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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

摇青是铁观音初制的第三道工序

  4
Issuing time:2022-04-14 17:45

摇青,也叫“筛青”,是铁观音初制的第三道工序,也是铁观音茶叶香气品质特征形成的最关键的一步。目的是使茶青在外力作用下划伤叶片边缘的部分细胞组织,溢出茶汁与空气接触,导致多酚类物质局部酶促氧化,形成“绿叶红边”的奇特现象;同时,叶子的内含物进一步分解、转化、浓缩,形成铁观音特有的色、香、味。


摇青是使鲜叶旋转、碰撞、摩擦,处于动态。在动态过程中,叶边缘表面组织相互碰撞,叶表面相互摩擦损伤,叶内细胞失去平衡,损伤的叶片流出汁液,从而促进内含物的渗入,促进酶促氧化。叶中的多酚类物质氧化融合产生茶黄素、茶红素、芳香物质等有色物质。在摇制过程中,还可以人为控制失水的方式和速度,使茎脉中的水分扩散到叶片中的细胞中,使叶片充满水分,细胞液处于饱满状态,这就是茶农所说的“水走”。由于水分和细胞液在叶片中的重新分配和混合,叶片边缘受损形成高度集中区,呈现红色化合物,叶片由绿色变为青色。这就是晃动“做功”的阶段。适度摇动后,鲜叶必须通过冷却保持静止状态。在静止状态下,叶片中的水分继续蒸发,新鲜叶片各部位的水分重新分配,产生一系列变化。水分随着叶背气孔的打开迅速蒸发,逐渐变红,形成特殊的香气。


绿度应根据鲜叶的叶相特征变化来确定。叶的颜色表现为绿茎、透明叶脉、淡绿色叶肉、猩红色叶缘,即茶农所说的绿茎、绿腹、红边。绿化的衡量标准是:手握如棉,叶子红边明显,叶子呈勺形,草全没了,花果清香显露。做青要掌握循序渐进的“四大原则”:摇青持续时间逐渐增加,凉青时间逐渐增加,摊叶厚度由薄到厚逐渐增加,发酵程度由轻到重。一般通过4-5次摇匀冷却完成,所谓“一摇、二摇、三摇、四摇”。第一次摇青时间短,为了保绿保水。科学原理太复杂,可以理解为“唤醒”晒青后会失去生命力的茶叶。适当摇动绿叶,可以保证鲜叶保持活力,正常呼吸,达到“走水”的目的。时间太短很难改变,时间太长可能导致鲜叶不堪重负而“死亡”。在第二次摇的时候,可以稍微增加时间,然后观察它的颜色,闻它的香味的“技巧”就开始发挥作用了。如果时间太长,刀片会因为太严重的碰撞和太强烈的生化反应而“死亡”(die)。第三次、第四次摇青,要摇得更用力,这样才能驱散鲜叶中的青味,更好地增强鲜叶中芳香物质的形成。每一次绿摇都是以闻起来绿味淡,绿叶浅黄,叶缘有红边为原则。


有经验的抖青师傅,只要抓起茶叶闻一闻,就知道自己抖得有多好。每次摇青的时间间隔:停青至绿气消失,表面叶片枯萎软化后,要及时摇“活”,防止叶片因失水过多而“死绿”。与具体的室内温湿度有关,需要仔细观察。虽然过程复杂,但蓝翔的铁一般的魅力只能靠功夫才能抖落出来,没有其他捷径。出现在饮茶者杯中的铁观音,外形卷曲,发酵充分,红边特征明显。冲泡一次,蓝翔水果的味道从杯中溢出,让房间充满香味;安溪铁观音茶叶色泽金黄,

Shaking green, also called "screening green", is the third process of Tieguanyin's initial production, and it is also the most critical step in the formation of Tieguanyin's tea aroma quality characteristics. The purpose is to make tea green scratch some cell tissues at the edge of leaves under the action of external forces, and overflow tea juice to contact with the air, resulting in local enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols, forming a peculiar phenomenon of "green leaves and red edges"; At the same time, the contents of the leaves are further decomposed, transformed and condensed to form the unique color, fragrance and taste of Tieguanyin.


Shaking is to make fresh leaves rotate, collide and rub, and be in a dynamic state. In the dynamic process, the leaf edge surface tissues collide with each other, the leaf surfaces rub and damage each other, the cells in the leaves lose balance, and the damaged leaves flow out of the juice, so as to promote the infiltration of inclusions and promote enzymatic oxidation. Polyphenols in leaves are oxidized and fused to produce colored substances such as theaflavins, thearubigins and aromatic substances. In the process of shaking, the way and speed of water loss can also be artificially controlled, so that the water in the stem veins diffuses to the cells in the leaves, so that the leaves are filled with water and the cell fluid is in a full state, which is what tea farmers call "water walking". Due to the redistribution and blending of water and cell fluid in the leaves, the leaf edge was damaged to form a highly concentrated area, showing red compounds, and the leaves turned from green to cyan. This is the stage of "doing work" by shaking. After moderate shaking, the fresh leaves must be kept in a static state by cooling. In the static state, the water in the leaves continues to evaporate, and the water in all parts of the fresh leaves redistributes, resulting in a series of changes. The water evaporates quickly with the opening of the stomata on the back of the leaves, and gradually turns red and forms a special aroma.


The degree of greening should be determined according to the change of leaf phase characteristics of fresh leaves. The color of the leaves shows green stalks, transparent veins, light green mesophyll and scarlet margins, that is, what tea farmers call green stalks, green bellies and red edges. The measurement standard of greening is: holding hands like cotton, obvious red edges of leaves, spoon-shaped leaves, all the grass is gone, and the fragrance of flowers and fruits is revealed. To do green, we should master the "four principles" of gradual and orderly progress: the duration of shaking green is gradually increasing, the time of cooling green is gradually increasing, the thickness of spreading leaves is gradually increasing from thin to thick, and the degree of fermentation is from light to heavy. Generally, it is finished by 4-5 times of shaking and cooling, so-called "one shake, two shakes, three shakes, four shakes". The first green shaking time is short, in order to keep green and water. The scientific principle is too complicated, which can be understood as "awakening" the tea that will lose its vitality after drying green. Proper shaking of green leaves can ensure that fresh leaves keep vitality and breathe normally, so as to achieve the purpose of "walking water". Too short a time is hard to change, and too long may lead to fresh leaves being overwhelmed and "dying". In the second shaking, the time can be slightly increased, and then the "skill" of observing its color and smelling its fragrance begins to play a role. If the time is too long, the blade will "die" (die) because of too serious collision and too strong biochemical reaction. For the third and fourth green shaking, it is necessary to shake it harder, so that the green flavor in fresh leaves can be dissipated, and the formation of aromatic substances in fresh leaves can be better enhanced. Each green shaking is based on the principle that the green flavor is light when you smell it, the green leaves are pale yellow, and the edges of the leaves have red edges.


Experienced green-shaking masters will know how well they are shaking as long as they grab the tea and smell it. Time interval of each green shaking: Stop green until the green air disappears, and after the surface leaves wither and soften, it is necessary to shake "live" in time, so as to prevent the leaves from "dying green" due to excessive water loss. It is related to the specific indoor temperature and humidity, and needs careful observation. Although the process is complicated, the iron charm of Lanxiang can only be shaken out by kung fu, and there is no other shortcut. Tieguanyin, which appears in the cup of tea drinker, has curly shape, sufficient fermentation and obvious red edge characteristics. Once brewed, the taste of lanxiang fruit overflows from the cup and fills the room with fragrance; The tea color is golden,


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