration project, the implementation of the tea mountain ecological improvement of more than 30,000 mu each year, and the control of more than 8,000 mu of soil erosion in the tea garden...




Quality and safety are the lifeblood of tea. Anxi County has established a quality and safety traceability system from tea garden to teacup through the implementation of the tea garden informatization and data-based supervision model (third edition from below) (first edition from above). In the Juyuan Tea Professional Cooperative in Longjuan Township, Anxi, the reporter picked up a box of tea and scanned the QR code with a mobile phone, the product number, tea garden management items, picking date, shelf time and pesticide residue inspection report, etc., immediately appeared .




"We have maintained such agricultural records for several years." said Liu Jinlong, the person in charge of Juyuan Tea Professional Cooperative. With a mobile phone, from tea garden to tea cup, the "past and present" of every tea made can be seen at a glance.




For a good cup of tea, Anxi has also formulated and implemented "Four Standard Systems" such as "Geographical Indication Product Anxi Tieguanyin", established the National Engineering Research Center for Tea Quality and Safety, and co-organized the Anxi Tea College of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University to create a leading position for industrial innovation .



In recent years, Anxi has vigorously promoted the spirit of craftsmanship and held the Anxi Tieguanyin Master Competition for the first time in the country. The tea masters have been awarded a million yuan. At present, 8 masters, 26 famous craftsmen, and nearly 200 outstanding tea masters have been selected and established " The “passing and banding” mechanism allows the craftsman’s spirit to be passed on.




Anxi Tieguanyin Master Wang Qinghai said that the county has improved the management and control ratio of tea gardens, and improved the quality, safety and organization level by building a community of "leading enterprises + cooperatives + bases + tea farmers and family farms". It is reported that at present, there are 1085 professional tea cooperatives and 531 family farms in the county, and the ratio of tea garden production cooperation and quality joint control is over 95%.




In recent years, Anxi randomly inspects more than 2,000 tea samples from tea farmers and tea enterprises each year, and accepts national, provincial and municipal tea monitoring and sampling, and the pass rate has reached 100%. Tea exports have passed the official inspection of the importing country for 14 consecutive years.




According to the latest evaluation results, Anxi Tieguanyin ranked first in the value of regional brands (geographical indication products) with 142.686 billion yuan, and ranked first in the value of national tea regional brands for the fifth consecutive year. Brand tea companies such as Huaxiangyuan and Bama have become the tea used in a series of major diplomatic and economic and trade activities such as the meeting of the leaders of the BRICS countries in Xiamen.





Integration of the tea travel industry, transforming from "one leaf" to "great cause"


In recent years, Anxi tea industry has fully tapped local characteristic resources, developed rural tourism, and promoted the extension and integration of the tea industry into the secondary and tertiary industries, and realized the transformation from a "single, single-tier" tea industry production and operation to a "diversified and three-dimensional" entire industry. Chain shift.





The integration of mountains, water, tea, forests and gardens, green lines, water surfaces, landscapes, slow roads, skylines... wherever people are, they are all scenery, and everywhere is a wonderful handwriting of harmonious coexistence between man and nature.




In recent years, Anxi has been the first to explore the tea estate business in the country, learn from the French wine estate business model, develop a new business form of tea industry complex integrating production, processing, leisure, tourism and cultural display, and promote the development of the integration of primary, secondary and tertiary industries.




Walking into the Guoxin Green Valley Tea Estate in Shangqing Township, Anxi County, the reporter looked around and saw that the mountains were surrounded by clouds, steamed by clouds, and layers of tea gardens were green. There are tea planting, tea picking, tea making experience area, tea tasting room, tea culture hall, tea art performance area, agricultural product trading area, sightseeing wooden house, specialty farming food dining area, etc., as well as high-altitude glass observation deck, cliff swing, Granite slide...




"Every weekend or holiday, we are crowded with people here, the rooms are full, and the income of the estate continues to increase. It receives more than 200,000 tourists every year. Many tourists say they don't want to go when they come, and they will never forget them." Huang Qingping said excitedly that the manor has become an online celebrity check-in point.




Mr. Zeng, a tourist from Quanzhou, said with emotion: “In the Guoxin Green Valley Tea Manor, you can drink the finest Anxi Tieguanyin, experience the fun of tea-picking and making tea, you can also watch the sunrise, tea garden climbing, tea competitions, casual barbecues, and relaxing. Prom and so on, leisure and entertainment are HIGH."




Tea farms have also become a leader in driving farmers to develop tea production. Tianshoufudi Tea Culture Manor, located in Taozhou Township, Anxi, is a manor that integrates production, processing, deep processing, customer customization, and leisure travel. This manor has driven more than 2,100 farmers in the surrounding area to build 10,000 acres of green food standard tea gardens, and the average annual income of each farmer is 30,000 yuan.




"My own tea plantation has also become part of the construction of the tea estate." For villager Wu Xiuchun, with the rise of tea estate tours, the sales of rural local products such as camellia oil and native chickens and ducks have increased. The sesame blossoms are steadily high.





Nowadays, with the continuous development of the tea tour, the tea estate has become a theme travel destination for tourists from home and abroad. With the development model of "Tea Manor+", Anxi has built 22 tea estates and tea industry complexes, including Huaxiang Garden, Gao Jianfa, Guoxin Green Valley, Tianshou Fudi, and Zhongmin Weishi, as well as various types of tea experience carriers. Experience activities are widely sought after and flourish.




Below the clouds, above the ridge. In Yunling Tea Manor, the tea garden is also interplanted with tourist trees such as cherry blossoms, peach trees, pear trees, and osmanthus trees. When the flowers bloom, one tree and one tree blooms like a brocade, reflecting the green tea garden, adding a bit of poetry to the manor and attracting tourists from all over the world.




In an interview, Chen Jiayong, chairman of Yunling Tea Industry Co., Ltd., said that the tea culture museum in the manor, the experience center of tea making skills, the "tea fragrant family" farmhouse, the opening of the tea festival, the Tieguanyin master contest... Nowadays, Yunyou Damei Tea In the township, you can listen to tea people talking about tea, watching intangible cultural heritage techniques, looking for famous mountains and delicious tea, and enjoying the tea flavor.




"Anxi'Haisi Tea Source Tea Tourism Holy Land' has just been appraised by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs as a boutique route for leisure and tourism in China's beautiful countryside. We will further develop this cultural tourism brand, create a sacred place for oolong tea, and create a new model of'tea manor +'tea tourism. The radiation is wider, so that more tea farmers can share the dividends of the integrated development of primary, secondary and tertiary industries.” said Anxi County Magistrate Wu Yuzhou. According to statistics, "Tea Manor+" attracts more than 1.2 million consumers every year, and annual tourism income is 1.2 billion yuan.


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