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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

安溪铁观音茶王七泡有余香

  2
Issuing time:2022-04-25 13:15

乌龙茶是中国茶的代表,是一种半发酵的茶,透明的琥珀色茶汁是其特色品质。优异的乌龙茶,是选择优良品种茶树鲜叶做原料,经过极其精细的制作工艺而成。乌龙茶因其做青的方式不同,分为“跳动做青、摇动做青、做手做青”三个种类,商业上习惯根据其产区不同,分为闽北乌龙,闽南乌龙,广东乌龙,台湾乌龙等种类。乌龙茶为我国特有的茶类,主要产于福建的闽北、闽南及广台湾三个省。近年来四川、湖南等省也有少量生产。乌龙茶是综合了绿茶和红茶的特点,其品质介于绿茶和红茶之间,既有红茶浓鲜味,又有绿茶清香,并有“绿叶红镶边”的美誉。品尝后齿颊留香,回味甘鲜。乌龙茶的药理作用突出表现在分解脂肪、减肥健美等方面,在日本被称之为美容茶,健美茶。




铁观音既是茶叶名称又是茶树品种名称,茶人又称红心观音,红样观音。安溪铁观音是我国乌龙茶中的极品,也是我国十大名茶之一。


铁观音创制于清乾隆初年,至今已有200余年的历史。关于铁观音名称的由来,有这样一个故事:乾隆年间,出任湖广黄州府薪州通判的王士让,是安溪西坪尧阳南岩人,他曾筑书房于南山之麓,取名为南轩。王士让与他的很多朋友经常会于南宣,每当夕阳西坠之时,常常徘徊于南轩附近。一天王士让见层石荒原间有株茶树异于它种,于是将它移植到南轩的苗圃之中,朝夕管理,精心培育,从此这棵茶树年年繁殖,长的是枝繁叶茂,圆叶红心。经采制加工出的成品茶叶乌润肥壮,气味超凡,泡饮之后,香馥味醇,沁人肺腑。乾隆六年,王士让奉召赴京拜见礼部侍郎方望溪,并以此茶馈赠。方侍郎品其味非凡,便转献于内廷。乾隆皇帝饮后非常喜爱,因其分量沉重,外形犹如观音,于是赐名铁观音





安溪铁观音原产于福建省安溪县。安溪县地处戴云山脉的东南坡,地势从西北向东南倾倒,西部以山地为主,层峦叠嶂,最高峰海拔达1600米,通常称为内安溪,东部以丘陵为主,通常称为外安溪。以前茶区集中于内安溪,后来茶区不断扩大,目前已遍及全县。安溪县素有“四季有花常见雨,一冬无雪却闻雷”之说,很适宜茶树的生长,是乌龙茶的主要产区,常年茶产量占福建省茶产量的10%以上。


安溪铁观音制作严谨,技艺精巧。茶树三月下旬萌芽,一年分四季采制。谷雨至立夏为春茶,产量为全年总产量的40%~45%;夏至至小暑为夏茶,产量占全国的15%~20%;立秋至处暑为暑茶,产量占25%~30%;秋分至寒露为秋茶,产量占25%~30%。有个别地方由于气温较高还可以生产一季冬茶,冬茶颜色较青绿,滋味也较轻,产量不多。






制茶品质以秋茶最好,春茶次之,秋茶的香气特高,俗称秋香,但汤味较薄。夏、暑茶品质较次。鲜叶采摘标准必须在嫩梢形成驻芽后,顶叶刚展开呈小开面或中开面时,采下二三叶。采时要做到“五不”,即不折断叶片,不折叠叶张,不碰碎叶尖,不带单片,不带鱼叶和老梗。生长地带不同的茶树鲜叶要分开,特别是早青、午青、晚青要严格分开制造,以午青品质最优。





优质铁观音茶质高超,独具风韵。其外形条索卷曲,肥壮圆结,沉重匀称;茶汤色泽金黄,浓艳清澈,叶底肥厚明亮,呈绸面光泽。滋味醇厚甘美,入口回甘带蜜味,香气馥郁持久,并有天然香味,素有“七泡有余香”之誉。



因铁观音异香扑鼻,回甘隽永,在品饮时宜用小杯品饮,它可以使人们在品饮过程中加深对沏茶艺术的理解。品饮安溪铁观音是一种美的享受,难怪有“谁能寻得观音韵,不愧是个品茶人”之说。


鉴别精品铁观音是一项高深的学问,安溪著名茶师和老茶民观形闻香即可鉴别茶叶优劣,高者能品断是茶产自何地何村,几年生茶树,特点突出者还能品味出自何名茶师之手。外行人品饮铁观音可从“观形、听声、察色、闻香、品韵”入手,辨别茶叶优劣。


观形:优质铁观音茶条卷曲、壮结、沉重,呈青蒂绿腹蜻蜒头状,色泽鲜润,砂绿显,红点明,叶表带白霜。


听声:精品茶叶较一般茶叶紧结,叶身沉重,取少量茶叶放入茶壶,可闻“当当”之声,其声清脆为上,声哑者为次。


察色:汤色金黄,浓艳清澈,茶叶冲泡展开后叶底肥厚明亮(铁观音茶叶特征之一叶背外曲),具绸面光泽,此为上,汤色暗红者次之。


闻香:精品铁观音茶汤香味鲜溢,启盖端杯轻闻,其独特香气即芬芳扑鼻,且馥郁持久,令人心醉神怡。有“七泡有余香”之誉。国内外的试验研究表明,安溪铁观音所含的香气成分种类最为丰富,而且中、低沸点香气组分所占比重明显大于用其他品种茶树鲜叶制成的乌龙茶。因而安溪铁观音独特的香气令人心怡神醉,一杯铁观音,杯盖开启立即芬芳扑鼻,满室生香。


品韵:古人有“未尝甘露味,先闻圣妙香”之妙说。细啜一口,舌根轻转,可感茶汤醇厚甘鲜;缓慢下咽,回甘带密,韵味无穷。至于独特的“观音韵”何解?至今茶人尚未能解说清楚,只得留待后人品断,这也正是安溪铁观音之魅力所在。

Oolong tea is the representative of Chinese tea, it is a semi-fermented tea, the transparent amber tea juice is its characteristic quality. Excellent oolong tea is made by selecting the fresh leaves of fine varieties of tea trees as raw materials, and is made through extremely fine production technology. Oolong tea is divided into three types because of the different ways of making green, "beating to make green, shaking to make green, and hand to make green". Commercially, it is divided into northern Fujian oolong, southern Fujian oolong, and Guangdong oolong according to its production area. Oolong, Taiwan Oolong and other types. Oolong tea is a unique type of tea in my country, mainly produced in the three provinces of northern Fujian, southern Fujian and Guangdong. In recent years, Sichuan, Hunan and other provinces also have a small amount of production. Oolong tea is a combination of the characteristics of green tea and black tea. Its quality is between green tea and black tea. It has both the strong umami taste of black tea and the fragrance of green tea, and has the reputation of "green leaf red edge". After tasting, the teeth and cheeks are fragrant, and the aftertaste is sweet and fresh. The pharmacological effects of oolong tea are prominent in the decomposition of fat, weight loss and bodybuilding. In Japan, it is called beauty tea and fitness tea.




Tieguanyin is both the name of the tea and the name of the tea tree variety. Anxi Tieguanyin is the best oolong tea in my country and one of the top ten famous teas in China.


Tieguanyin was created in the early years of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty and has a history of more than 200 years. Regarding the origin of the name of Tieguanyin, there is such a story: During the Qianlong period, Wang Shirang, who served as a judge in Xinzhou, Huangzhou, Huguang, was a native of Nanyan, Yaoyang, Xiping, Anxi. He built a study at the foot of Nanshan Mountain and named it Nanxuan. . Wang Shirang and many of his friends often go to Nanxuan, and when the sun sets, they often linger near Nanxuan. One day, Wang Shirang saw that there was a tea tree different from his species in the rocky wasteland, so he transplanted it into the nursery in Nanxuan, managed day and night, and cultivated it carefully. Hearts. The finished tea leaves that have been harvested and processed are rich and plump and have an extraordinary smell. In the sixth year of Qianlong, Wang Shirang was called to Beijing to visit Fang Wangxi, the servant of the Ministry of Rites, and presented him with this tea. Fang Shilang tasted its extraordinary taste, so he dedicated it to the inner court. Emperor Qianlong loved it very much after drinking it. Because of its heavy weight and appearance like Guanyin, he gave it the name Tieguanyin.


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Anxi Tieguanyin originated in Anxi County, Fujian Province. Anxi County is located on the southeastern slope of the Daiyun Mountains. The terrain dumps from the northwest to the southeast. The west is dominated by mountains, with layers of mountains and peaks. The highest peak is 1,600 meters above sea level. Anxi. In the past, the tea area was concentrated in Nei'anxi. Later, the tea area continued to expand, and now it has spread all over the county. Anxi County is known as "there are flowers in four seasons and rain is common, but there is no snow in winter but thunder is heard". It is very suitable for the growth of tea trees and is the main producing area of oolong tea. The annual tea production accounts for more than 10% of the tea production in Fujian Province.


Anxi Tieguanyin is rigorous in production and exquisite in craftsmanship. Tea trees sprout in late March and are harvested in four seasons of the year. From Grain Rain to Lixia, it is spring tea, and the output is 40%~45% of the total annual output; from summer solstice to Xiaoshu is summer tea, and the output accounts for 15%~20% of the whole country; %; from the autumn equinox to the cold dew, it is autumn tea, and the output accounts for 25% to 30%. In some places, due to the higher temperature, winter tea can still be produced for one season.


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The quality of tea making is best in autumn tea, followed by spring tea. The aroma of autumn tea is particularly high, commonly known as autumn fragrance, but the soup taste is thinner. The quality of summer and summer tea is inferior. The standard for picking fresh leaves must be two or three leaves after the young shoots have formed buds, and when the top leaves have just unfolded to a small or medium open surface. When harvesting, the "five nos" should be fulfilled, that is, not to break the leaves, not to fold the leaves, not to break the leaf tips, not to bring single pieces, not to bring fish leaves and old stems. The fresh leaves of tea trees in different growth areas should be separated, especially the early green, afternoon green and late green should be strictly produced separately, and the quality of the afternoon green should be the best.


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High-quality Tieguanyin tea is of high quality and unique charm. Its shape is curled, plump and round, heavy and well-proportioned; the color of the tea soup is golden, bright and clear, and the leaf bottom is thick and bright, with a silky luster. The taste is mellow and sweet, the entrance is sweet with honey taste, the aroma is fragrant and lasting, and it has a natural fragrance, which is known as "seven bubbles with lingering fragrance".


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Because Tieguanyin is fragrant, sweet and meaningful, it is advisable to drink in a small cup when drinking, which can deepen people's understanding of the art of tea brewing during the drinking process. Drinking Anxi Tieguanyin is a kind of beautiful enjoyment. No wonder there is a saying that "whoever can find the charm of Guanyin is worthy of being a tea drinker".


Identifying high-quality Tieguanyin is a profound knowledge. The famous tea masters and old tea people in Anxi can distinguish the quality of tea by looking at the shape and smelling the fragrance. The high-quality tea can be judged by where and what village the tea is produced. You can also taste the hand of the famous tea master. Laymen who drink Tieguanyin can start from "observing the shape, listening to the sound, observing the color, smelling the fragrance, and tasting the rhythm" to distinguish the quality of tea.


Appearance: High-quality Tieguanyin tea sticks are curled, knotted, and heavy, with a green pedicel and green belly, and the shape of a dragonfly.


Listening to the sound: The fine tea leaves are more tightly knotted than ordinary tea leaves, and the leaves are heavier. Take a small amount of tea leaves and put them into the teapot. You can hear the sound of "dangdang".


Observation of color: The color of the soup is golden yellow, bright and clear. After the tea is brewed and unfolded, the bottom of the leaves is thick and bright (one of the characteristics of Tieguanyin tea leaves is the outer curvature of the back), with a silky luster. This is the best, followed by the dark red soup.


Smell the fragrance: The exquisite Tieguanyin tea soup is fragrant and full of fragrance, and you can smell it lightly when you open the lid and hold the cup. It has the reputation of "seven bubbles with lingering fragrance". Experimental studies at home and abroad show that Anxi Tieguanyin contains the most abundant types of aroma components, and the proportion of medium and low boiling point aroma components is significantly larger than that of oolong tea made from fresh leaves of other varieties of tea trees. Therefore, the unique aroma of Anxi Tieguanyin is refreshing and intoxicating. A cup of Tieguanyin is immediately fragrant when the lid is opened, and the room is full of fragrance.


Tasting rhyme: The ancients have a wonderful saying that "before you taste the taste of nectar, first smell the holy fragrance". Take a sip and turn your tongue slightly, you can feel the mellow and fresh tea soup; swallow slowly, the sweetness is dense and the flavor is endless. As for the unique "Guanyin Yun"? So far, the tea people have not been able to explain it clearly, and they have to leave it to future generations to judge. This is also the charm of Anxi Tieguanyin.


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