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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
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“大红袍、正山小种、金骏眉这三款茶,哪个会更高档些,送礼时更能拿得出手?”

  1
Issuing time:2022-04-28 10:31

“大红袍、正山小种、金骏眉这三款茶,哪个会更高档些,送礼时更能拿得出手?”


很显然,这是典型的新人提问。


在我们眼里,不同茶叶之间,只有风味差别,并没有高档与否之分。


再者,何为高档?这亦是个仁者见仁,智者见智的问题。


有人觉得,牌子大的茶就是高档。


有人认为,懂不懂茶无所谓,茶叶包装看着高档就行。


也有人将名气等同为高档,觉得名头越响的茶,就越高档。


最后还有人觉得,只有价格贵的茶,才能称得上高档……


如何判断茶叶品质,可从干茶、香气、滋味、韵味等方面,实打实的进行分辨。


但提到如何判断茶叶高档与否,这个问题本身就牵扯到不少主观内容,没有标准答案。


再说了,大红袍、正山小种、以及金骏眉这三个选项之间,处处充满着不同。


就以大红袍为例,它明明是知名的乌龙茶代表,但因为名字里带有一个“红”字,经常会被新手误解,认为它是红茶。


就像昨天看到的留言,“大红袍是不是和正山小种一样,都算红茶的一种。”


不不不,大红袍和正山小种之间,差别可远着呢!






《2》


一、分类不同。


正山小种属红茶,是知名的世界红茶鼻祖。


据说红茶的诞生,来源自一场鲜叶杀青不及时地“无心插柳”。后来,因为桐木当地平均海拔高,山高林密,小气候温润偏潮湿。


制茶时,为了达到更好的干燥效果,当地茶农借鉴了武夷山本地烟熏食品保存的方式(熏鹅、熏豆腐、熏笋干等),在制茶时加入烟熏工艺。


燃烧马尾松,利用松烟进行烟熏。


使得产出来的正山小种,具有典型的松烟香、桂圆汤的风味。


当然,现在的正山小种按照烟熏得有无,分烟小种和无烟小种。后者并不强调松烟香,以桂圆香、花蜜香更为典型。


而大红袍的分类,属于乌龙茶,产地也是武夷山。和武夷肉桂、武夷水仙等是一家,统统属于武夷岩茶。


在福建本省的乌龙茶体系里,流传着这样的说法——北有红袍,南有观音。


即,闽北乌龙茶里有大红袍,闽南乌龙茶里有铁观音。


考虑到大红袍的高人气、高知名度、高美誉度,在很长一段时间以来,大红袍都是岩茶对外宣传的金字招牌。


与此同时,也是武夷岩茶里的重磅茶王!






《3》


第二,产地不同


正山小种和大红袍,虽然都是武夷茶叶的知名代表,但它们的核心产区不同。


武夷红茶里,正山小种的“正山”二字,有强调产区范围限制,以桐木一带若干公里范围内为核心产区。


超过这个范围的小种红茶,则不能称为正山小种,只能归入外山小种。


桐木一带与武夷山国家级自然保护区的地界范围高度重合,当地的生态环境管理严格。


外来车辆要是没有提前报备,就没法开车入内。


即便当地世代生活于此的茶农,按照保护区的管理要求,也不得随意毁林开荒,大面积种茶。


和其它茶产区相比,桐木当地少有成片、连绵起伏的茶山,茶树大多种在原先的老茶地里,分布相对零散。


随手一拍,图片背景里时常能看到具有当地特色的松林、竹林,生态好极了。


放眼整个茶圈,能从自然保护区里产出来的茶叶,寥寥几无。


有了这么好的生态为底牌,当地的正山小种只要工艺别太糟糕,品质就肯定不会差。






而大红袍的核心产区,以正岩景区一带为核心。


因为,岩茶里素来有“岩岩有茶,非岩不茶”的说法。


和其它地方不同,正岩景区一带属于典型的丹霞地貌,拥有较多风化岩(丹岩)的存在。


而在风化等自然作用影响下,从这些风化岩身上能剥落出含有特定养分的风化岩碎屑。能使得正岩核心地带的山场土壤,养分高,疏松透气,特别适合茶树生长。


所产出来的正岩茶,还能拥有独一无二的“岩韵”特征,茶汤醇厚饱满,汤水咽下时能感受到明显的骨鲠感,品质突出,风姿迥然。


换做了非正岩所产的茶,无法实现这样的专属风味特点!






《4》


三、工艺不同。


还记得去年回答过一个问题。


当时有茶友问,正山小种在喝之前是不是要像岩茶那样,等褪火后再去喝?


当然不,红茶的加工里又没有焙火,又怎会需要褪火呢?


正山小种的加工,大方向上有萎凋、揉捻、发酵、干燥等步骤。


但按照烟熏得有无,分有烟熏/无烟熏两种做法。


值得一提的是,和茶圈内人云亦云的红茶“红叶红汤”有所不同。正山小种作为红茶鼻祖,它的发酵程度远达不到“红汤”的程度。


茶汤橙黄,透亮清澈,才是正山小种的常见汤色。


如果发酵程度过高,茶红素、茶褐素大量生成,导致汤色暗红偏暗,反而有损品质。


再说回到前文,对正山小种里的“烟小种”而言,它仅仅是经历了烟熏。新茶加工出来后,仅需等待烟小种的浓烈烟熏风味稍显平缓,即可适饮。


正山小种在烟熏时,茶叶与“烟”接触并不是与“火”接触,谈不上褪火一说。

"Which one of the three types of tea, Dahongpao, Zhengshan Xiaochong, and Jin Junmei, is more high-end and can be used as a gift?"


Obviously, this is a typical newbie question.


In our eyes, there is only a difference in flavor between different tea leaves, and there is no distinction between high-end or not.


Furthermore, what is high-end? This is also a question of the benevolent seeing benevolence and the wise seeing wisdom.


Some people think that tea with a big brand is high-end.


Some people think that it doesn't matter whether you know tea or not, as long as the tea packaging looks high-end.


Some people equate fame with high-end, and feel that the more famous the tea, the more high-end.


Finally, some people think that only expensive tea can be called high-end...


How to judge the quality of tea leaves can be distinguished from the aspects of dry tea, aroma, taste, charm, etc.


But when it comes to how to judge whether tea is high-grade or not, this question itself involves a lot of subjective content, and there is no standard answer.


Besides, the three options, Dahongpao, Zhengshan Souchong, and Jin Junmei, are full of differences.


Take Dahongpao as an example, it is obviously a well-known representative of oolong tea, but because of the word "red" in its name, it is often misunderstood by novices and thinks it is black tea.


Just like the message I saw yesterday, "Is Dahongpao a type of black tea like Zhengshan Souchong?"


No, no, there is a big difference between Da Hong Pao and Zheng Shan Souchong!






"2"


One, the classification is different.


Lapsang Souchong is a black tea, which is the originator of the well-known world black tea.


It is said that the birth of black tea came from the "inadvertent insertion of willows" when the fresh leaves were not finished in time. Later, because the local average altitude of Tongmu is high, the mountains are high and the forests are dense, and the microclimate is warm and humid.


When making tea, in order to achieve a better drying effect, local tea farmers draw lessons from the preservation methods of local smoked food in Wuyi Mountain (smoked goose, smoked tofu, smoked dried bamboo shoots, etc.), and add smoking technology when making tea.


Burn masson pine and smoke with pine smoke.


As a result, the produced Zhengshan Souchong has the typical flavor of pine smoke and longan soup.


Of course, the current Zhengshan Souchong is divided into smoked Souchong and smokeless Souchong according to whether it is smoked or not. The latter does not emphasize the incense of pine smoke, and the incense of longan and nectar are more typical.


The classification of Dahongpao belongs to Oolong tea, and the origin is also Wuyi Mountain. It is in the same family as Wuyi Cinnamon and Wuyi Narcissus, all of which belong to Wuyi Rock Tea.


In the oolong tea system in Fujian province, there is a saying that there is red robe in the north and Guanyin in the south.


That is, there is Dahongpao in northern Fujian oolong tea, and Tieguanyin in southern Fujian oolong tea.


Taking into account the high popularity, high popularity and high reputation of Dahongpao, Dahongpao has been the golden signboard of Yancha's publicity for a long time.


At the same time, it is also the heavyweight tea king in Wuyi Rock Tea!






"3"


Second, the origin is different


Although Zhengshan Souchong and Dahongpao are well-known representatives of Wuyi tea, their core production areas are different.


In Wuyi black tea, the word "Zhengshan" in Zhengshan Souchong emphasizes the limitation of the production area, and the core production area is within a few kilometers of the Tongmu area.


Souchong black tea that exceeds this range cannot be called Zhengshan Souchong, but can only be classified as Waishan Souchong.


The Tongmu area and the Wuyishan National Nature Reserve have a high degree of overlap, and the local ecological environment is strictly managed.


If foreign vehicles are not reported in advance, they will not be able to drive in.


Even local tea farmers who have lived here for generations, in accordance with the management requirements of the protected area, are not allowed to arbitrarily deforest and open up wasteland to grow tea on a large scale.


Compared with other tea-producing areas, there are few undulating tea hills in Tongmu, and most of the tea trees are scattered in the original old tea fields.


If you take a photo, you can often see pine forests and bamboo forests with local characteristics in the background of the pictures, and the ecology is very good.


Looking at the entire tea circle, there are very few tea leaves that can be produced in the nature reserve.


With such a good ecology as the trump card, the quality of the local Zhengshan Souchong will not be bad as long as the craftsmanship is not too bad.






The core production area of Dahongpao is centered on the Zhengyan Scenic Area.


Because, there has always been a saying in rock tea that "there is tea in rock, but there is no tea in rock."


Different from other places, the area of Zhengyan Scenic Area is a typical Danxia landform, with more weathered rocks (Danyan).


Under the influence of natural effects such as weathering, weathered rock debris containing specific nutrients can be exfoliated from these weathered rocks. It can make the mountain soil in the core area of Zhengyan, high in nutrients, loose and breathable, especially suitable for the growth of tea trees.


The Zhengyan tea produced can also have a unique "rock rhyme" feature. The tea soup is mellow and full, and when the soup is swallowed, you can feel the obvious bone feeling, the quality is outstanding, and the style is completely different.


It is impossible to achieve such exclusive flavor characteristics by changing to tea produced by non-zhengyan!






"4"


Third, the process is different.


I remember answering a question last year.


At that time, a tea friend asked, is it necessary to drink Souchong from Lassandra before drinking it, like rock tea, and then drink it after the fire is gone?


Of course not, there is no roasting in the processing of black tea, so why does it need to be quenched?


The processing of Zhengshan Souchong generally includes the steps of withering, rolling, fermentation and drying.


But according to whether there is smoke or not, there are two ways of smoking/non-smoking.


It is worth mentioning that it is different from the black tea "Hongye Hongtang" that people in the tea circle say. As the originator of black tea, Zhengshan Souchong is far less fermented than "red soup".


The tea soup is orange-yellow, translucent and clear, which is the common soup color of Zhengshan Souchong.


If the degree of fermentation is too high, thearubigin and theabrownin will be produced in large quantities, resulting in dark red and dark soup, but detrimental to the quality.


Let's go back to the previous article, for the "Yan Souchong" in Zhengshan Souchong, it has only experienced smoke. After the new tea is processed, it is only necessary to wait for the strong smoky flavor of Yanxiao to subside a little, and then it is ready to drink.


When Zhengshan Souchong is smoked, the contact between the tea leaves and the "smoke" is not the contact with "fire".


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