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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

乌龙茶清香型和浓香型

  1
Issuing time:2022-04-13 14:55

乌龙茶,是我国六大茶类之一,也称青茶,是属于半发酵茶,有“中国特种茶”之称。主要产区集中在福建的闽北【武夷山】、闽南【安溪与漳平】,广东潮汕和我国台湾地区。

而乌龙茶分为清香型和浓香型,各有特点,也各有喜欢的茶友,“清香型”乌龙茶与“浓香型”乌龙茶【以铁观音为代表】,到底哪个更好,究竟孰优孰劣,本文试图就“清香型”乌龙茶与“浓香型”乌龙茶作些比较,以求教方家。

“清香型”乌龙茶的由来

“清香型”乌龙茶,又称“台式”乌龙茶。在闽台农业合作与交流的过程中,1990年在安溪诞生了福建省第一家经营茶叶的台资企业。截至2004年底,安溪境内共有台资茶叶企业25家。

目前,福建省内台商投资的自产自销型、自产兼收购型、纯收购型以及茶叶产销与茶机结合经营的茶叶企业,共有50家。这些台资茶叶企业凡涉及茶叶生产加工领域的,无一不以“清香型”乌龙茶作为当家品种。


“清香型”乌龙茶与传统乌龙茶的品质差异

“清香型”乌龙茶产制技术自成一格,其外形及香气与传统乌龙茶截然不同,比起福建传统“绿叶红镶边”的安溪乌龙茶,“清香型”乌龙茶具有明显的“二绿”特点:即干茶砂绿、汤色黄中带绿。

其外形为球形或半球形(俗称“绿豆形”),冲泡后在杯中显现花蕾造型,香气清香持久,茶汤明亮见底,嫩香回甘,叶底柔软。如冻顶乌龙茶,外形呈半球形,条索紧结,干茶色泽为墨绿带油光,香气清香扑鼻,滋味浓厚新鲜,入口生津,落喉甘滑,韵味强,而汤色蜜黄澄清明亮。

以传统工艺生产的“浓香型”乌龙茶,包括传统工艺的铁观音、武夷岩茶等。

安溪铁观音茶条卷曲、肥壮圆结、重实匀整、色泽油亮赤褐,呈青蒂绿腹晴蜓头状;汤色金黄,清澈明亮;叶底肥厚,呈绸面光泽;内质“音韵”独特,兰香馥郁;滋味醇厚甘鲜,回味悠长,有“七泡有余香”之誉。


“清香型”和“浓香型”乌龙茶的消费群体比较

清香型适合于一些喜欢飘香,茶汤淡而有味,细腻油质,甘甜口感的茶友,特别是火气比较大,希望喝茶去火,通过香气散杂气的茶友。但这款茶也有自己的特点,如果是标准半发酵,是可以达到温性,倒是可以一年四季适合什么人都可以喝。

其中清香型由于片面追求香气,大多数发酵越来越轻,所以,喝清香型的茶友,应该最好如果觉得胃不舒服或者胃是寒性的,要注意是否会喝到轻发酵的清香型铁观音,因为这样的铁观音,茶性凉,而且比较伤胃。

“浓香型”乌龙茶【铁观音】适合喜欢香气浓郁,滋味足,茶汤与香气融合的茶友,特别是喜欢回甘韵味的茶友,更是不二的选择。当然还有就是胃有些凉性的茶友,或者胃不舒服的茶友,也非常适合喝浓香型铁观音。因为浓香型铁观音不仅是在加工时已经是重发酵,通过碳烘焙后,已经是熟茶。

当然,还有一些爱存老茶的茶友,浓香型的铁观音越存越好,存到一定的时间,可以调整腹部的问题,比如理气、润肠养胃等。

乌龙茶“清香型”与“浓香型”的技术界定

采用不同的茶叶加工方法所所制的成品具有不同的香气特征。乌龙茶的加工方法综合了红茶与绿茶加工方法的优点,兼有半发酵与炒制的过程,成茶带有花香、果香,一般称之为“制造香”。影响乌龙茶“制造香”的主要因素为:做青、包揉和烘焙。

做 青

“清香型”乌龙茶与“浓香型”乌龙茶都要求太阳晒青。因“清香型”乌龙茶做青程度较轻,如不经太阳晒青,则清香难显。相对传统安溪乌龙茶,“清香型”乌龙茶晒青程度属中度偏轻,失水率以8%~12%为宜。一般下机前经晾青翻拌3次,下机做青2次,室温20-22℃,相对湿度70%。而传统工艺的浓香型一般是半发酵以上,重发酵为主,一般晒青时间要长,茶青的发酵度高于清香型。

包 揉

在“清香型”乌龙茶包揉造型工艺中,总围绕着保鲜保绿,快速成形这条主线,所形成的绿豆状外形,比起传统安溪乌龙茶蜻蜒头和武夷岩茶的粗壮条索形,具有较好的商品外观和较高的鉴赏价值。从外观上看,武夷岩茶与铁观音清香型比较相似,而传统老工艺的铁观音浓香型,则是要求包得比较紧,条索紧结。

烘 焙

烘焙是乌龙茶的最后一道工序。传统安溪乌龙茶也有补火工艺,但补火是为了干燥。“清香型”乌龙茶文火慢焙是为了使成品香气敛藏,增进茶香,弥补做青较轻、甜香不显之缺点,所以又叫“烘焙提香工艺”。 而传统老工艺铁观音,烘焙的目的是为了让茶叶熟透,利于保存,而且香气会融入于水。

茶叶没有对错,只是让对的人喝到对的茶,“清香型”乌龙茶与“浓香型”乌龙茶应该是可以并存,可以不分出你我,但我们也应该清楚地看到,轻发酵的乌龙茶,不是标准半发酵温性的茶叶,应该像绿茶那样,清楚地让茶友知道,茶性较凉。

而浓香型铁观音,也应该告诉茶友,茶性较热,如果火气比较大的人,不适合喝新茶,应该存几年后再喝。就像生普与熟普,绿茶与红茶,更有所长,更取所需要,很好的。

英语翻译

Oolong tea is one of the six major types of tea in my country, also known as green tea. It belongs to semi-fermented tea and is known as "Chinese special tea". The main production areas are concentrated in northern Fujian [Wuyi Mountain], southern Fujian [Anxi and Zhangping], Chaoshan in Guangdong and Taiwan in China.

Oolong tea is divided into light fragrance type and strong fragrance type, each with its own characteristics and favorite tea friends. "Fresh fragrance type" oolong tea and "strong fragrance type" oolong tea [represented by Tieguanyin], which one is better and which one is? Which is better or worse, this article attempts to make some comparisons between "flavor" oolong tea and "strong flavor" oolong tea, in order to seek advice from Fangjia.

The Origin of "Flavoured" Oolong Tea

"Fragrant" oolong tea, also known as "desktop" oolong tea. In the process of agricultural cooperation and exchanges between Fujian and Taiwan, the first Taiwan-funded enterprise dealing in tea in Fujian Province was born in Anxi in 1990. By the end of 2004, there were 25 Taiwan-funded tea companies in Anxi.

At present, there are 50 tea enterprises invested by Taiwanese companies in Fujian Province of self-production and self-sale, self-production and acquisition, pure acquisition, and tea production and sales combined with tea machines. All of these Taiwan-funded tea companies involved in the field of tea production and processing, all of them take the "flavor-type" oolong tea as the leading variety.


The quality difference between "flavor" oolong tea and traditional oolong tea

The production technology of "flavor-type" oolong tea has its own style, and its appearance and aroma are completely different from traditional oolong tea. Compared with Fujian's traditional "green-leafed red-edged" Anxi oolong tea, "flavor-type" oolong tea has obvious "two green" characteristics : Dry tea sand green, soup color yellow with green.

Its shape is spherical or hemispherical (commonly known as "mung bean shape"), after brewing, the shape of flower buds appears in the cup, the fragrance is fragrant and lasting, the tea soup is bright and bottomless, tender and sweet, and the bottom of the leaves is soft. For example, Dongding oolong tea is hemispherical in shape and tightly knotted. The dry tea color is dark green with oily light, the aroma is fragrant, the taste is strong and fresh, the entrance is full of saliva, the throat is sweet and smooth, and the flavor is strong.

The "strong-flavored" oolong tea produced by traditional craftsmanship, including traditional craftsmanship Tieguanyin, Wuyi rock tea, etc.

Anxi Tieguanyin tea sticks are curly, plump and round knots, heavy and even, oily and red-brown in color, in the shape of a green twig and green belly; the soup color is golden, clear and bright; the bottom of the leaves is thick, with a silky luster; Unique, fragrant orchid; the taste is mellow and sweet, with a long aftertaste, and it has the reputation of "seven bubbles with lingering fragrance".


Comparison of Consumer Groups of "Fresh-flavored" and "Strong-flavored" Oolong Teas

The fragrance type is suitable for some tea lovers who like fragrance, the tea soup is light and flavorful, delicate and oily, and sweet in taste, especially those who have a lot of anger and want to drink tea to get rid of the fire and dispel miscellaneous gas through the aroma. But this tea also has its own characteristics. If it is standard semi-fermented, it can be warm, but it can be drunk by anyone all year round.

Among them, the fragrance type is mostly fermented due to the one-sided pursuit of aroma, and most of the fermentation is getting lighter and lighter. Therefore, tea lovers who drink fragrance type should preferably pay attention to whether they will drink lightly fermented fragrance if they feel sick to their stomach or if their stomach is cold. Type Tieguanyin, because this type of Tieguanyin is cool in tea, and it hurts the stomach.

"Strong-flavored" oolong tea [Tieguanyin] is suitable for tea lovers who like the rich aroma, full taste, and the fusion of tea soup and aroma, especially those who like sweet flavor. It is the best choice. Of course, there are tea lovers who have a cold stomach, or those who have an uncomfortable stomach. They are also very suitable for drinking strong-flavored Tieguanyin. Because the strong-flavor Tieguanyin is not only heavily fermented during processing, but also cooked tea after being baked with carbon.

Of course, there are also some tea lovers who love to save old tea. The stronger the strong-scented Tieguanyin, the better. After a certain period of time, it can adjust abdominal problems, such as regulating qi, moistening the intestines and nourishing the stomach.

Technical Definition of "Fresh Fragrance Type" and "Strong Fragrance Type" of Oolong Tea

The finished products made by different tea processing methods have different aroma characteristics. The processing method of oolong tea combines the advantages of black tea and green tea processing methods, and combines the process of semi-fermentation and frying. The main factors that affect the "manufacturing fragrance" of oolong tea are: greening, rubbing and baking.

do green

Both "flavor" oolong tea and "strong flavor" oolong tea require sun drying. Because the "flavor type" oolong tea is less green, if it is not greened in the sun, the fragrance will be difficult to show. Compared with the traditional Anxi oolong tea, the degree of drying of "flavoured" oolong tea is moderate to light, and the water loss rate is 8% to 12%. Generally, it is dried and mixed for 3 times before leaving the machine, and it is made green for 2 times. The room temperature is 20-22 ℃, and the relative humidity is 70%. The traditional process of the strong-flavor type is generally more than half-fermented, mainly heavy fermentation, generally the drying time is longer, and the fermentation degree of tea green is higher than that of the light-flavor type.

pack knead

In the "flavor type" oolong tea bag kneading process, it always revolves around the main line of keeping fresh and green, and rapid forming. It has better appearance and higher appreciation value. In terms of appearance, Wuyi rock tea is similar to Tieguanyin's light-flavor type, while the traditional old-fashioned Tieguanyin strong-flavor type requires tighter wrapping and tighter ropes.

bake

Roasting is the final process of oolong tea. Traditional Anxi oolong tea also has a fire-filling process, but the fire-filling is for drying. "Fresh-flavored" oolong tea is slowly roasted in a slow fire to make the aroma of the finished product hide, enhance the aroma of the tea, and make up for the shortcomings of lighter green and less sweet aroma. In the traditional old craft of Tieguanyin, the purpose of baking is to make the tea leaves mature, which is conducive to preservation, and the aroma will be integrated into the water.

There is no right or wrong with tea, it just allows the right people to drink the right tea. "Flavoured" oolong tea and "strong-scented" oolong tea should be able to coexist without distinguishing between you and me, but we should also clearly see that light Fermented oolong tea is not a standard semi-fermented warm tea. Like green tea, it should clearly let tea lovers know that the tea is cooler.

As for the strong-flavored Tieguanyin, tea lovers should also be told that the tea is hotter. If people with a lot of anger are not suitable for drinking new tea, they should drink it after a few years. Just like raw and cooked tea, green tea and black tea, they have more strengths and take what they need, which is very good.


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