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铁观音纯雅礼和

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乌龙茶色香韵味
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铁观音古早茶的味道

  1
Issuing time:2021-09-06 15:36

寻韵

 


一碗喉吻润


二碗破孤闷


三碗搜枯肠,惟有文字五千卷


四碗发轻汗,平生不平事,尽向毛孔散


五碗肌骨清


六碗通仙灵


七碗吃不得也,惟觉两腋习习清风生




爱喝茶的人,对于卢仝的七碗茶歌,相信都耳熟能详。以前读这首诗,觉得卢仝喝茶的感受有些夸张玄虚,是文人的诗意想象使然,而近年随着我对茶的体察逐渐精微之后,开始明白这是一种实实在在的生理现象,换句话说,这便是常为茶人所乐道的茶之“韵”,从一碗之后,至第七碗,韵无所不至,穿梭其中。




我对于茶“韵”的体悟,源于它所带给我的一种正能量,是品茶的过程所带给我的身心灵全方位的体验,尤其是那些沾染深山云雾气息的传统茶,茶性常是霸气有余,饮后身心剔透,内省清明。唐代药学家陈藏器曾在《本草拾遗》中说,“诸药为各病之药,茶为万病之药,”此中之说,应多指茶对“心病”的“药理”功效,苏东坡有一著名诗句,“何须魏帝一丸药,且尽卢仝七碗茶”,更是将饮茶之身心疗效推到极致。





在一次周末茶会上,我和师兄,还有另外几位茶友,结庐秋前,把言清谈,师兄是位极知茶之人,也是我学茶路上极有缘分的茶友之一,那日由师兄事茶,茶品是正味铁观音,一道下去有七泡,大伙就这样围坐一起,在师兄的带领之下,领悟了传说之中的“观音韵”,和卢仝七碗茶歌的表述如出一辙,唯一的遗憾是,这茶味不够厚重,有点轻薄。带着这样的遗憾,正值秋茶上市之际,我启动了回乡寻韵之旅。




古早味


   


“古早那时候……”小时候,奶奶讲故事总是这样展开,娓娓道来,如一位来自遥远的智者般的口吻,充满了对久远之前那些美好情怀的无尽缅怀和向往,并常教导我要学习古早人那些美好的品性与修养。“古早”在闽南语的语境里是一个褒义词,意思和古代相近,都是指久远之前,但比古代多了一分肯定的意味,带点美好、人情、质朴的感觉,尤指那些值得后人去传承的文化民俗,所以,听老一辈的人讲故事的时候,总会提到这个词语。




时下于家乡复兴的“古早茶”,便是对近乎被废弃的传统工艺的重新拾起,说到古早茶,那已经是童年的味道了,“蓝天、白云、小溪、雨林、水凝、暖阳”这些词语或许可以略微表达我对古早味的回忆,现今,只能在一些海拔较高的天然茶山上才能有这样的“古早味”了。




回家碰到著名茶文化专家李波韵老师,李老师是安溪茶文化“纯、雅、礼、和”的提出者,说到传统铁观音,李老师说现代人追逐商业利益,不尊重茶的遗传性,置铁观音于无韵之地,逆性者前行终不远矣。李老师认为传统工艺出来的古早茶才是遵循了茶的原性,韵中带香,香中有韵,是为铁观音的正统香气,幽兰香。席间说到古早茶的没落,李老师很激动,并笑称自己这样的行为没有茶人风范,让我不要向他学习。





与李老师同行者,安溪著名茶人王绪强王老师,却是用实实在在的行动在传承着传统工艺铁观音,王老师在我学茶路上给予过许多有价值的指导,公务员和商人的双重身份的王老师在我眼中却更酷似老文青的形象,热情好客,与人为善。此次回家,大多时间泡在王老师的茶舍里。




王老师茶学出身,毕业于福建农业大学,他的古早茶园分布在铁观音发源地、主产区西坪镇柏叶村,茶苗选择纯正的“红心歪尾桃”品种,采取生态茶园管理,由专业人员进行深耕培育,一年多次深翻、覆土,主要致力于传统工艺铁观音的传承。我上山看制茶师傅一家人制茶的历程,全程几乎手工,尤其做青部分,坚持四遍摇青、揉捻,很是用心。




制茶师傅同是茶学出身,与王老师是校友,常年深居山中,喝山泉水,吃有机蔬菜,喝古早茶,生活方式很健康,当时在山上,我喝了一道刚制作出来的古早茶,立即就晕了,茶的力道之霸气,估计一是和产区有关,二是估计和这里的山这里的水也有关,这也就是常人所讲的韵吧,西坪的茶韵之足一向为人所乐道。还记得当时我喝完古早茶,吃完茶师傅的农家菜,然后坐在山口吹风,那种雨林湿润的感觉扑鼻而来,很自然的味道。




老传统的铁观音除了坚持手工四遍摇青、揉捻,还要用木炭足火烘焙,正统的浓香型铁观音就是在传统工艺出来的清香型铁观音的基础上进行足火烘焙,但现在市面上大多采取电焙方式,最传统的方式是炭焙,这样出来的茶无论从口感上还是茶韵上,都无可挑剔,而且很养胃,很适合一些年龄较大的老茶客。所以,古早茶从工艺的传统深度来讲,又可细分为清香型与浓香型,浓香型又有电焙与炭焙之分,但如今经得起重摇青、重焙火的茶青并不多了。

Seeking rhyme

 


A bowl of throat kiss


Two bowls of broken loneliness


Three bowls of search for dry intestines, only five thousand volumes of text


Four bowls of light sweating, all the troubles of life, all to the pores


Five bowls of muscle bone cleansing


Six bowls of faeries


Seven bowls can’t be eaten, but I feel that the two armpits are acquainted with the breeze.




Those who love tea, I believe they are familiar with Lu Tong's seven bowls of tea songs. Reading this poem before, I felt that Lu Tong’s feelings of drinking tea were a bit exaggerated and mysterious, which was caused by the poetic imagination of literati. In recent years, as my experience of tea has gradually become more refined, I have begun to understand that this is a real physiological phenomenon. In other words, this is the "rhyme" of tea that is often liked by tea people. From the first bowl to the seventh bowl, the rhyme is omnipresent and shuttles through it.




My understanding of the "rhyme" of tea stems from the positive energy it brings to me. It is the all-round experience of my body, mind and soul brought by the process of tasting tea, especially those traditional teas that are tainted with the breath of clouds and mists in the deep mountains. The nature of tea is often more than domineering, after drinking, the body and mind are clear, and the introspection is clear. Tang Dynasty pharmacist Chen Zangqi once said in "Supplements to Materia Medica" that "all medicines are the medicine for every disease, and tea is the medicine for all diseases." In this context, it should refer to the "pharmacological" effect of tea on "heart disease". Su Dongpo has a famous poem, "Why do we need a pill for Wei Di, and do it with seven bowls of tea", which pushes the physical and mental effects of drinking tea to the extreme.





At a weekend tea party, my brother and I, as well as several other tea friends, had a clear talk before we met in the autumn. The brother is a person who knows tea very well, and is also one of the tea friends who are very destined to learn tea. The tea was served by the senior brother. The tea was Zhengwei Tieguanyin, and there were seven bubbles when they went down together. Everyone sat together like this. Under the leadership of the senior, they realized the legendary "Guanyin Rhyme", and Lu Tong's seven bowls of tea The expression of the song is exactly the same, the only regret is that the tea taste is not strong enough, a little light. With such regrets, when the autumn tea was on the market, I started a journey back to my hometown to find rhyme.




Ancient taste


   


"In the old days..." When I was a child, my grandmother always told stories like this, whispering, like a wise man from afar, full of endless memory and yearning for those beautiful feelings long ago, and she often taught I want to learn from the good qualities and cultivation of ancient people. "Guzao" is a commendatory word in the context of Hokkien. It has a meaning similar to ancient times. It refers to a long time ago, but it has a more positive meaning than ancient times. It has a feeling of beauty, humanity, and simplicity, especially Those cultural and folk customs that are worth inheriting from future generations, so when listening to stories from older generations, they always mention this term.




"Ancient early tea" revived in the hometown nowadays is the re-pick up of the traditional craftsmanship that has been almost abandoned. When it comes to ancient early tea, it is already the taste of childhood, "blue sky, white clouds, streams, rain forests, water condensation, The words "Nuanyang" may slightly express my memories of the ancient taste. Nowadays, such "ancient taste" can only be found on some natural tea hills at higher altitudes.




When I came home, I met the famous tea culture expert, Mr. Li Boyun. Mr. Li was the proponent of the “pure, elegant, courteous and harmonious” tea culture in Anxi. When it comes to the traditional Tieguanyin, Mr. Li said that modern people pursue commercial interests and do not respect the inheritance of tea. Sex, put Tieguanyin in a place where there is no rhyme, and those who are against sex will not go far. Teacher Li believes that the ancient early tea produced by traditional crafts follows the original nature of tea. It has a fragrance in the rhyme and a rhyme in the fragrance. It is the orthodox fragrance of Tieguanyin, the orchid fragrance. Speaking of the decline of ancient tea during the dinner, Mr. Li was very excited and said with a smile that his behavior was not like a tea person, and asked me not to learn from him.





Walking with Teacher Li, the famous tea master Wang Xuqiang in Anxi, Teacher Wang, is carrying on the traditional craft Tieguanyin with tangible actions. Teacher Wang has given me many valuable guidance on the way of learning tea, both civil servants and businessmen. The identity of Teacher Wang in my eyes is more like the image of Lao Wenqing, warm and hospitable, and kind to others. I went home this time and spent most of the time in Teacher Wang's tea house.




Teacher Wang was born in tea and graduated from Fujian Agricultural University. His ancient tea gardens are located in Baiye Village, Xiping Town, the birthplace of Tieguanyin and the main producing area. , Deeply cultivated and cultivated by professionals, deep plowing and covering soil many times a year, mainly dedicated to the inheritance of the traditional craft Tieguanyin. I went up to the mountain to watch the tea making process of the tea maker's family. The whole process was almost manual, especially the green part. I insisted on shaking and rolling four times with great care.




The tea maker is both a tea schooler and an alumnus with Teacher Wang. He lives deep in the mountains all the year round, drinking mountain spring water, eating organic vegetables, drinking ancient tea, and his lifestyle is very healthy. At the time, I drank a freshly made ancient Morning tea, I immediately dizzy. The strength of tea is probably related to the production area, and the other is related to the mountains and waters here. This is the rhyme of ordinary people, and the tea rhyme of Xiping is enough. Has always been liked by others. I still remember that I drank the ancient morning tea and ate the farmer’s dishes from the tea master, and then sat at the mountain pass to blow the air. The feeling of rainforest moist came to my nose, and it smelled very natural.




The old traditional Tieguanyin not only insists on shaking and twisting four times by hand, but also uses charcoal foot fire to bake. The orthodox fragrant Tieguanyin is based on the traditional craftsmanship of the fragrance type Tieguanyin for foot fire baking, but now Electric roasting is mostly adopted in the market. The most traditional method is charcoal roasting. The tea produced in this way is impeccable in terms of taste and tea rhyme, and it is very nourishing, which is very suitable for some older tea customers. Therefore, from the traditional depth of craftsmanship, ancient early teas can be subdivided into fragrant and aromatic types. The aromatic types are divided into electric roasting and charcoal roasting, but nowadays they can withstand heavy shaking and heavy roasting. There are not many tea greens anymore.


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