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铁观音纯雅礼和
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乌龙茶色香韵味
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News Detail

正山小种 祁门红茶  云南滇红

  1
Issuing time:2022-04-15 14:51

/ 1 / 产地与历史




正山小种:产自福建省武夷山市桐木村。


是世界上最早的红茶,世界红茶的鼻祖,距今已经有400多年的历史。




祁红:产自安徽省黄山市祁门县。


光绪年以前,祁门只产绿茶,不产红茶。光绪元年,胡元龙在培桂山房筹建日顺茶厂,用自产茶叶,请宁州师傅舒基立按宁红经验试制红茶,之后试制成功,祁门红茶在市场上大受欢迎。




滇红:产自云南省南部与西南部的临沧、保山、凤庆、西双版纳、德宏等地。


滇红从1937年开始,由冯绍裘等茶叶工作者在云南主导研制。期间正是战乱,希望远离战火,在茶叶生产贸易上有新的突破。经过努力在1939年的凤庆县,将滇红研制成功,并因其独特的口感大受好评。



△祁红




/ 2 / 品种




这三种红茶的原料都是选自当地的优良茶树品种,品种和地域特征差异大,因此做出来的茶风味大不相同。




正山小种:选用桐木村当地野生、半野生的菜茶群体种。




祁红:选用祁门当地的中叶、中生种茶树“槠叶种”,又名祁门种。




滇红:选用云南当地优良的云南大叶种茶树。




/ 3 / 工艺




祁红与滇红基本上按一般的工夫红茶工艺加工。而正山小种有两个独特的工艺,一是过红锅:将发酵过的茶放到锅中炒制,钝化酶活性,保持正山小种的香气和口感;二是熏焙:用马尾松进行熏焙,干燥茶叶的同时引入正山小种特有的松香。




正山小种:采摘-萎凋-揉捻-发酵-过红锅-复揉-熏焙-复火-精制




祁红:采摘-萎凋-揉捻-发酵-干燥-精制




滇红:采摘-萎凋-揉捻-发酵-干燥-精制



△滇红




/ 4 / 外形




从外形就能很轻松地辨别三种茶。条索细小的是祁红,条索粗大且紧结,有明显金毫的是滇红,条索粗大且乌黑的是正山小种。




正山小种:按等级来分,外形各有不同,有全芽头细小的金骏眉,一芽一、二叶的小赤甘等,身骨重实,色泽乌黑油润,带白霜。




祁红:条索紧细,外形秀丽,有锋苗,稍弯曲,色泽乌润带灰光。




滇红:条索肥壮,紧结重实,色泽乌润带红褐,金毫显露,如果是纯芽滇红则满披金毫。




/ 5 / 香气




从香气上来说,三种茶的区别也很明显。产地、品种、加工工艺都是决定香气的重要因素,正山小种的松烟香是最独特的,祁红的花果香偏清甜,滇红香浓而鲜。




正山小种:带有独特的花果香,香气持久,传统正山小种还有松烟香。




祁红:香气丰富且清新,似花似果又似蜜,有类似玫瑰或苹果的清香。




滇红:香气来的更浓,高扬、鲜爽,带蜜香。




△正山小种




/ 6 / 汤色




从汤色上看,在同样的冲泡方法下,一般来说滇红的汤色是最浓的,一般形容为红艳或红浓,在白瓷杯中可见明显的金圈。祁红与正山小种的汤色比滇红淡一些,对比而言,祁红偏红而正山小种偏金色。




正山小种:汤色呈糖浆状的深金黄色。




祁红:汤色红亮清澈。




滇红:汤色红艳,有稠度,金圈明显。

/ 1 / Origin and History




Zhengshan Souchong: Produced in Tongmu Village, Wuyishan City, Fujian Province.


It is the earliest black tea in the world and the originator of the world's black tea. It has a history of more than 400 years.




Qihong: Produced in Qimen County, Huangshan City, Anhui Province.


Before the Guangxu year, Qimen only produced green tea, not black tea. In the first year of Guangxu, Hu Yuanlong planned to build Rishun Tea Factory in Peigui Shanfang, using self-produced tea leaves, and asked Ningzhou master Shu Ji to make black tea according to Ninghong's experience. After the trial production was successful, Qimen black tea became very popular in the market.




Dianhong: It is produced in Lincang, Baoshan, Fengqing, Xishuangbanna, Dehong and other places in the south and southwest of Yunnan Province.


Dianhong has been developed in Yunnan by Feng Shaoqiu and other tea workers since 1937. During the period of war, I hope to stay away from the war and make new breakthroughs in tea production and trade. After hard work, Dianhong was successfully developed in Fengqing County in 1939, and was well received for its unique taste.



△Qi Hong




/ 2 / varieties




The raw materials of these three kinds of black tea are all selected from the local excellent tea tree varieties, and the varieties and regional characteristics are very different, so the flavors of the teas made are very different.




Zhengshan Souchong: Select the local wild and semi-wild vegetable tea group species in Tongmu Village.




Qihong: Select the local middle-leaf and middle-grown tea tree in Qimen, the "Qi Ye species", also known as the Qimen species.




Dianhong: Select the excellent Yunnan big-leaf tea tree in Yunnan.




/ 3 / craft




Qihong and Dianhong are basically processed according to the general black tea process. And Zhengshan Souchong has two unique processes, one is red pot: put the fermented tea into the pot to fry, inactivate the enzyme activity, and maintain the aroma and taste of Zhengshan Souchong; the second is smoked roasting: Smoked and roasted with masson pine, the tea leaves are dried and the unique rosin of Lapsang Souchong is introduced.




Zhengshan Souchong: Picking - Withering - Kneading - Fermentation - Red Pot - Re-kneading - Smoked Roasting - Re-fired - Refining




Qi Hong: picking - withering - rolling - fermentation - drying - refining




Dianhong: picking - withering - rolling - fermentation - drying - refining



△Dianhong




/ 4 / Shape




The three types of tea can be easily identified by their appearance. The thin rope is Qi Hong, the thick and tight rope is Dianhong, and the thick and black one is Zhengshan Souchong.




Lapsang Souchong: classified according to grades, with different shapes, including Jinjunmei with all buds and small heads, small red sweets with one bud and one or two leaves, etc., the body is heavy and solid, the color is black and oily, with hoarfrost .




Qi Hong: The ropes are tight and thin, with a beautiful appearance, sharp and slightly curved, and the color is dark and gray.




Dianhong: The cords are fat and strong, firm and firm, the color is black and reddish brown, and the golden hair is exposed. If it is a pure bud Dianhong, it is covered with golden hair.




/ 5 / aroma




In terms of aroma, the difference between the three teas is also obvious. The place of origin, variety, and processing technology are all important factors in determining the aroma.




Lapsang Souchong: It has a unique aroma of flowers and fruits, and the aroma is long-lasting. The traditional Lapsang Souchong also has the aroma of pine smoke.




Qi Hong: The aroma is rich and fresh, like flowers, fruits and honey, with a fragrance similar to rose or apple.




Dianhong: The aroma is stronger, high, fresh, with honey fragrance.




△ Zhengshan Souchong




/ 6 / Soup




Judging from the color of the soup, under the same brewing method, the soup color of Dianhong is generally the strongest. The soup color of Qihong and Zhengshan Souchong is lighter than Dianhong. In contrast, Qihong is reddish and Zhengshan Souchong is more golden.




Lapsang Souchong: The soup is a syrupy, deep golden yellow.




Qi Hong: The soup is red, bright and clear.




Dianhong: The color of the soup is red and bright, with consistency and obvious golden circle.


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