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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

铁观音摇青决定茶叶质量的一个环节

  7
Issuing time:2022-04-13 15:21

一、“走水、保青”




铁观音品质要好,“走水、保青”是第一要务。




“走水”是指通过摇青,使嫩梗中所含有的芳香物质、氨基酸和非酚剂儿茶素随着水分扩散到叶片,并转化成更高浓度的香味物质,这是乌龙茶高香的关键因素之一。




“保青”是在走水的基础上,即让叶子要处于运动状态,并且茶叶梗、叶有一定水分差异和保持叶肉细胞的生理机能。




相反,若过早丧失叶肉细胞的生理活性,就叫“死青”。“死青”因“走水”无法进行,叶子在摇青过程中水分得不到补充,制成的茶外形干枯、内质香味较低淡。




制作高品质铁观音,摇青技术操作上要抓住“三守一攻一补充”,即第1、2次摇青宜轻,转数不宜过多,停青的时间宜短,一般第一次摇青3分钟,第二次摇青5分钟,以免水分失散过多,以保持青叶的生理活性,使萎调后的叶子能慢慢复“活”过了,到第三、四次摇青要摇得重,摇得足够,使叶边缘有一定的损伤,有青、臭气散发出来,第三次摇青10分钟,第四次摇青30分钟。




“一补充”则是在第四次摇青摇得不足,叶子“红变”不够时,再补摇青1次。每次摇的转数应由少到多,停青时间也是由短到长。第一、二、三次停青停到清气消失,表面叶子萎软下来之后,就要及时摇活,以免叶子因水分散失过多而“死青”。



二、适度“消水”




“消水”是指茶青的水分丧失。消水掌握好坏关键在摇青过程中。




在摇青摊凉过程中,摊凉太久不及时摇活容易造成叶失水过度,手握叶子有沙沙响声,并有枯燥感,就叫“尽水”。摊凉太短停青不足,水分饱含过度容易造成茶叶“假活”现象,手握有梗断之感,即进行杀青,就叫“大水”。




“尽水”叶制作出来的茶,外形松懈,色泽枯黄。“大水”制作出来的茶,外形不够紧结,色泽青灰。二者的品质都比较差。




“消水”度往往因季节、天气及品种的不同而不同。铁观音摇青“消水”度,应掌握“春消、秋水守牢”的原则,因为春季气温低、湿度大,茶青肥壮多睡,左倾过程汇总水分会政法多一些,可在摇青时摇重些,停青时间长些,待到做青适度时,梗叶要“消”即嫩梗外观干瘪柔韧,折而不断,这样才会有浓郁的香气。所以,茶叶做青以梗叶仍略有光泽为度,具有秋茶的秋香特色。




三、恰到“发酵”




铁观音的发酵程度以“春秋等香”为原则,因为春秋季节气温比较低,叶子变红较慢,摇青可摇到梗叶水“消”,直到有较高的清香花香显露。再行杀青。




四、选择好制茶天气




通常情况下五一或国庆前后的北风天是最好的制茶时间,这就短时间段安溪铁观音茶叶品质往往较好。这样主要是以为内茶叶中的多酚类的酶促氧化进行得比较缓慢,叶子发酵比较慢,摇青可摇到“梗叶消”,使叶子里面的内含物能充分转化成茶的香气和滋味物质。同时,在低温低湿情况下,叶子内含物的化学变化比较缓慢,物质的转化时积累大鱼消耗,有利于摇青时的“保青”,使“走水”能顺利进行。

1. "Walk the water, keep the green"




The quality of Tieguanyin is better, and "going water and maintaining green" is the first priority.




"Draining water" means that by shaking the green, the aromatic substances, amino acids and non-phenolic catechins contained in the tender stems are diffused to the leaves with water, and converted into higher concentrations of aroma substances. This is the high fragrance of oolong tea. one of the key factors.




"Keeping green" is on the basis of running water, that is, keeping the leaves in a moving state, and the tea stems and leaves have a certain water difference and maintain the physiological function of the mesophyll cells.




On the contrary, if the physiological activity of mesophyll cells is lost prematurely, it is called "dead green". "Dead green" cannot be carried out due to "water removal", and the leaves cannot be replenished during the process of shaking the green, and the resulting tea is dry in appearance and has a weak inner flavor.




To make high-quality Tieguanyin, we should grasp the "three defenses, one attack and one supplement" in the technical operation of shaking green, that is, the first and second shaking should be light, the number of revolutions should not be too much, and the time of stopping green should be short, generally the first Shake the green leaves for 3 minutes for the first time, and shake the green for 5 minutes for the second time to avoid excessive water loss, so as to maintain the physiological activity of the green leaves, so that the withered leaves can be slowly "revitalized", and the third and fourth times Shake the green to be heavy, shake enough, so that there is a certain degree of damage to the edge of the leaf, green, odor is emitted, shake the green for 10 minutes for the third time, and shake the green for 30 minutes for the fourth time.




"One supplement" means that when the fourth shake is not enough, and the leaves are not "red" enough, shake the green one more time. The number of revolutions of each shake should be from less to more, and the stop time should also be from short to long. The first, second, and third times to stop the greening and stop until the clear air disappears, and after the leaves on the surface are wilted and soft, they should be shaken in time to prevent the leaves from "dead green" due to excessive water loss.



2. Moderate "water elimination"




"Xiaoshui" refers to the loss of water in tea greens. The key to mastering the quality of water elimination is in the process of shaking.




In the process of shaking the green stand to cool, if it is not shaken for a long time, it is easy to cause the leaves to lose too much water, and there is a rustling sound and a dry feeling when holding the leaves, which is called "exhausting water". The cooling is too short, the greening is insufficient, and the moisture content is too high, which can easily lead to the phenomenon of "fake living" of the tea leaves. If you hold the feeling of being blocked, you will finish the greening, which is called "big water".




The tea made from the "Jin Shui" leaves has a loose appearance and a dry yellow color. The tea produced by "Da Shui" is not tight enough in shape, and its color is blue and gray. Both are of poor quality.




The degree of "water absorption" often varies with seasons, weather and species. Tieguanyin shakes the "water-removing" degree of the green, and the principle of "dissipating water in spring and keeping the water in autumn" should be grasped, because the temperature in spring is low, the humidity is high, the green tea is fat and more sleepy. Shake more heavily from time to time, and stop greening for a longer time. When the greening is moderate, the stems and leaves should be "disappeared", that is, the appearance of the tender stems is shriveled and flexible, and the folds are continuous, so that there will be a strong aroma. Therefore, when the tea leaves are green, the stems and leaves are still slightly glossy, which has the autumn fragrance characteristics of autumn tea.




Three, just right "fermentation"




The fermentation degree of Tieguanyin is based on the principle of "spring and autumn fragrance", because the temperature in spring and autumn is relatively low, and the leaves turn red slowly. Shaking the green can be shaken until the water of the stems and leaves "dissipates" until a higher fragrance and floral fragrance are revealed. Kill again.




Fourth, choose a good weather for tea making




Under normal circumstances, the north wind days around May 1 or the National Day are the best time to make tea, and the quality of tea is often better in a short period of time. This is mainly because the enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols in the inner tea leaves is relatively slow, and the leaves are fermented relatively slowly. Shaking the green tea can be shaken until the "stem leaves disappear", so that the contents in the leaves can be fully transformed into the aroma of tea and taste substances. At the same time, under the condition of low temperature and low humidity, the chemical changes of the contents of the leaves are relatively slow, and the accumulation of large fish consumption during the transformation of substances is conducive to the "green preservation" when shaking greens, so that the "water removal" can be carried out smoothly.


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