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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

铁观音初制工艺 需要经历十道工序

  4
Issuing time:2022-04-26 15:22

安溪铁观音的制作技艺在全国茶叶界拥有三最,即工序最多、技术要求最高、最复杂!



安溪铁观音制茶技艺,几百年来传承如一,只有严格按照传统工艺操作,把老祖宗的手艺演练得“炉火纯青”,才能做出最好喝的传统好茶。



初制:毛茶前,铁观音需要经历十道工序 。十大工序流程,茶青(鲜叶) →晒青→凉青→摇青(摇青→←摊青)→炒青→揉捻→初烘→初包揉→复烘→←复包揉→烘干→毛茶(初成品茶)。



晒 青


傍晚日光斜照或午后阳光较弱时进行,历时20-40分钟。温度:叶面温度35℃以下;摊叶量:每平方米席面摊叶0.5-0.75公斤,厚度2-3厘米;减重率为茶青重量4-10%,失水均匀。即叶色转暗绿色,微带青味,叶梗折弯不断,稍有弹性。


凉 青


将经晒青或摇青后的茶青,均匀摊放在笳篱上,放置在凉青架上,静置摊凉。摊叶量:每篱0.75-1公斤。历时:0.5-1.5小时。减重率:为茶青重量的1-2%。即叶色由暗变亮再稍转暗,叶态由软变硬后又稍转软。


摇/摊青



把凉青后的茶青装入摇青笼进行摇青,摇青后及时将茶青倒出,摊放在笳篱上进行凉青。


(1)历时:摇青和摊青多次交替进行,历时8-16小时。摇青转数先少后多,凉青摊叶厚度先薄后厚,凉青时间先短后长。


(2)投叶量:每笼以机体容量的1/2。摇青次数:3-4次。减重率:为茶青重量的6-14%。即青蒂绿腹红镶边,叶转黄绿色,叶缘鲜红,青味退尽,柔软有弹性感,透发出青香和品种香味。



炒 青


以“高温﹑快速﹑短时”为原则,掌握投叶适量、翻炒均匀、升温迅速、适当保水。


温度:筒壁温度260-280℃。时间:4-8分钟。投叶量:4-6公斤。减重率:为做青叶的18-22%,含水率35-45%。即叶色转为暗黄绿色,失去光泽,叶面梗皮略有皱纹,叶梗柔软,手捏叶略成团,稍有刺手感且略有弹性。



揉 捻



适当重压,初步使炒青叶卷曲成条,时间3-5分钟,卷曲率90%以上。



初 烘



以“适当高温﹑薄摊快速”为原则。厚度1.5厘米,温度90-120℃,焙笼摊叶厚度2-3厘米,温度80-100℃。减重率为炒青叶的10-15%。



初包揉



速包机与包揉机交替进行,加压稍轻,包揉过程中进行多次解块和翻动。包揉巾装叶量3-6公斤。



复 烘


烘干机温度90-100℃,焙笼80-90℃,程度掌握手摸茶叶微感刺手感,约七成干。


复包揉


速包机与包揉机交替进行,逐步加压。包揉过程中进行多次解块、翻动和过筛。最后一次包揉后,束紧布巾定型1-2小时。复烘与复包揉反复4-6次。


10


烘干



采用“低温慢烘”,分二次进行。“走火”烘,温度70-90℃,烘至八成干,然后下烘摊凉1-2小时;“焙火”烘,温度60-80℃,烘至茶梗手折即断。铁观音茶叶含水量在4-6%以内。

The production skills of Anxi Tieguanyin have three best in the national tea industry, that is, the most processes, the highest technical requirements, and the most complex!



Anxi Tieguanyin's tea-making skills have been inherited for hundreds of years. Only by operating strictly according to traditional craftsmanship and practicing the craftsmanship of our ancestors to a "skilled level" can we make the best traditional tea.



Initial production: Before Mao tea, Tieguanyin needs to go through ten processes. Ten major processes, tea green (fresh leaf) → drying green → cool green → shaking green (shaking green → ← spreading green) → frying green → kneading → primary baking → initial wrapping and kneading → re-baking → ← double wrapping and kneading → baking Dry→Maocha (preliminary finished tea).



sun blue


It takes 20-40 minutes when the sunlight is oblique in the evening or when the sunlight is weak in the afternoon. Temperature: the leaf surface temperature is below 35 ℃; the amount of leaf spread: 0.5-0.75 kg of leaves per square meter, the thickness is 2-3 cm; the weight loss rate is 4-10% of the weight of tea green, and the water loss is even. That is, the leaf color turns dark green, with a slight green smell, and the leaf stalk is continuously bent and slightly elastic.


cool green


Spread the tea green after drying or shaking it evenly on the hedge, place it on the cool green rack, and let it cool. Spread of leaves: 0.75-1 kg per hedge. Duration: 0.5-1.5 hours. Weight loss rate: 1-2% of the weight of tea green. That is, the leaf color changes from dark to light and then slightly darkens, and the leaf state changes from soft to hard and then slightly soft.


Shake / Spread



Put the cool green tea into the green shaker cage for shaking, pour out the tea green in time after shaking, and spread it on the fence for cool greening.


(1) Duration: Shake the green and spread the green alternately for many times, which lasted 8-16 hours. The number of rotations of shaking green is firstly less and then more, the thickness of cool green spreading leaves is first thin and then thick, and the cooling time is first short and then long.


(2) The amount of leaf throwing: 1/2 of the body capacity per cage. Shaking times: 3-4 times. Weight loss rate: 6-14% of the weight of tea green. That is, the green pedicle is green and the belly is red, the leaves turn yellow-green, the leaf margins are bright red, the green flavor fades away, the soft and elastic feeling is revealed, and the green fragrance and variety fragrance are revealed.



fried green


Based on the principle of "high temperature, fast and short time", master the appropriate amount of leaves, stir fry evenly, heat up quickly, and properly retain water.


Temperature: Cylinder wall temperature 260-280℃. Time: 4-8 minutes. Leaf volume: 4-6 kg. Weight loss rate: 18-22% for green leaves, moisture content 35-45%. That is, the leaf color turns dark yellow-green and loses its luster. The leaf stalk skin is slightly wrinkled, the leaf stalk is soft, and the leaves are slightly clumped by hand, slightly prickly and slightly elastic.



knead



Appropriate pressure is applied to initially curl the fried green leaves into strips, the time is 3-5 minutes, and the curling rate is over 90%.



first bake



Based on the principle of "appropriate high temperature, thin spread and fast". The thickness is 1.5 cm, the temperature is 90-120 °C, the thickness of the baking cage spread is 2-3 cm, and the temperature is 80-100 °C. The weight loss rate is 10-15% of fried green leaves.



rubbing



The speed bale machine and the bale kneading machine are alternately performed, and the pressure is slightly lighter, and during the bale kneading process, multiple deblocking and turning are performed. Pack a towel with 3-6 kg of leaves.



rebake


The temperature of the dryer is 90-100 ℃, and the baking cage is 80-90 ℃. The degree of control is the slight thorny feel of the tea leaves, about 70% dry.


repackaging


The speed charter machine and the packer kneader are alternately carried out, and the pressure is gradually increased. During the kneading process, multiple deblocking, turning and sieving are carried out. After the last wrapping, tighten the cloth and set it for 1-2 hours. Repeat 4-6 times of re-baking and re-packing.


10


drying



"Low temperature slow baking" is adopted, and it is carried out in two times. "Fire" baking, temperature 70-90 ℃, bake until 80% dry, and then let it cool down for 1-2 hours; "bake" baking, temperature 60-80 ℃, bake until the tea stems are broken by hand. The moisture content of tea leaves is within 4-6%.


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