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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

铁观音产地 茶者廉、茶者清、茶者寿、茶者福

  1
Issuing time:2022-04-20 11:03

走进中国茶都安溪,浓浓的铁观音茶香扑鼻而来。安溪是以茶立县的城市,茶是这座城市的最大特色。茶者寿,安溪百岁老人多,安溪人长寿,被誉为添寿福地。



安溪是铁观音茶叶王国,远山近岭种满茶树,到处飘逸着茶香,这是一片充盈着香气的土地。茶香成为安溪的代表,当然,安溪还有桂花香、兰花香、瓜果香等。说安溪是充盈着香气的城市,一点也不为过。安溪长年位居全国产茶百强县首位,茶是这里最大的民生。在采茶季节,安溪笼罩着茶香,单说这香气,安溪就是座幸福的城市。




安溪最大的香气,来自铁观音。单就铁观音的芳香,就可以分出很多种气味,我们叫它地域香、地土香。每座山头的铁观音,呈现出的香气略微有所不同,不同的海拔,不同的土壤,不同的山坡,有了些细微分别,加上铁观音的品种香,加上大师名匠的手艺,安溪铁观音锻造出一个香气的王国。但有一种香最明显,叫兰花香。铁观音最独特的气质,气质如兰,它的香高贵淡雅,而捕捉这份香气并不容易,得天独厚的自然条件,自身品质的卓越,制茶人高超绝伦的制作技艺都很重要,而唯技艺最难。假如说品种、山头、水分、日照、气候等自然条件是天注定的客观因素,那么人为的制作技艺,经验的传承,捕捉铁观音的基因密码就显得很重要。乌龙茶制作技艺为国家级非遗传承技艺,也就非一般人所为。





在一座茶山上,乌龙茶制作技艺国家级非遗传承人魏月德随手摘下一芽三叶,在掌上轻拍几下,安溪铁观音红心歪尾,紫色的芽蕊,清晰可辨的叶脉略微拱起肥硕的叶面,在阳光下晶莹剔透。就这么随手几下,叶片已发出淡淡的香气,似青草香。铁观音叶子的水分已开始在行走,铁观音的神奇旅程开始,一枚叶子香气的故事就开始,而这种奇特还不大好说,很难定量分析。细分铁观音的芳香,有人叫它兰花香、石韵香、牛乳香、水果香等等,在外行人心中并不懂,而在内行人心中,也要苦苦追求。安溪茶人一辈子孜孜以求的事情,就是集毕生精力于此,捕捉一份独特的铁观音香气,烙上个人的独特印记,让很多人慕名来到安溪,带着朝圣般的心情,追随心中的一分热爱。




作为普通的茶客,对茶的研究不一定那么深透,但对好茶的一分热爱,也可以溢于言表。在祥华乡政府品茶室,被胡平老省长誉为“茶中极品”的祥华铁观音,你不喝,你岂不是白来祥华?到祥华不拜访名山,不登临佛耳,不赏人间四月杜鹃红,可能因时间关系、因天气关系,皆可以说得过去,但岂能不喝茶?喝茶去,喝祥华铁观音才不虚祥华之行。作为普通的安溪人,喝过不少的茶,喝过很多铁观音,但到祥华,你眼睛还是一亮,怕漏过任何一次品茶的好时机。主人拿出深藏的铁观音,有些是获奖茶、压箱茶,喝茶的人多了一点,宾主落定,斗茶方起,推杯换盏,匙盏相撞,刮勺清脆之声,人挤我推,有时失点洋相,肆意的轻浮声、满足声,飘荡于耳。来一场争论,来一场高下立辨,请一位专业的茶师傅作个评定,甚至有了一次输赢的轻许,只为那一勺茶。茶能饱人和醉人,到祥华确实不想走,想好好喝茶,想好好闻香。而这番情景,在安溪的大地上,可以说司空见惯。二十世纪八十年代,安溪举行铁观音杯征歌大赛,有一曲《人到安溪不想走》的歌,说的就是对安溪的这份热爱,对这份香的执念。



关于茶的故事、香气的故事,在安溪,每年官方都有组织数不清的茶文化节、开茶节、大师赛等茶事活动。品茗之风,安溪为盛。民间斗茶的烟熏火燎,从茶坊劳作的那一刻开始,或随时随地开始,闲聊抽烟喝酒,更爱喝茶。达官贵人要喝茶,普通百姓也好这一口,柴米油盐酱醋茶,不分童叟,舌尖在茶汤里翻转流连,有人就是行家。




曾在龙涓乡高鼎茶庄园旁,简易的草寮,临近溪边,清澈的溪水在流淌,烧水的水壶浑身疙瘩,旧痕新伤都有。乌黑的壶身,耕作的农人,随意就地拾来三两石块,搭一石灶,支个树杈,横一短薪,就地取水泡茶。茶未喝,心中已充满茶香,想想这幅烧茗图就是安溪茶农的写照。



大碗喝茶,牛饮也不算稀罕事,喝茶的狠劲豪气,一点也不比喝酒差。小时候,乡村四月闲人少,大人耕作,小孩也不闲着,送茶送水送饭,力所能及。大热天,口渴难耐,喝茶并没那么讲究,牛饮喝茶,就是痛快。提个带盖的铝桶,铝盖上倒扣个瓷碗,冲上大半桶的滚烫开水,洒进数两铁观音,让茶叶在水里舒张,洇出澄黄的一桶茶,送到田间地头耕作的父母身旁,茶已微温,含着茶末,用碗装茶,差点连茶末倒进肚里,想必也是美好记忆。茶还是香的,自己喝的茶,自已辛苦制作的茶,岂能不香。在安溪大地上,到处翻卷着泥土的气息,也伴随着米饭的芳香和茶香。




安溪人对茶的喜爱,对一份香的热爱捕捉,达到无与伦比的程度。早在置县之初的五代,安溪开先县令詹敦仁的《龙安岩悟长老惠茶,作此代简》,就有“泼乳浮花满盏倾,余香绕齿袭人清”的袅袅云烟。比詹县令稍后的吴越王钱俶幕僚黄夷简,隐居小溪场,即今天的安溪,写有“宿雨一番蔬甲嫩,春山几焙茗旗香”。安溪的茶香,弥漫春山,早年的安溪先民就懂得焙茶这门独特技艺。乾隆年间,安溪人官献瑶《雪水烹茶》写着“满颊生香知腊味,一时高唱起春声。”“雨前茶向雪中烹,雪碧茶香澈底清。”清水岩山僧意求《清水岩居》“草际摊径秋色老,水边试茗舌根香。”连横在《安溪铁观音》写到“一种清芬忘不得,参禅同证木犀心。”都是浓浓的茶香。近现代诗文,写到安溪的茶香更是数不胜数。在安溪的一些茶联中,也写到茶香,如清乾隆二十五年西坪举人王宗庇,官至武英殿校书郎,题有“客至茶香留舌本,睡余书味在胸中”,以此茶联赠送给现长卿镇珍田村苏承瓜,谱写着一段友情佳话。中央电视台2005年春节联欢晚会上,由中国楹联学会叶子彤撰写的“品铁观音,香飘两岸;拜妈祖庙,情系一家。”让安溪茶香,更加声名远扬。




安溪人爱茶的香,还表现在茶的取名上。安溪是茶叶国家良种宝库,安溪的当家花旦以铁观音为代表,其它的良种茶,也值得一说,也是香气透顶,黄金桂素有“透天香”之誉。佛手茶,据说是康熙年间,虎邱镇骑虎岩大道禅师将大叶乌龙与香橼嫁接而成,在禅修的静谧中,独寻一份奇特的香气。至于肉桂、水仙、奇兰等种,似乎也是奇香扑鼻。芦田镇的梅占茶,据说得名于“梅占百花魁”,梅花的香似乎与兰香伯仲之间。当年,山居故里的福建晚清八大诗人林鹤年在《田家述》里,感慨“种梅三万株,终老吾何悔”。梅占茶的香气,于他定然深入骨髓,至今梅占茶的芳香,仍然弥漫于内安溪大地。




茶,南方之佳木。诸多佳茗繁衍于安溪大地,安溪之福。安溪自古以来,一直是弥漫着安溪铁观音香气的大地。茶者廉、茶者清、茶者寿、茶者福,不得不感恩这片充盈着香气的土地。

Walking into Anxi, the capital of tea in China, the strong aroma of tea comes to your nostrils. Anxi is a city with a tea-based county, and tea is the biggest feature of this city. Tea is used for longevity. There are many centenarians in Anxi, and people in Anxi live a long life.



Anxi is a tea kingdom. The mountains and mountains are full of tea trees, and the fragrance of tea is everywhere. This is a land full of fragrance. The aroma of tea has become the representative of Anxi. Of course, Anxi also has the aroma of sweet-scented osmanthus, orchid, melon and fruit. It is no exaggeration to say that Anxi is a city full of fragrance. Anxi ranks first among the top 100 tea-producing counties in the country for many years, and tea is the biggest livelihood here. During the tea picking season, Anxi is shrouded in the fragrance of tea. Just speaking of this fragrance, Anxi is a happy city.




The biggest aroma of Anxi comes from Tieguanyin. The aroma of Tieguanyin alone can be divided into many kinds of smells. We call it regional incense and earthy incense. The aroma of Tieguanyin on each hill is slightly different. Different altitudes, different soils, and different hillsides have some subtle differences. With the variety of Tieguanyin and the craftsmanship of master craftsmen, Anxi Tieguanyin forged a kingdom of fragrance. But there is one fragrance that is most obvious, called orchid fragrance. The most unique temperament of Tieguanyin is like an orchid, its fragrance is noble and elegant, and it is not easy to capture this fragrance. The unique natural conditions, the excellence of its own quality, and the superb production skills of the tea makers are all important. Skill is the hardest. If natural conditions such as species, hills, moisture, sunshine, and climate are the objective factors destined by heaven, then man-made production skills, inheritance of experience, and capture of Tieguanyin's genetic code are very important. The craftsmanship of oolong tea is a national non-genetic inheritance skill, which is also not done by ordinary people.





On a tea mountain, Wei Yuede, the national non-genetic inheritor of oolong tea production skills, picked a bud and three leaves at random, and tapped a few times on the palm of his hand. The leaves are crystal clear in the sun. Just a few touches, the leaves have a faint aroma, like the fragrance of green grass. The moisture of the leaves of Tieguanyin has begun to walk, the magical journey of Tieguanyin begins, and the story of the aroma of a leaf begins, and this kind of peculiarity is not easy to say, and it is difficult to quantitatively analyze it. To subdivide the fragrance of Tieguanyin, some people call it orchid fragrance, stone rhythm fragrance, cow frankincense, fruit fragrance, etc., which are not understood in the minds of laypeople, but must be pursued hard in the minds of experts. The thing that Anxi tea people have been pursuing all their lives is to focus their whole life on this, capture a unique aroma of Tieguanyin, and branded with their unique personal imprint, so that many people come to Anxi, with a pilgrimage-like mood, to follow the one in their hearts. Divide love.




As an ordinary tea drinker, the research on tea is not necessarily so in-depth, but a little love for good tea can also be expressed in words. In the tea tasting room of Xianghua Township Government, Xianghua Tieguanyin, who was praised as "the best tea among tea" by the old governor Hu Ping, if you don't drink it, are you not coming to Xianghua in vain? Going to Xianghua not to visit famous mountains, not to climb Buddha's ear, not to appreciate the red azalea in the world in April, maybe because of time and weather, all can be justified, but how can we not drink tea? Go for tea, and drink Xianghua Tieguanyin is a worthwhile trip to Xianghua. As an ordinary Anxi native, I have drank a lot of tea and Tieguanyin, but when you arrive in Xianghua, your eyes are still bright, and you are afraid of missing any good time to taste tea. The host took out the hidden Tieguanyin, some of which were award-winning teas and box-pressed teas. There were a little more people drinking tea. The guests and hosts settled down. , people squeeze me and push, sometimes lose a little appearance, wanton frivolous sound, contented sound, drifting in the ears. Come to a debate, come to a high-level judgment, ask a professional tea master to make an assessment, and even have a slight chance of winning or losing, just for that spoonful of tea. Tea can be filling and intoxicating, and I really don’t want to go to Xianghua, I want to drink tea and smell the fragrance. And this scene, in the land of Anxi, can be said to be commonplace. In the 1980s, Anxi held the Tieguanyin Cup Song Contest. There was a song "People Don't Want to Go When They Come to Anxi", which was about the love for Anxi and the obsession with this fragrance.



About the story of tea and the story of aroma, in Anxi, there are countless tea culture festivals, tea festivals, masters competitions and other tea events organized by officials every year. The wind of tasting tea, Anxi is the most prosperous. The smoky fire of folk tea fights starts from the moment of working in the tea house, or starts anytime and anywhere, chatting about smoking and drinking, and more like drinking tea. The dignitaries want to drink tea, and the common people also like this. Chai, rice, oil, salt, sauce and vinegar tea, regardless of children and elders, the tip of the tongue turns and lingers in the tea soup, some people are experts.




It used to be next to the Gaoding Tea Manor in Longjuan Township, a simple grass bungalow, near the stream, the clear stream was flowing, the kettle that boiled the water was covered with lumps, old scars and new wounds. The black body of the pot, the peasants who cultivated, randomly picked up three or two stones on the spot, built a stone stove, set up a tree branch, and had a short salary, and fetched water to make tea on the spot. Before drinking the tea, my heart is already full of tea fragrance. Thinking that this picture of burning tea is a portrayal of Anxi tea farmers.



It is not uncommon to drink tea from a large bowl, and it is not uncommon to drink tea. When I was a child, there were few idle people in the countryside in April. The adults were farming, and the children were not idle either. Tea, water, and meals were provided within their ability. On a hot day, the thirst is unbearable, and drinking tea is not so particular. The cows drink tea and drink tea, and they are happy. Carry an aluminum bucket with a lid, put a porcelain bowl upside down on the aluminum lid, pour half a bucket of scalding boiling water, sprinkle a few taels of Tieguanyin in it, let the tea relax in the water, and a bucket of bright yellow tea will emerge. Next to my parents who were farming in the fields, the tea was lukewarm, with the tea powder in the bowl, and I almost poured the tea powder into my stomach, which must be a good memory. Tea is still fragrant. The tea you drink and the tea you have worked hard to make can't be fragrant. On the ground of Anxi, the smell of soil is rolled everywhere, accompanied by the aroma of rice and tea.




Anxi people's love for tea and their love for a fragrance has reached an unparalleled level. As early as the Five Dynasties when the county was established, Zhan Dunren, the magistrate of Anxi Kaixian County, wrote "Long'an Yanwu Elder Hui Tea, Making This Generation Slip", there is "splashed milk and floating flowers are full of cups, and the fragrance is lingering around the teeth. ” of the cloud of smoke. Huang Yijian, an advisor to King Qian Chu of Wuyue, who was later the magistrate of Bizhan County, lived in seclusion in Xiaoxichang, which is today's Anxi, and wrote, "Suyu is full of vegetables and tender, and spring mountain is a few roasted tea flags." The fragrance of tea in Anxi permeates Spring Mountain, and the ancestors of Anxi knew the unique skill of hojicha in the early years. During the Qianlong period, Anxi native Guan Xianyao's "Cooking Tea with Snow Water" wrote, "The fragrance of the cheeks is full of flavor, and the sound of spring is sung loudly." "The tea is cooked in the snow before the rain, and the fragrance of Sprite tea is clear." The intention is to ask "Qingshuiyanju", "The grass stalls are old in autumn, and the tongue is fragrant by the water." Lian Heng wrote in "Anxi Tieguanyin", "A kind of clear fragrance can not be forgotten, and meditation is the same as the testimony of the wood rhinoceros." Strong tea aroma. In modern poetry, there are countless tea fragrances written in Anxi. In some tea couplets in Anxi, the fragrance of tea is also written. For example, in the 25th year of Emperor Qianlong’s reign in the Qing Dynasty, Wang Zongpi, who was elected to Xiping, was appointed to the school of Wuying Palace. ", presented this tea couplet to Su Chenggua, Zhentian Village, Changqing Town, and wrote a good story of friendship. In CCTV's 2005 Spring Festival Gala, "Taste Tieguanyin, fragrant cross-strait; worship Mazu Temple, love one family." Written by Ye Tong of the Chinese Couplet Association Association, which made Anxi tea more famous.




Anxi people love the fragrance of tea, which is also reflected in the name of the tea. Anxi is the national treasure house of tea varieties. The head of Anxi's tea is represented by Tieguanyin. Other varieties of tea are also worth mentioning, and they are also fragrant. Golden Gui has the reputation of "penetrating fragrance". Bergamot tea, it is said that during the Kangxi period, the Zen master Qihuyan Avenue in Huqiu Town grafted big leaf oolong and citron. In the quietness of meditation, he found a unique aroma. As for cinnamon, narcissus, chilan and other species, it seems to be very fragrant. The Meizhan tea in Lutian Town is said to be named after "Meizhan Baihua Kui". The fragrance of plum blossoms seems to be on par with Lanxiang. At that time, Lin Henian, one of the eight great poets of the late Qing Dynasty in Fujian, who was the hometown of Shanju, said in his "Tian Jiashu" that "planting 30,000 plums, I will regret it at the end of my life". The aroma of Meizhan tea must have penetrated deep into his bone marrow, and the aroma of Meizhan tea still pervades the land of Inner Anxi.




Tea, the best wood in the south. Many good teas multiply in the land of Anxi, the blessing of Anxi. Since ancient times, Anxi has always been a land filled with fragrance. Tea is cheap, tea is pure, tea is longevity, and tea is blessed. We have to be grateful for this land full of fragrance.


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