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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

茶叶审评流程:把盘→泡茶→看汤色→嗅香气→尝滋味→评叶底

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Issuing time:2022-03-31 20:37

审评用具:审评盘、审评杯、审查碗、叶底盘、称茶称、定时针、网匙、茶匙、吐茶通、烧水壶等。


审评流程:把盘→泡茶→看汤色→嗅香气→尝滋味→评叶底


茶叶的审评可以分为干茶审评和开汤审评,俗称干评和湿评,审评时,先干茶审评后开汤审评,前者看外形的老嫩、条索、色泽、净度四个因子,后者看内质的汤色、香气、滋味、叶底四个因子。



01


审评步骤一:把盘


把盘是审评茶叶外形的首要步骤,主要是观察茶叶的外形(嫩度、色泽、条索、整碎、净度),一般取样100-150克左右,放入专用的茶样盘内,评定茶叶的情况。


嫩度是外形审评因子的重点,一般嫩度好的茶叶,应符合该茶类规格的外形要求,条索紧结重实,芽毫显露,完整饱满。


条索是各类茶具有的一定外形规格,是区别商品茶种类和等级的依据。如炒青条形、珠茶圆形等。


整碎是指茶叶的匀整程度,好的茶叶要保持茶叶的自然形态。


色泽是反应茶叶表面的颜色、色的深浅程度以及光线在茶叶面的反射光亮度,各类茶叶均有其一定的色泽要求,如红茶乌黑油润、绿茶翠绿、乌龙茶青褐色、黑茶黑油色等。


净度是指茶叶中含夹杂物的程度,净度好的茶叶不含任何夹杂质。




02


审评步骤二:泡茶


将审评杯和审评碗成行摆开,审评杯用于泡茶,审评碗用于盛放对应茶汤。


用称均匀取样,一般成品茶用3克茶叶,冲150毫升沸水,泡5分钟,部分紧压茶出汤时间延长2分钟;乌龙茶用5克茶叶,冲110毫升沸水,泡2-4次,每次2-5分钟。黑茶取茶样3g或5g,用茶水比1:50的沸水冲泡,加盖浸泡2分钟,评审汤色、香气、滋味后进行第二次冲泡,时间5分钟,沥出茶汤后依次审评汤色、香气、滋味、叶底。



03


审评步骤三:看汤色


汤色是指茶汤的颜色,审评时每个评审碗中的茶汤要求一致,以免影响茶汤的颜色深浅。


审评汤色要及时,饮茶汤的成分和空气接触后很容易发生变化,红茶的茶汤在冷却后还会出现浑浊的现象,俗称“冷后混”。为了避免色泽变化,审评中要先看汤色或者嗅香气与看汤色同时进行。


汤色审评主要抓住色度、亮度、清浊度三方面。汤色随茶树品种、鲜叶老嫩、加工方法而变化,但各类茶有其一定的色度要求,如绿茶的黄绿明亮、红茶的红艳明亮、乌龙茶的橙黄明亮、白茶的浅黄明亮等。



04


审评步骤四:嗅香气


嗅香气主要分热嗅、温嗅、冷嗅三个阶段,热嗅主要是辨别香气类型、高低和是否有异气,温嗅主要是主要是看茶叶的香型及优次,冷嗅是看香气的持久性。


嗅香气时,应一手拿住已倒出茶汤的审评杯,另一手半揭开杯盖,热嗅、温嗅时靠近杯沿用鼻轻嗅或深嗅,冷嗅时可以将整个鼻部探入杯内接近叶底以增加嗅感。



05


审评步骤五:尝滋味


滋味是评茶人的口感反应。一般用茶匙盛取茶汤到茶杯中,或者直接用茶匙取茶汤进行品茶。


评茶时首先要区别滋味是否纯正,一般纯正的滋味可以分为浓淡、强弱、鲜爽、醇和几种。不醇正的滋味有苦涩、粗青、异味。




06


审评步骤六:看叶底


叶底的评法是将杯中冲泡过的茶叶全部倒入叶底盘或放入评审杯盖的反面,将叶底拌匀、铺开、揿平,观察其嫩度、匀度和色泽。


好茶的叶底表现明亮、细嫩、厚实、稍卷,差的叶底表现暗、粗老、单薄、摊张等

Evaluation utensils: evaluation plate, evaluation cup, evaluation bowl, leaf base, tea weighing scale, timing needle, net spoon, teaspoon, spit tea, kettle, etc.


Evaluation process: put the plate → make tea → look at the color of the soup → smell the aroma → taste the taste → evaluate the bottom of the leaf


The evaluation of tea can be divided into dry tea evaluation and soup opening evaluation, commonly known as dry evaluation and wet evaluation. During the evaluation, dry tea evaluation is performed first and then soup opening evaluation. , four factors of clarity, the latter depends on the four factors of the inner quality of soup color, aroma, taste, and leaf bottom.



01


Review Step 1: Take the Disk


Placing the plate is the first step in evaluating the shape of tea leaves, mainly to observe the shape of the tea leaves (tenderness, color, strands, whole shreds, and clarity). Generally, about 100-150 grams are sampled and placed in a special tea sample plate. Assess the condition of the tea leaves.


Tenderness is the focus of the evaluation factor for appearance. Generally, tea leaves with good tenderness should meet the shape requirements of the tea specifications.


The strip is a certain shape and specification of various types of tea, and it is the basis for distinguishing the type and grade of commercial tea. Such as fried green strips, bead tea round and so on.


Whole shredding refers to the evenness of the tea leaves, and good tea leaves should maintain the natural form of the tea leaves.


Color reflects the color of the surface of the tea, the depth of the color and the brightness of the light reflected on the surface of the tea. All kinds of tea have certain color requirements, such as black tea black and oily, green tea emerald green, oolong tea blue-brown, and black tea black oil. color, etc.


Clarity refers to the degree of inclusions in tea leaves, and tea leaves with good clarity do not contain any inclusions.




02


Review Step 2: Making Tea


The evaluation cups and evaluation bowls are arranged in a row, the evaluation cups are used to make tea, and the evaluation bowls are used to hold the corresponding tea soup.


Sampling evenly with a weighing scale. Generally, 3 grams of tea leaves are used for finished tea, 150 ml of boiling water is brewed for 5 minutes, and the time for partial compression of the tea is extended by 2 minutes; 2-5 minutes each time. Take 3g or 5g of black tea samples, brew with boiling water with a tea water ratio of 1:50, cover and steep for 2 minutes, evaluate the color, aroma and taste of the soup, and then brew for a second time for 5 minutes. After draining the tea soup, review it in turn Comment on the soup color, aroma, taste, and bottom of the leaves.



03


Review Step 3: Look at the color of the soup


The color of the soup refers to the color of the tea soup. During the review, the tea soup in each evaluation bowl should be the same, so as not to affect the color of the tea soup.


The color of the soup should be reviewed in a timely manner. The composition of drinking tea soup is easy to change after contact with the air, and the tea soup of black tea will appear turbid after cooling, commonly known as "mixing after cooling". In order to avoid changes in color, the evaluation should first look at the color of the soup or smell the aroma and look at the color of the soup at the same time.


The evaluation of soup color mainly focuses on three aspects: chroma, brightness and turbidity. The color of the soup varies with the variety of the tea tree, the age of the fresh leaves, and the processing method, but all kinds of tea have certain chromaticity requirements, such as the bright yellow-green of green tea, bright red and bright of black tea, bright orange-yellow of oolong tea, and bright yellow of white tea, etc. .



04


Step 4 of the review: smell the aroma


The smell of aroma is mainly divided into three stages: hot smell, warm smell and cold smell. The hot smell is mainly to identify the type of aroma, its level and whether there is any abnormal gas. The warm smell mainly depends on the aroma type and priority of the tea leaves. Persistence of aroma.


When sniffing the aroma, you should hold the evaluation cup with the tea soup poured out in one hand, and half-open the lid of the cup with the other hand. When sniffing hot or warm, sniff lightly or deeply with the nose close to the edge of the cup. When sniffing cold, you can probe the whole nose Into the cup near the bottom of the leaf to increase the smell.



05


Review Step 5: Taste


Taste is the taste response of tea critics. Generally, a teaspoon is used to take the tea soup into a teacup, or directly use a teaspoon to take the tea soup for tea tasting.


When evaluating tea, we must first distinguish whether the taste is pure or not. Generally, pure taste can be divided into shades, strengths and weaknesses, freshness, mellowness, and several types. The taste that is not mellow is bitter, rough, and peculiar.




06


Review Step 6: Look at the Bottom of the Leaf


The evaluation method of the bottom of the leaf is to pour all the tea leaves brewed in the cup into the bottom of the leaf or put it on the reverse side of the lid of the evaluation cup, mix the bottom of the leaf, spread it out, press it flat, and observe its tenderness, uniformity and color.


The bottom of good tea leaves is bright, tender, thick, and slightly curled, while the bottom of bad tea leaves is dark, rough, thin, and spread.


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