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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

一片铁观音茶叶书写茶乡巨变

  1
Issuing time:2022-05-10 14:11

暮春时节农事忙,又是一年铁观音春茶香。在茶乡安溪,垄垄茶树阡陌纵横,畦畦茶田满目葱翠。




相对湿度80%以上,千米高山近3000座……得天独厚的自然条件,使安溪铁观音“一出生”就赢在了起跑线上,素有“安溪铁观音 香韵最耐寻”之誉。




2017年,获“农产品地理标志登记”;2020年,入选全球重要农业文化遗产预选名录;2021年,连续六年名列全国茶叶类区域品牌价值第一……一个个成色十足的荣誉彰显着安溪铁观音千年茗品的价值和尊严。




茶山还是那座茶山,安溪人对茶的理解和追求早已不同。时值春茶采摘季,我们来到安溪,一探安溪铁观音品牌的发展“密码”。





内练品质保生态



品质是品牌的生命线。围绕茶园生态,安溪对茶叶主产区、核心产区实施最严格的生态保护,为品牌发展涂好生态底色。




“在茶园中套种大豆、花生等豆科作物以及油菜花,可以作为茶园的绿肥,大大提升茶叶产量与品质。”走进龙涓乡一处生态茶园,林中有茶、茶中有林的生态画卷随处可见。茶园负责人刘金龙表示,茶园里的生物多样性,还能使生态系统自然调控发挥作用,茶树上的病虫害减少30%以上。




要想茶叶好,先得生态好。在茶园小生态上,安溪推广“有机肥+配方肥”“水肥一体化”等模式,实施生态修复和农艺改良,提高茶园生态系统稳定性和茶叶品质。同时,推广绿色防控新技术,每年建成高标准生态茶园5万亩以上。




茶园小环境优化了,大环境也要“绿”起来。在全域生态上,安溪县实施茶叶主体功能区规划,探索茶叶产区分级管理,落实“山长制”。每年实施造林和林分改造2万亩以上,实施茶山生态提升3万亩以上。




为了将质量观念写进茶叶基因,前不久,“安溪铁观音一号”卫星成功发射。“卫星具有高分辨率、高集成度和智能化等特点,能够从高空轨道进行茶树长势和病虫害检测,对茶树周期进行质量溯源。”安溪县有关负责人自豪地表示,这是我国第一颗以茶叶品牌冠名的遥感卫星,将为茶园信息化、数据化建设插上“翅膀”。





传承匠心育人才



晒青、晾青、摇青、杀青、揉捻、初烘、包揉、复烘、复包揉、烘干……每一泡铁观音都要经历10道传统工序、36小时制作,才能醇厚甘鲜、齿颊留香。




用心做茶是安溪茶人一直以来的坚守,讲好安溪茶故事则是时代的新要求。区别于传统斗茶赛,安溪铁观音大师赛举办了四届,不仅在制茶、评茶等环节上的标准难度不减,还将讲茶、答题、茶园管理纳入赛事评选过程,开创全国茶叶赛事先河。大师赛也成了热爱安溪铁观音的茶农茶友们津津乐道的文旅活动。




在当地茶人看来,大师赛不仅关乎输赢之争,更重要的是制茶技艺的切磋、匠心精神的传承。在大师赛的引导下,安溪各乡镇的制茶工艺在传统之上求进创新,在保留传统工艺的同时糅合新消费趋势和理念,茶产业“攒齐”了农文旅三张名片,将全球重要农业文化遗产预选名录顺势纳入怀中。




技艺和文化的传承,是农业品牌最大的禀赋。如何使新一代茶人掌握传统制茶技艺,实现代代相传?安溪的实践表明,关键是念好人才“育”字诀。




2012年,安溪县政府与福建农林大学合作建成福建农林大学安溪茶学院,学院以茶产业链为主线,实现涉茶科研、人才培养方面的优势与中国乌龙茶之乡的地位强强结合,培养了一大批集产、学、研为一体的茶产业适用人才。




融合发展强产业



茶产业见证了安溪人的致富梦。作为曾经福建省最大的国家扶贫开发重点县,依靠茶产业,安溪实现了由贫困摘帽到基本小康,再到全国百强县的三大历史跨越。




目前,安溪现有茶园面积60万亩,茶叶年产量6.2万吨,80%人口从事涉茶产业,茶产业收入一直占到安溪农民人均纯收入的56%左右。依靠这一民生产业、支柱产业持续助农增收,是安溪突围破困的动力,也是一直以来努力的方向。




2016年起,安溪以茶庄园为基本形态,率先引进葡萄酒庄园经营模式,发展集生产、加工、休闲、旅游和文化展示等于一体的茶业综合体新业态,推动一二三产融合发展。




“在庄园里不仅可以采茶,还能在庄园的茶技术研究中心体验茶叶制作过程,定制专属茶品,真是不虚此行!”在安溪县龙涓乡珠塔村,游客们对村景茶香赞不绝口,独特的制茶体验也为茶乡之行增添不少色彩。




庄园建起来,村民也跟着富起来。“自家的茶园也成了茶庄园建设的一部分,山茶油、土鸡鸭等农村土特产深受游客喜爱,收入年年增加。”村民吴大姐脸上笑开了花。




一业兴则百业兴。随着茶产业的发展,产业链不断延伸,茶文化旅游、茶叶包装、茶叶机械、茶叶食品、交通运输业、物流业等快速发展。几年来,安溪已先后研制出罐装茶水、保健茶、速溶茶、奶茶、桂花乌龙、茶叶深加工提取物等系列茶叶深加工产品。2021年,安溪全县涉茶总产值已达280亿元。




塑造形象护品牌



安溪铁观音声名鹊起,品牌冒用也随之而来,严重损害了消费者对安溪铁观音的品牌信赖度。为此,安溪从健全质量安全追溯体系出发,建立标准,维权打假,绝不让劣币驱逐良币。





在举源茶叶专业合作社内,笔者随手拿起一盒茶叶,用手机扫描上面的二维码,商品编号、采摘日期、上架时间、茶园管理项目、农残检测报告等信息立马呈现。近年来,安溪构建“从茶园到茶杯”的质量安全全程追溯体系,打造“优质、健康、安全”的放心茶。




商标是品牌的一道保护线。安溪通过完善地理标志证明商标的准入使用,推动品牌保护进入了“区域公共品牌+安溪铁观音证明商标”的用标管理新阶段。




截至2021年12月,国内45类产品已全部注册成功“铁观音”商品商标。同时,安溪也在加强商标的国际延伸注册和防御注册方面发力,已在欧盟(27个国家)、俄罗斯、马来西亚、沙特、日本等46个国家和地区成功注册“安溪铁观音”商标。




此外,安溪还先后出台了《安溪铁观音农产品地理标志使用管理办法》等管理办法和规定,对准用企业生产初制、精制加工、销售流通等环节实行全方位动态监管,一旦发现质量抽检不合格或者采购其他茶冒充安溪铁观音,立即吊销地理标志证明商标准用资格。




“我们还聘请律师团队网上打假,借助外力,保护农产品地理标志,打击各种假冒伪劣行为。”安溪县农业农村局相关负责人表示,安溪建立了农产品地理标志打假维权队伍,与各地的茶叶经销商联合组成品牌保护监测网络,维护安溪铁观音区域公用品牌的美誉度。

The late spring season is busy with farming, and it is another year of spring tea fragrance. In Anxi, a tea town, there are ridges and ridges of tea trees, and tea fields are full of lush greenery.




The relative humidity is more than 80%, and there are nearly 3,000 mountains 1000 meters high... The unique natural conditions make Anxi Tieguanyin win at the starting line "as soon as it was born", and it is known as "Anxi Tieguanyin has the most lasting fragrance".




In 2017, it was awarded the "Registration of Geographical Indications of Agricultural Products"; in 2020, it was selected into the preliminary list of important global agricultural cultural heritage; in 2021, it ranked first in the national tea regional brand value for six consecutive years. The value and dignity of Tieguanyin Millennium Tea.




The tea mountain is still the same tea mountain, and the Anxi people's understanding and pursuit of tea have long been different. During the spring tea picking season, we came to Anxi to explore the "code" of the development of Anxi Tieguanyin brand.





Internal training quality assurance ecology



Quality is the lifeline of a brand. Focusing on the ecology of tea gardens, Anxi implements the strictest ecological protection for the main tea production areas and core production areas, and paints a good ecological background for the brand development.




"Interplanting soybeans, peanuts and other leguminous crops and rape flowers in tea gardens can be used as green manure for tea gardens, greatly improving the yield and quality of tea." Walking into an ecological tea garden in Longjuan Township, there are tea in the forest and forest in the tea. Ecological pictures can be seen everywhere. Liu Jinlong, the person in charge of the tea garden, said that the biodiversity in the tea garden can also play a role in the natural regulation of the ecosystem, reducing the pests and diseases on the tea trees by more than 30%.




If you want tea to be good, you must first have a good ecology. In the small ecology of tea gardens, Anxi promotes models such as "organic fertilizer + formula fertilizer" and "integration of water and fertilizer", implements ecological restoration and agronomic improvement, and improves the stability of the tea garden ecosystem and the quality of tea leaves. At the same time, promote new green prevention and control technologies, and build more than 50,000 mu of high-standard ecological tea gardens every year.




The small environment of the tea garden has been optimized, and the large environment must also be "green". In terms of global ecology, Anxi County implements the planning of tea main functional areas, explores the hierarchical management of tea production areas, and implements the "mountain chief system". Every year, more than 20,000 mu of afforestation and forest stand transformation will be implemented, and more than 30,000 mu of ecological improvement in Chashan will be implemented.




In order to write the concept of quality into the tea gene, not long ago, the "Anxi Tieguanyin-1" satellite was successfully launched. "The satellite has the characteristics of high resolution, high integration and intelligence. It can detect the growth of tea trees and pests and diseases from high-altitude orbits, and trace the quality of the tea tree cycle." The person in charge of Anxi County proudly said that this is the first satellite in my country. The remote sensing satellite named after the tea brand will add "wings" to the informatization and data construction of tea gardens.





Inheriting ingenuity and cultivating talents



Drying, drying, shaking, fixing, rolling, primary baking, wrapping, re-baking, wrapping, drying... Each bubble of Tieguanyin has to go through 10 traditional processes and 36 hours of production in order to be mellow and sweet. Fresh and fragrant.




Making tea with heart is what Anxi tea people have always insisted on, and telling the story of Anxi tea well is a new requirement of the times. Different from the traditional tea fighting competition, the Anxi Tieguanyin Masters Competition has been held for four times. Not only the standard difficulty of tea making and tea evaluation is not reduced, but also tea talk, answering questions, and tea garden management are included in the competition selection process, creating a national tea A first-of-its-kind competition. The masters competition has also become a cultural and tourism activity that tea farmers and tea lovers who love Anxi Tieguanyin talk about with relish.




In the eyes of local tea people, the Masters is not only about winning or losing, but more importantly, the competition of tea-making skills and the inheritance of ingenuity. Under the guidance of the masters competition, the tea-making craftsmanship in the towns and villages in Anxi seeks to improve and innovate on the basis of tradition. While retaining traditional craftsmanship, it incorporates new consumption trends and concepts. The pre-selection list of global important agricultural cultural heritage is taken into the arms.




The inheritance of skills and culture is the biggest endowment of agricultural brands. How to enable the new generation of tea people to master the traditional tea-making skills and pass it on from generation to generation? Anxi's practice shows that the key is to read the "education" of talents well.




In 2012, the Anxi County Government and Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University cooperated to build the Anxi Tea College of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University. The college takes the tea industry chain as the main line and realizes the advantages of tea-related scientific research and personnel training and the status of the hometown of oolong tea in China. A large number of talents suitable for the tea industry integrating production, learning and research.




Integrate and develop strong industries



The tea industry has witnessed Anxi people's dream of getting rich. As the largest national poverty alleviation and development key county in Fujian Province, relying on the tea industry, Anxi has achieved three major historical leaps from poverty removal to basic well-off, and then to the top 100 counties in the country.




At present, Anxi has an area of 600,000 mu of tea gardens, with an annual output of 62,000 tons of tea. 80% of the population is engaged in the tea-related industry, and the income of the tea industry has always accounted for about 56% of the per capita net income of farmers in Anxi. Relying on this private industry and pillar industry to continue to help farmers and increase their income is the driving force for Anxi to break through the siege and the direction of its efforts.




Since 2016, Anxi has taken the tea manor as its basic form, and took the lead in introducing the wine manor business model, developing a new format of tea industry complex integrating production, processing, leisure, tourism and cultural display, and promoting the integrated development of primary, secondary and tertiary industries.




"Not only can you pick tea in the manor, but you can also experience the tea making process in the tea technology research center of the manor, and customize exclusive tea products. It's a worthwhile trip!" In Zhuta Village, Longjuan Township, Anxi County, tourists were impressed by the village scene. The tea fragrance is full of praise, and the unique tea making experience also adds a lot of color to the trip to the tea village.




The manor was built, and the villagers also became rich. "My own tea garden has also become a part of the construction of the tea manor. The rural native products such as camellia oil, chicken and duck are very popular among tourists, and their income is increasing every year." Villager Sister Wu has a smile on her face.




One industry is prosperous, and all industries are prosperous. With the development of the tea industry, the industrial chain continues to expand, and the rapid development of tea culture tourism, tea packaging, tea machinery, tea food, transportation, and logistics. Over the past few years, Anxi has successively developed a series of tea deep-processing products such as canned tea, health tea, instant tea, milk tea, sweet-scented osmanthus oolong, and tea deep-processing extracts. In 2021, the total tea-related output value of Anxi County has reached 28 billion yuan.




Build image and protect brand



Anxi Tieguanyin became famous, and brand fraud followed, which seriously damaged consumers' brand trust in Anxi Tieguanyin. To this end, Anxi started from a sound quality and safety traceability system, established standards, safeguarded rights and cracked down on counterfeiting, and never let bad money drive out good money.





In the Juyuan Tea Professional Cooperative, the author picked up a box of tea and scanned the QR code on it with a mobile phone. Information such as the product number, picking date, shelf time, tea garden management items, and pesticide residue testing reports were immediately displayed. In recent years, Anxi has built a quality and safety traceability system from the tea garden to the cup, and created a "high-quality, healthy and safe" tea.




A trademark is a line of protection for a brand. By improving the access and use of geographical indication certification marks, Anxi has promoted brand protection and entered a new stage of standard management of "regional public brand + Anxi Tieguanyin certification mark".




As of December 2021, all 45 categories of domestic products have been successfully registered as the "Tieguanyin" trademark. At the same time, Anxi is also making efforts to strengthen the international extension registration and defense registration of trademarks, and has successfully registered the trademark "Anxi Tieguanyin" in 46 countries and regions including the European Union (27 countries), Russia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Japan.




In addition, Anxi has also successively issued administrative measures and regulations such as the "Anxi Tieguanyin Agricultural Product Geographical Indication Management Measures" and other management measures and regulations, and implements all-round dynamic supervision on the initial production, refined processing, sales and circulation of application enterprises. Qualified or purchased other tea pretending to be Anxi Tieguanyin, immediately revoked the qualification of the GI certifier standard.




"We also hired a team of lawyers to crack down on counterfeiting online, and with the help of external forces, protect the geographical indications of agricultural products and combat all kinds of counterfeit and shoddy acts." The relevant person in charge of the Agriculture and Rural Affairs Bureau of Anxi County said that Anxi has established a team to combat counterfeiting and rights protection of geographical indications of agricultural products, and cooperate with tea distributors in various places. A brand protection monitoring network has been formed by business partners to maintain the reputation of the public brand in Anxi Tieguanyin area.


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