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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

安溪铁观音泡茶三要素 茶的用量 泡茶水温 冲泡时间和次数

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Issuing time:2022-04-20 11:11

有了优质的茶叶,甘美的好水,精美的茶具,还必须要有好的铁观音冲泡技术,才能把茶叶固有的色、香、味充分的体现出来,给人们以享受,饮茶艺术也被人们所欣赏。




明代张源在《茶录》中指出:“茶之妙,在乎造之精、藏之得法、泡之得宜。” 可见古人也早已认识到泡茶方法的重要性。




泡茶时,主要根据不同的茶类、国中工方法、茶的特性,掌握好茶的用量、开水温度、冲泡的时间,简称为泡茶三要素。




铁观音茶叶用量就是每杯或每壶中放适当分量的茶叶;泡茶水温就是用适当温度的开水冲泡茶叶;冲泡时间包含有两层意思,一是将茶叶泡到适当的浓度所需的时间;二是指有些茶叶要冲泡数次,每次需要泡多少时间。






茶的用量





要泡好一杯茶或一壶茶,首先要掌握茶叶用量。每次茶叶用多少,并没有统一标准,主要根据茶叶种类、茶具大小以及水费者的饮用习惯来定。一般说,茶多水少则味浓,茶少水多则味淡。用茶量的多少,还因人而异,因地而异。饮茶者是茶或劳动者,可适当加大茶量,泡上一杯香浓的茶汤;如是脑力劳动者或无嗜茶习惯的人,可适当的少放一些茶,泡上一杯清香醇和的茶汤。




家庭泡茶通常是凭经验行事,一般来说,每克茶叶可泡水50至60毫升,但茶类不同,用量不一。




倘用乌龙茶,茶叶用量要比一般红、绿茶增加一倍以上,而水的冲泡量却要减少一半。茶叶冲泡时间的长短,对茶叶内含的有效成份的利用也有很大的关系。对于注重香气的茶叶如乌龙茶,冲泡时间间不宜长。




用茶量多少与消费者的饮用习惯也有密切关系。在西藏、新疆、青海和内蒙古等少数民族地区,人们以肉食为主,当地缺少蔬菜,因此茶叶成为生活上的必需品。他们普通喜欢浓茶,并在茶叶加糖、乳或盐,故每次茶叶用量较多。华北和东北广大地区人民喜欢饮花茶,通常用较大的茶壶泡茶,茶叶用量较少。长江中下游地区的消费者主要用饮用绿茶,一般用较小的瓷杯或玻璃杯,每次用茶量也不多。福建、广东、台湾等省,人们喜欢饮工夫茶,茶具虽小,但用茶量较多。




茶叶用量还同消费者的年龄结构与饮茶历史有关。茶叶中含有咖啡碱、失眠者饮茶浓度应清谈,而中老年茶客,饮茶年限较长,喜欢喝较浓的茶,用茶量较多;年轻人初次饮茶的多,普遍喜欢较淡的茶,用茶量较少。




总之,泡茶用量的多少,关键是掌握茶与水的比例,茶多水少,则味浓;茶少水多,则味淡。冲泡一般红、绿茶,茶与水的比例,大致掌握在1:50~1:60,即每杯放3克左右的干茶,加入沸水150~200毫升。如饮用普洱茶,每杯放5-10克茶。如用茶壶,则按容量大小适当掌握。用茶量最多的是乌龙茶,每次投入量几乎为茶壶容器的二分之一,甚至更多。



泡茶水温





古人对泡茶水温十分讲究。宋代蔡襄在《茶录》中说“候汤最难,未熟则沫浮,过熟则茶沉,前世之谓蟹眼者,过熟汤也。沉瓶中煮之不可辨,故曰候汤最难。” 明代许次纾在《茶疏》中说得更为具体:“水一入铫,便须急煮,候有松声,即去盖,以消息其老嫩。蟹眼之后,水有微涛,是为当时。大涛鼎沸,旋至无声,是为过时,过则汤老而香散,决不堪用。”




以上说明,泡茶烧水,要大火急沸,不要文火慢煮。以刚煮沸起泡为宜,用这样的水泡茶,茶汤香味皆佳。如水沸腾过久,即古人所称的“水老”。此时,溶于水中的二氧化碳挥发殆尽,泡茶鲜爽味便大为逊色。未沸腾的水,古人称为“水嫩”,也不适宜泡茶,因水温低,茶中有效成分不易泡出,使香味低淡,而且茶浮水面,饮用不便。




泡茶水温的掌握,主要看泡饮什么茶而定。高级绿茶,特别是各种芽叶细嫩的名茶(绿茶类名茶),不能用100℃的沸水冲泡,一般以80℃左右为宜。茶叶愈嫩、愈绿,冲泡水温要低,这样泡出的茶汤一定嫩绿明亮,滋味鲜爽,茶叶维生素c也较少破坏。而在高温下,茶汤容易变黄,滋味较苦(茶中咖啡碱容易浸出),维生素c大量破坏。正如平时说的,水温高,把茶叶“烫熟”了。泡饮各种花茶、红茶和中、低档绿茶,则要用100℃的沸水冲泡。如水温低,则渗透性差,茶中有效成份浸出较少,茶味淡薄。泡饮乌龙茶,每次用茶量较多,必须用100℃的沸滚开水冲泡。有时,为了保持和提高水温,还要在冲泡前用开水烫热茶具,冲泡后在壶外淋开水。少数民族饮用砖茶,则要求水温更高,将砖茶敲碎,放在锅中熬煮。




一般来说,泡茶水温与铁观音茶叶中的有效物质在水中的溶解度呈正相关,水温愈高,溶解度愈大,茶汤就愈浓,反之,水温愈低,溶解度愈小,茶汤就愈淡,一般60度温水中茶的内含物质的浸出量只相当于100度沸水中浸出量的45%-65%。




这里必须说明一点,上面谈到,高级绿茶适宜用80度的水冲泡,通常是指将水烧开之后,再凉至所要求的温度,如果是无菌生水,则只要烧到所需的温度即可。




冲泡时间和次数





铁观音茶叶冲泡的时间和次数,差异很大,与茶叶种类、泡茶水温、用茶数量和饮茶习惯等都有关系,不可一概而论。




如用茶杯泡饮一般红绿茶,每杯放干茶3克左右,用沸水约200毫升冲泡,加盖4—5分钟后,便可饮用。这种泡法的缺点是:如水温过高,容易烫熟茶叶(主要指绿茶);水温较低,则难以泡出茶味;而且因水量多,往往一时喝不完,浸泡过久,茶汤变冷,色、香、味均受影响。改良冲泡法是:将茶叶放入杯中后,先例入少量开水,以浸没茶叶为度,加盖3分钟左右,再加开水到七八成满,便可趁热饮用。当喝到杯中尚余三分之一左右茶汤时,再加开水,这样可使前后茶汤浓度比较均匀。通常以冲泡三次为宜。




如饮用颗粒细小、揉捻充分的红碎茶与绿碎茶,有沸水冲泡3—5分钟后,其有效成份大部分浸出,便可一次快速饮用。饮用速溶茶,也是采用一次冲泡法。




品饮乌龙茶多用小型紫砂壶。在用茶量较多(约半壶)的情况下,第一泡1分钟就要例出来,第二泡1分15秒(比第一泡增加15秒),第三泡1分40秒,第四泡2分15秒。也就是从第二泡开始要逐渐增加冲泡时间,这样前后茶汤浓度才比较均匀。




泡茶水温的高低和用茶数量的多少,也影响冲泡时间的长短。水温高,用茶多,冲泡时间宜短;水温低,用茶少,冲泡时间宜长。冲泡时间究竟多长?以茶汤浓度适合饮用者的口味为标准。




据研究,绿茶经一次冲泡后,各种有效成份的浸出率是大不相同的。氨基酸是茶叶中最易溶于水的成份,一次冲泡的浸出率高达80%以上;其次是咖啡碱,一次冲泡的浸出率近70%;茶多酚一次冲泡的浸出率较低,约为45%左右;可溶性糖的浸出率更低,通常少于40%。红茶在加工过程中揉捻程度一般比绿茶充分,尤其是红碎茶,颗粒小,细胞破碎率高,所以一次冲泡的浸出率往往比绿茶高得多。目前,国内外日益流行袋泡茶。袋泡茶既饮用方便,又可增加茶中有效物质的浸出量,提高茶汤浓度。据比较,袋泡茶比散装茶冲泡浸出量高20%左右。

With high-quality tea leaves, luscious and good water, and exquisite tea sets, we must also have good brewing techniques, in order to fully reflect the inherent color, aroma and taste of tea leaves for people to enjoy, and the art of tea drinking has also been recognized. appreciated by people.




Zhang Yuan of the Ming Dynasty pointed out in the "Tea Records": "The beauty of tea lies in the essence of making, the method of storing, and the appropriateness of brewing." It can be seen that the ancients have long recognized the importance of the method of brewing tea.




When brewing tea, it is mainly based on different tea types, middle-school methods and characteristics of tea, and master the amount of tea, the temperature of boiling water, and the brewing time, which are referred to as the three elements of tea brewing.




The amount of tea leaves is to put an appropriate amount of tea leaves in each cup or pot; the temperature of the tea brewing water is to brew the tea leaves with boiling water of the appropriate temperature; the brewing time contains two meanings, one is the time required to brew the tea leaves to the appropriate concentration ; Second, some teas need to be brewed several times, and how long does it take to brew each time.




picture






Dosage of tea





To make a good cup of tea or a pot of tea, you must first master the amount of tea leaves. There is no unified standard for how much tea is used each time, and it is mainly determined according to the type of tea, the size of the tea set and the drinking habits of the water billers. Generally speaking, tea with more water and less taste will be strong, and tea with less water and more will taste weak. The amount of tea used also varies from person to person and from place to place. Tea drinkers are tea or laborers, so they can increase the amount of tea and make a cup of fragrant tea soup; if they are mental workers or people who are not addicted to tea, they can put less tea and make a cup of fragrant and mellow tea. tea soup.




Home-brewing tea is usually based on experience. Generally speaking, each gram of tea can be brewed with 50 to 60 ml of water, but the amount of tea varies with different types of tea.




If oolong tea is used, the amount of tea leaves is more than double that of ordinary red and green tea, while the amount of water to be brewed is reduced by half. The length of tea brewing time also has a great relationship with the utilization of the active ingredients contained in the tea. For teas that focus on aroma, such as oolong tea, the brewing time should not be long.




The amount of tea used is also closely related to the drinking habits of consumers. In ethnic minority areas such as Tibet, Xinjiang, Qinghai and Inner Mongolia, people mainly eat meat and lack vegetables, so tea has become a necessities of life. They generally like strong tea and add sugar, milk or salt to the tea leaves, so they use more tea leaves each time. People in the vast areas of North China and Northeast China like to drink scented tea, and usually use a larger teapot to make tea, and the amount of tea leaves is less. Consumers in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River mainly drink green tea, usually in smaller porcelain cups or glass cups, and the amount of tea each time is not much. In Fujian, Guangdong, Taiwan and other provinces, people like to drink Gongfu tea. Although the tea set is small, the amount of tea used is large.




The consumption of tea is also related to the age structure and tea drinking history of consumers. Tea contains caffeine, and the concentration of tea drinking for insomniacs should be discussed clearly, while middle-aged and elderly tea drinkers, who have been drinking tea for a long time, like to drink stronger tea, and use more tea; The amount of tea used is less.




In short, the key to the amount of tea used is to master the ratio of tea to water. With more tea and less water, the taste will be strong; with less tea and more water, the taste will be weak. For brewing general red and green tea, the ratio of tea to water is roughly 1:50~1:60, that is, about 3 grams of dry tea per cup, and 150~200 ml of boiling water. Such as drinking Pu-erh tea, put 5-10 grams of tea in each cup. If a teapot is used, it should be properly controlled according to the capacity. The most used tea is oolong tea, and the amount of each input is almost half of the teapot container, or even more.




picture






tea water temperature





The ancients were very particular about the water temperature for making tea. Cai Xiang of Song Dynasty said in "Tea Records", "Waiting the soup is the most difficult. If it is not cooked, the foam will float, and if it is too cooked, the tea will sink. In the previous life, it is called crab eye, and the soup is too cooked. It is indistinguishable when boiled in a sinking bottle, so it is called waiting. Soup is the most difficult." Xu Cishu of the Ming Dynasty put it more concretely in "Tea Shu": "As soon as the water enters the chutium, it must be boiled urgently. The water has a slight wave, which is for the time. The big wave is boiling, and it is silent, which is out of date, and the soup is old and fragrant, and it is absolutely unusable."




As mentioned above, when making tea and boiling water, it should be boiled rapidly over high heat, not simmered over slow heat. It is advisable to just boil and bubble, and use this kind of water to make tea, and the fragrance of the tea soup is good. If the water boils for too long, it is called "water old" by the ancients. At this time, the carbon dioxide dissolved in the water will evaporate completely, and the fresh and refreshing taste of the tea will be greatly inferior. Unboiled water is called "sweet and tender" by the ancients, and it is not suitable for making tea. Because the water temperature is low, the active ingredients in the tea are not easy to be brewed, making the fragrance low, and the tea floats on the surface, making it inconvenient to drink.




The control of the water temperature for brewing tea mainly depends on what kind of tea is being brewed. High-grade green tea, especially various famous teas with delicate buds and leaves (green teas), cannot be brewed with boiling water at 100°C, generally around 80°C is appropriate. The more tender and green the tea leaves are, the lower the temperature of the brewing water, so that the brewed tea soup must be green and bright, the taste is fresh, and the vitamin C of the tea leaves will be less damaged. At high temperature, the tea soup is easy to turn yellow, the taste is more bitter (the caffeine in the tea is easy to be leached), and the vitamin C is destroyed in large quantities. As I usually say, the high water temperature "scalded" the tea leaves. To brew all kinds of scented tea, black tea and medium and low-grade green tea, brew it with boiling water at 100°C. If the water temperature is low, the permeability is poor, the active ingredients in the tea are less leached, and the tea taste is weak. For brewing oolong tea, the amount of tea used each time is large, and it must be brewed with boiling water at 100°C. Sometimes, in order to maintain and increase the water temperature, it is necessary to scald the tea set with boiling water before brewing, and pour boiling water outside the pot after brewing. For ethnic minorities to drink brick tea, the water temperature is higher, and the brick tea is broken and boiled in a pot.




Generally speaking, the water temperature of brewing tea is positively correlated with the solubility of the effective substances in the tea leaves in water. The higher the water temperature, the greater the solubility, and the thicker the tea soup. The leaching amount of the content of tea in warm water is only 45%-65% of the leaching amount in 100-degree boiling water.




It must be noted here that as mentioned above, high-grade green tea is suitable for brewing with water at 80 degrees, which usually means that after the water is boiled, it is cooled to the required temperature. If it is sterile raw water, just boil it to the required temperature. temperature can be.




picture






Brewing time and times





The time and frequency of tea brewing vary greatly, and it is related to the type of tea, the temperature of tea brewing, the amount of tea used and the tea drinking habits, etc., and cannot be generalized.




For example, use a tea cup to brew ordinary red and green tea, put about 3 grams of dry tea in each cup, brew with about 200 ml of boiling water, and cover it for 4-5 minutes before drinking. The disadvantages of this brewing method are: if the water temperature is too high, it is easy to scald the tea leaves (mainly green tea); the water temperature is low, it is difficult to brew the tea flavor; and because of the large amount of water, it is often impossible to drink it all at once, soaking for too long, and the tea soup will change Cold, color, aroma, taste are affected. The improved brewing method is: after putting the tea leaves into the cup, add a small amount of boiling water to immerse the tea leaves for about 3 minutes. When there is still about one third of the tea soup in the cup, add boiling water, so that the concentration of the tea soup before and after can be more uniform. Usually it is advisable to brew three times.




Such as drinking black tea and green tea with small particles and fully kneading, after brewing with boiling water for 3-5 minutes, most of the active ingredients are leached out, and you can drink it quickly at one time. Drinking instant tea is also a one-time brewing method.




Small purple clay pots are often used to drink oolong tea. In the case of using a large amount of tea (about half a pot), the first brew should be brewed for 1 minute, the second brew for 1 minute and 15 seconds (15 seconds longer than the first brew), and the third brew for 1 minute and 40 seconds. The fourth bubble is 2 minutes and 15 seconds. That is to say, from the second brew, the brewing time should be gradually increased, so that the concentration of the tea soup before and after is more uniform.




The temperature of the tea water and the amount of tea used also affect the length of the brewing time. If the water temperature is high, the tea should be used more, and the brewing time should be short; if the water temperature is low, the tea should be used less, and the brewing time should be long. How long is the brewing time? The concentration of the tea soup is suitable for the taste of the drinker as the standard.




According to research, after one brewing, the leaching rate of various active ingredients is very different. Amino acids are the most soluble components in water, and the extraction rate of one brewing is as high as 80%; followed by caffeine, the leaching rate of one brewing is nearly 70%; the leaching rate of tea polyphenols is low, about is about 45%; the leaching rate of soluble sugar is lower, usually less than 40%. Black tea is generally more twisted than green tea in the process of processing, especially black tea, which has small particles and high cell breakage rate, so the extraction rate of one brew is often much higher than that of green tea. At present, tea bags are increasingly popular at home and abroad. Tea bag is not only convenient to drink, but also can increase the leaching amount of effective substances in tea and improve the concentration of tea soup. According to comparison, the brewing amount of tea bag is about 20% higher than that of bulk tea.


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