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铁观音茶园防寒防冻指南

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Issuing time:2021-09-06 13:53

对于铁观音茶园管理来说,一年之计在于冬。冬季茶园管理好了,来年就能实现优质高产增收。时下正值茶园冬季管理的关键时期,安溪茶人正抢抓时节,积极组织茶农做好茶园除草、翻挖等工作,掀起茶园管护热潮。




连日来,天气寒冷,安溪县农业农村局也发布了《茶园防寒防冻指南》,助力茶园冬季管理。






茶园管护掀起热潮



为了从源头上把好质量关,连日来,安溪茶人积极组织茶农做好茶园除草、翻挖等工作,掀起茶园管护热潮。



茶人正抢抓时节,掀起茶园管护热潮。




在芦田镇制茶大户林赐贵的茶园里,十几个工人正在有序地挥着锄头进行人工除草。“因为冬天这些草会盖住茶,我就请这些工人帮忙除掉,让茶叶吃到露水,明年长出来的茶叶会更厚重,做起来的质量比较好一些。”林赐贵告诉记者,他做的是原生态茶,所以人工成本高,每次除草都要请十几个工人,一次要除一个多月,一年需要除3—4次,而七八十亩的茶园一年只能制作出1000斤的毛茶。虽然人工成本高,但这样种出来的茶质量比较好,叶片更肥厚,水比较甘醇,回甘好,也更加耐泡。茶叶质量上来了,林赐贵的回头客也渐渐多了,六七年以来茶园投入的成本也在这两年回收了。




而在兴溪茶叶专业合作社的茶园里,社员们正利用割草机割收茶叶周边自然生长的野草,准备覆盖。该合作社有关负责人王文兴介绍,每年冬天都要做一次深翻,然后就要割草覆盖,覆盖就是为了做绿肥。这是为了明年的春茶质量打基础、增产量。无论是人工除草,还是机械化除草深耕,芦田镇的制茶大户、合作社都结合自身实际,选择恰当的冬季茶园管理耕作方式,从源头上为茶叶质量把关。






科学防冻安全过冬



这些天,随着冷空气的到来,安溪天寒地冻。如何在这种天气下做好防冻措施?




在祥华乡满园春色合作社,负责人詹宝福早早地准备好了草料、土方、农家肥,准备冬季管理茶园时使用。最近这些物料就提前派上了用场。“茶园排水也很关键”。




为了减轻冻害,有的茶叶专业合作社社员们通过及时摇雪、喷水洗霜等办法,清除树冠上的雪、冰和霜。茶农们告诉记者:“我们用稻草、杂草、茶园秋季修剪下的枝丫、地膜等覆盖新栽植的幼苗,做好地表覆盖工作。霜冻结束、气温回升后,我们还将及时剪除受冻部分,确保茶园安全过冬。”





茶园覆盖稻草、杂草,做好防冻措施。




据了解,为了让茶人们科学管理茶园,安溪县农业农村局近日也发布了《茶园防寒防冻指南》。指南提出:覆盖防冻,茶园覆盖稻草、杂草等,有条件的茶园可以覆盖地膜;培土防冻,茶园结合中耕客土,增加土层厚度,增强树体,提高土温,提高茶树防寒能力;排水防冻,如果寒潮伴随雨雪,应及时把茶园积水排净,防止土壤和根系结冰受冻。此外,寒流来临前切忌为茶树修剪,防止剪口冻伤,有条件的地方可采用遮阳网搭在离茶树丛面高30厘米以上处或采用塑料薄膜搭在离茶树丛面高50厘米以上处。






灭虫施肥两头不误



冬季的茶园管理,除了防冻外,还要注意灭虫和施肥,这样才能确保来年的茶叶有较高的品质。




安溪县农业农村局局长陈志明告诉记者,“如果是在茶叶采摘的季节,遇到霜冻天气,茶园会受灾减产;而如果是在冬季,情况则恰好相反,冬季茶园处于休养生息的阶段,霜冻会冻死茶树上的害虫和虫卵,有益于茶树生长。”安溪铁观音大师刘金龙说,越冬期间,是害虫、病菌抵抗性最弱的时期,结合茶园管理措施做好清园封园工作,可以收到事半功倍的效果。石硫合剂喷在植物体表后,与空气中的氧、水分、二氧化碳等接触,产生微细硫黄沉淀及少量的硫化氢,从而发挥杀菌、杀虫和杀螨作用,是很好的冬防措施。冬防的具体措施还包括其他几个方面。翻耕,结合秋末施基肥进行翻耕,可减少象甲类害虫的蛹和幼虫;清园,通过修剪,剪去茶丛下部的枯枝、纤弱枝、病虫枝;将茶园根际附近的落叶及表土清理至行间深埋,可有效防治叶病类和表土中越冬的害虫;封园,用石硫合剂晶体稀释200倍液(即0.3—0.5波美度)对茶园(整株茶树及周围土壤)进行喷雾,须注意喷湿喷透。




“冬季茶园还要注意深翻和科学施肥。”业内人士说,以前茶农在施肥时,习惯把肥料撒在茶园表面,容易造成肥料流失,不利于茶树吸收。同时,因为肥料浮于表面,茶树的根系为了吸收肥料,拼命往土壤表面生长,而不是深深地扎进土里,不利于茶树吸收土壤深处的元素,而且这样的茶树根系浅,茶树矮化。因此,冬季茶园管理时要深翻土壤,并在深翻的土壤里加入肥料。






茶树留高适度稀植



近几年,安溪不断推广茶树留高和适度稀植,促进茶树茁壮成长,这对茶树抗寒也起到了很大作用。




刘金龙就特别注重茶树留高和适度稀植。“别人狂种茶树,我偏狂挖茶树。”刘金龙尽量让茶树生长空间扩大——人家一亩茶园近千株茶树,他种两三百株,留出来的空间,则种下大豆、油菜,甚至还有花生等农作物。“我种豆不得豆,得茶。”这些伴生植物,对于他的茶园来说,不仅仅是“好看”。首先,它们可以作为有机绿肥使用;其次,生物多样化后,茶树病虫害也减少了。这些伴生植物不仅“替”茶树让害虫吃,还提供害虫天敌的栖息地。




留高的茶树抗寒能力更强




刘金龙认为,茶树留高也非常重要。他把茶树留到一米多高,这于茶树根系、水土保护都有着积极的作用。稀植留高,茶草共生,改锄草为剪草,杂草覆盖茶园,是天然的绿肥,可增加土壤有机质腐殖质。“安溪人一直在创新,我们的茶园管理也一直在创新,而且是走在前头!”刘金龙表示,茶园种植管理的全面改造和提升,才是他眼中的安溪铁观音乃至整个茶行业最根本的地方。




业内人士说,从上个世纪90年代开始,安溪一些茶园实施密植,造成茶树矮化,不少茶树只有30厘米。近几年,安溪县政府部门引导茶农在适度稀植的基础上修剪、留养,将茶树高度增加到70厘米,同时扩大树冠。目前,已取得较好成效。



For the management of tea gardens, the year's plan lies in winter. If the tea garden is well managed in winter, it will be possible to achieve high-quality, high-yield and increased income in the coming year. Nowadays, it is a critical period for the management of tea gardens in winter. Anxi tea people are rushing to catch the season and actively organize tea farmers to do well in weeding and digging tea gardens, setting off an upsurge in tea garden management and protection.




In the past few days, the weather has been cold. Anxi County Agriculture and Rural Bureau has also issued the "Guidelines for Preventing Cold and Freezing of Tea Gardens" to help the management of tea gardens in winter.






Tea garden management and protection set off an upsurge



In order to control the quality from the source, Anxi tea people have actively organized tea farmers to do weeding and digging of tea gardens in the past few days, setting off an upsurge in the management and protection of tea gardens.



The tea people are grabbing the season and setting off an upsurge in the management and protection of tea gardens.




In the tea garden of Lin Cigui, a big tea maker in Lutian Town, more than a dozen workers are orderly waving their hoes to manually weed the weeds. "Because these grasses will cover the tea in winter, I asked these workers to help remove them so that the tea will eat the dew. The tea that grows next year will be heavier and the quality of the tea will be better." Lin Cigui told reporters that he did it. It is the original ecological tea, so the labor cost is high. A dozen workers are required to weed each time, and it takes more than a month to remove it. It needs to remove 3-4 times a year, while the 70-80 acres of tea garden can only produce it a year. 1000 catties of Maocha. Although the labor cost is high, the quality of the tea planted in this way is better, the leaves are thicker, the water is more mellow, the sweetness is better, and it is more resistant to foaming. The quality of tea has improved, and Lin Cigui's repeat customers have gradually increased. The cost of tea plantation since six or seven years has also been recovered in the past two years.




In the tea garden of the Xingxi Tea Professional Cooperative, members are using lawn mowers to harvest the weeds that grow naturally around the tea and prepare to cover them. Wang Wenxing, the relevant person in charge of the cooperative, said that every winter, a deep turn is required, and then the grass must be cut to cover. The cover is used to make green manure. This is to lay a foundation for the quality of spring tea next year and increase production. Whether it is manual weeding or mechanized weeding and deep ploughing, the major tea producers and cooperatives in Lutian Town choose their own actual conditions to choose the appropriate winter tea garden management and farming methods to control the quality of tea from the source.






Scientifically prevent freezing and survive the winter safely



These days, with the arrival of cold air, Anxi's sky is freezing cold. How to take anti-freezing measures in this kind of weather?




At the Manyuan Spring Cooperative in Xianghua Township, the person in charge, Zhan Baofu, prepared forage, earthwork, and farmyard manure early for use when managing the tea garden in winter. Recently, these materials have come in handy in advance. "The drainage of tea gardens is also critical."




In order to reduce freezing damage, some members of tea cooperatives remove snow, ice and frost from the tree canopy by shaking the snow and spraying water to wash the frost in time. Tea farmers told reporters: “We will cover the newly planted seedlings with straw, weeds, the branches pruned in the autumn of the tea garden, and mulch to cover the ground. After the frost is over and the temperature rises, we will also cut off the frozen parts in time. To ensure the safety of the tea garden through the winter."





Cover the tea garden with straw and weeds to prevent freezing.




It is understood that, in order to allow tea people to manage tea gardens scientifically, Anxi County Agriculture and Rural Affairs Bureau recently issued the "Guidelines for Preventing Cold and Freezing Tea Gardens." The guide proposes: mulch to prevent freezing, tea gardens to cover straws, weeds, etc., tea gardens with conditions can be covered with mulch; to cultivate soil to prevent freezing, tea gardens are combined with cultivator soil to increase the thickness of the soil layer, strengthen the tree body, increase the soil temperature, and improve the cold resistance of tea trees; drainage; To prevent freezing, if the cold wave is accompanied by rain and snow, the water in the tea garden should be drained in time to prevent the soil and roots from freezing and freezing. In addition, do not pruning tea trees before the cold current to prevent frostbite. Where conditions permit, use sunshade nets at a height of 30 cm or more from the surface of the tea bushes or plastic film at a height of 50 cm or more from the surface of the tea bushes.






Exterminating insects and fertilizing both ends



In winter tea garden management, in addition to anti-freezing, we must also pay attention to insecticide and fertilization, so as to ensure that the tea in the coming year will have a higher quality.




Chen Zhiming, director of the Agriculture and Rural Bureau of Anxi County, told reporters, “If it is during the tea picking season and encounters frost, the tea garden will suffer damage and reduce production; if it is in winter, the situation will be exactly the opposite. The pests and eggs on dead tea trees are beneficial to the growth of tea trees." said Anxi Tieguanyin master Liu Jinlong. The wintering period is the period when the resistance to pests and germs is weakest. Combining the management measures of the tea garden, the work of clearing the garden and closing the garden can be harvested. Get a multiplier effect with half the effort. Lime-sulfur mixture is sprayed on the surface of plants, and it comes into contact with oxygen, moisture, carbon dioxide, etc. in the air to produce fine sulfur deposits and a small amount of hydrogen sulfide, so as to play the role of sterilization, insecticide and acaricide. It is a good winter control measure . The specific measures for winter defense also include several other aspects. Plowing, combined with the application of basal fertilizer in late autumn, can reduce the pupae and larvae of weevil pests; clear the garden, through pruning, cut off the dead branches, delicate branches, diseased branches in the lower part of the tea bush; The fallen leaves and topsoil are cleaned to deep burial between rows, which can effectively control leaf diseases and overwintering pests in the topsoil; close the garden, dilute the 200 times solution (ie 0.3-0.5 Baume degree) with lime sulfur mixture crystal to treat the tea garden (whole tea tree) And the surrounding soil).




"In winter tea gardens should also pay attention to deep plowing and scientific fertilization." Insiders said that in the past, tea farmers used to sprinkle fertilizer on the surface of the tea garden when fertilizing, which easily caused fertilizer loss and was not conducive to tea plant absorption. At the same time, because the fertilizer floats on the surface, the root system of tea trees desperately grows to the surface of the soil in order to absorb the fertilizer, rather than digging deep into the soil, which is not conducive to the tea tree absorbing the elements in the deep soil. Moreover, the root system of such tea trees is shallow and the tea trees are short. change. Therefore, during the management of tea gardens in winter, the soil should be deep-turned, and fertilizer should be added to the deep-turned soil.






Keep tea trees high and moderately sparsely planted



In recent years, Anxi has continued to promote tea trees to stay tall and moderately sparsely planted to promote the thriving growth of tea trees, which has also played a great role in the cold resistance of tea trees.




Liu Jinlong pays special attention to keeping tea trees high and moderately sparsely planted. "Others are madly planting tea trees, I am madly digging tea trees." Liu Jinlong tried his best to expand the growth space of tea trees-he planted two or three hundred tea trees in an acre of tea garden, and he planted soybeans and rapeseed in the space left. There are even crops such as peanuts. "I can't grow beans, but I get tea." For his tea garden, these companion plants are more than just "good-looking". Firstly, they can be used as organic green manure; secondly, after biological diversification, tea plant diseases and insect pests are also reduced. These companion plants not only "replace" tea trees for pests to eat, but also provide habitat for natural enemies of pests.




Stay tall tea trees are more resistant to cold




Liu Jinlong believes that keeping tea trees tall is also very important. He kept the tea tree more than one meter high, which has a positive effect on the root system of the tea tree and the protection of water and soil. Sparse planting and staying high, tea and grass symbiosis, weeding is changed to cutting grass, weeds cover the tea garden, it is a natural green manure, which can increase soil organic matter and humus. "Anxi people have been innovating, and our tea garden management has been innovating, and we are at the forefront!" Liu Jinlong said that the overall transformation and improvement of tea garden planting management is what he sees as the most fundamental of Anxi Tieguanyin and the entire tea industry. place.




Industry insiders say that since the 1990s, some tea gardens in Anxi have implemented dense planting, resulting in dwarfing of tea trees, many of which are only 30 cm long. In recent years, the Anxi County government has guided tea farmers to prun and keep on the basis of moderately sparse planting, increase the height of tea trees to 70 cm, and expand the canopy at the same time. So far, good results have been achieved.


Article classification: 铁观音
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