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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

安溪铁观音传统初制技术

  4
Issuing time:2022-03-31 10:22

  安溪铁观音初制工艺:十大工序流程,茶青(鲜叶) →晒青→凉青→摇青(摇青→←摊青)→炒青→揉捻→初烘→初包揉→复烘→←复包揉→烘干→毛茶(初成品茶)。




  1.晒青:傍晚日光斜照或午后阳光较弱时进行,历时20-40分钟。温度:叶面温度35℃以下;摊叶量:每平方米席面摊叶0.5-0.75公斤,厚度2-3厘米;减重率为茶青重量4-10%,失水均匀。即叶色转暗绿色,微带青味,叶梗折弯不断,稍有弹性。




图片




  2.凉青:将经晒青或摇青后的茶青,均匀摊放在笳篱上,放置在凉青架上,静置摊凉。摊叶量:每篱0.75-1公斤。历时:0.5-1.5小时。减重率:为茶青重量的1-2%。即叶色由暗变亮再稍转暗,叶态由软变硬后又稍转软。







  3.摇(摊)青:把凉青后的茶青装入摇青笼进行摇青,摇青后及时将茶青倒出,摊放在笳篱上进行凉青。





传统是这样手摇的




现代是这摇青机电动摇的




(1)历时:摇青和摊青多次交替进行,历时8-16小时。摇青转数先少后多,凉青摊叶厚度先薄后厚,凉青时间先短后长。




(2)投叶量:每笼以机体容量的1/2。摇青次数:3-4次。减重率:为茶青重量的6-14%。即青蒂绿腹红镶边,叶转黄绿色,叶缘鲜红,青味退尽,柔软有弹性感,透发出青香和品种香味。




  4.炒青:以“高温﹑快速﹑短时”为原则,掌握投叶适量、翻炒均匀、升温迅速、适当保水。




传统大致是这样炒的



现代多是这样机械化炒青的




  温度:筒壁温度260-280℃。时间:4-8分钟。投叶量:4-6公斤。减重率:为做青叶的18-22%,含水率35-45%。即叶色转为暗黄绿色,失去光泽,叶面梗皮略有皱纹,叶梗柔软,手捏叶略成团,稍有刺手感且略有弹性。




  5.揉捻:适当重压,初步使炒青叶卷曲成条,时间3-5分钟,卷曲率90%以上。




以前多是这样揉的




现代多是这样机械包揉的




  6.初烘:以“适当高温﹑薄摊快速”为原则。厚度1.5厘米,温度90-120℃,焙笼摊叶厚度2-3厘米,温度80-100℃。减重率为炒青叶的10-15%。





以前多是这样焙的




  7.初包揉:速包机与包揉机交替进行,加压稍轻,包揉过程中进行多次解块和翻动。包揉巾装叶量3-6公斤。




  8.复烘:烘干机温度90-100℃,焙笼80-90℃,程度掌握手摸茶叶微感刺手感,约七成干。




现代多是这样烘干的




  9.复包揉:速包机与包揉机交替进行,逐步加压。包揉过程中进行多次解块、翻动和过筛。最后一次包揉后,束紧布巾定型1-2小时。复烘与复包揉反复4-6次。




  10.烘干:采用“低温慢烘”,分二次进行。



现代也多可能是这样烘干的




  “走火”烘,温度70-90℃,烘至八成干,然后下烘摊凉1-2小时;“焙火”烘,温度60-80℃,烘至茶梗手折即断。茶叶含水量在4-6%以内。




空调制茶技术




  铁观音其初制工艺流程:鲜叶→晒青→凉青→摇摊青(轻摇青←薄摊青→长凉青)→重炒青→冷包揉→低温烘焙→足干毛茶等7道工序,分为空调做青、炒青、揉烘等3个阶段。




  着重掌握做青环境和三个阶段




  1.营造做青间环境:以保持“适度的低温、低湿和空气流通”为原则。




  (1)建造做青间:做青间是指摇青间与凉青间。




  (2)配置做青设备:主要包括空调机、排气扇(或吊扇)、除湿机、移动式摊青架、温湿度计等。




  (3)调控做青环境:凉青前,一般要提前15-20分钟开启空调机,空调机温度设置在18-20℃,预先冷却做青间,使鲜叶进入做青间后能及时减缓鲜叶的酶促氧化速度。尔后,做青间温度控制在20-22℃,相对湿度控制在65-70%。期间要不定期地调整空调送风的风向,防止茶青长时间单面受风硬挺而无法消青。




  2.空调做青技术:以“轻摇青、薄摊青、长凉青”原则。




  (1)晒青:宜适度晒青。晒青厚度以每平方米0.5公斤左右为宜。




  (2)凉青:晒青后的鲜叶应及时摊放在凉爽、清洁、无污染源的水筛或铺设晒青布的水泥地板上散发热气,厚度为每平方米0.75公斤左右,每隔1小时要轻轻翻拌一次。




  (3)摇(摊)青:做青同样包括摇青和凉青两道工序,摇青和凉青一般为3次。操作时以“轻摇青、薄摊青、长摊凉”为原则。第一、二次宜轻摇,第三次适当重摇,才能去涩保香。摇青投叶量:以装机容量二分之一为宜。




  摇青历时:一般第一摇为2-3分钟,第二摇为4-6分钟,第三摇为8-20分钟。




  摊青叶量:以薄摊均匀为原则。第一、二次摊叶量每笳篱为0.5-0.75公斤;第三次摊叶量每平方米为0.75-1公斤。




  摊青历时:根据茶树品种、茶青成熟度、做青间温、湿度等不同情况而定。一般第一、二次摊青历时2-3小时,最后一次摊青历时为8-16小时。




  感观适度:手捏做青叶叶质柔软,叶色稍黄绿,叶缘略有红边或红点,梗蒂饱水青绿,青气消退,茶香显露,即可进行炒青。




  3.炒青:以重炒青即“高温快炒、适当投叶,炒匀炒透”原则。




  (1)温度:滚筒炒青机的筒壁温度以280-300℃为宜。




  (2)投叶量:每次3-5公斤,比常规杀青温度高,投叶量为传统做法的1/3-2/3。




  (3)杀青历时:5-7分钟。杀青后减重率为35-40%。




  感观适度:有明显刺手感、手捏稍成团。




  4.揉烘




  以“冷包揉、低烘、足干”为原则。




  (1)冷包揉:炒青叶经2-3分钟的短时揉捻,摊凉筛末后,选用速包机,平板包揉机、解块机,进行速包→包揉→解团→筛末,反复冷包揉4-6次。




  (2)初烘:速包与平揉后应将茶包打开,进行解块、筛末,然后初烘,温度80--100℃左右,烘至茶叶略有刺手感下机。




  (3)复包揉:将初烘后的茶叶,再经速包→包揉→解团→筛末反复包揉造型4-6次,最后复烘至毛茶足干。




  (4)复烘:温度在60-70℃之间,至达到铁观音毛茶外形紧结重实,手揉茶条易碎,手折茶梗易断,茶叶含水率在5-6%之间即可。

Primary production process: ten major processes, tea green (fresh leaf) → sun drying → cool green → shaking green (shaking green → ← spread green) → stir-fried green → kneading → primary baking → initial wrapping and kneading → re-baking → ← complex Packing and kneading→drying→maocha (preliminary finished tea).




  1. Green drying: It takes 20-40 minutes when the sunlight is oblique in the evening or when the sunlight is weak in the afternoon. Temperature: the leaf surface temperature is below 35 ℃; the amount of leaf spread: 0.5-0.75 kg of leaves per square meter, the thickness is 2-3 cm; the weight loss rate is 4-10% of the weight of tea green, and the water loss is even. That is, the leaf color turns dark green, with a slight green smell, and the leaf stalk is continuously bent and slightly elastic.




picture




  2. Cool green: Evenly spread the tea green after drying or shaking it on the hedge, place it on the cool green rack, and let it cool. Spread of leaves: 0.75-1 kg per hedge. Duration: 0.5-1.5 hours. Weight loss rate: 1-2% of the weight of tea green. That is, the leaf color changes from dark to light and then slightly darkens, and the leaf state changes from soft to hard and then slightly soft.




picture




3. Shaking (stand) green: Put the green tea after cooling into the green shaking cage and shake it. After shaking the green, pour out the green tea in time, and spread it on the fence for cooling.




picture


Tradition is hand-cranked like this




picture


Hyundai is this shaker electric shaker




(1) Duration: Shake the green and spread the green alternately for many times, which lasted 8-16 hours. The number of rotations of shaking green is firstly less and then more, the thickness of cool green spreading leaves is first thin and then thick, and the cooling time is first short and then long.




(2) The amount of leaf throwing: 1/2 of the body capacity per cage. Shaking times: 3-4 times. Weight loss rate: 6-14% of the weight of tea green. That is, the green pedicle is green and the belly is red, the leaves turn yellow-green, the leaf margins are bright red, the green flavor fades away, the soft and elastic feeling is revealed, and the green fragrance and variety fragrance are revealed.




4. Stir-frying greens: According to the principle of "high temperature, fast and short time", master the appropriate amount of leaves, stir fry evenly, heat up quickly, and properly retain water.




picture


The tradition is roughly like this




picture


Most of the modern times are mechanized and fried like this.




Temperature: Cylinder wall temperature 260-280℃. Time: 4-8 minutes. Leaf volume: 4-6 kg. Weight loss rate: 18-22% for green leaves, moisture content 35-45%. That is, the leaf color turns dark yellow-green and loses its luster. The leaf stalk skin is slightly wrinkled, the leaf stalk is soft, and the leaves are slightly clumped by hand, slightly prickly and slightly elastic.




5. Kneading: Appropriate pressure to initially curl the fried green leaves into strips, the time is 3-5 minutes, and the curling rate is over 90%.




picture


I used to knead like this




picture


Modern times are mostly mechanically rubbed like this




6. Initial baking: based on the principle of "appropriate high temperature and rapid spread". The thickness is 1.5 cm, the temperature is 90-120 °C, the thickness of the baking cage spread is 2-3 cm, and the temperature is 80-100 °C. The weight loss rate is 10-15% of fried green leaves.




picture


It used to be baked like this




7. Initial wrapping and kneading: The speed wrapping machine and the wrapping machine are alternately performed, the pressure is slightly lighter, and during the wrapping and kneading process, several times of deblocking and turning are performed. Pack a towel with 3-6 kg of leaves.




  8. Re-drying: The temperature of the dryer is 90-100 °C, and the baking cage is 80-90 °C. The degree of grasping the slight thorny feel of the tea leaves is about 70% dry.




picture


This is how it is dried in modern times




  9. Repackaging and kneading: The speed charter machine and the packer kneading machine are alternately carried out, and the pressure is gradually increased. During the kneading process, multiple deblocking, turning and sieving are carried out. After the last wrapping, tighten the cloth and set it for 1-2 hours. Repeat 4-6 times of re-baking and re-packing.




10. Drying: "low temperature slow drying" is adopted, and it is carried out twice.




picture


It's more likely to be dried like this in modern times.




"Fire" baking, temperature 70-90 ℃, bake until 80% dry, and then cool down for 1-2 hours; "baking" baking, temperature 60-80 ℃, bake until the tea stems are broken by hand. The moisture content of tea leaves is within 4-6%.




Air-conditioning tea making technology




Its initial production process: fresh leaves → drying green → cool green → shaken green (lightly shaken green ← thin spread green → long cool green) → heavy fried green → cold bag kneading → low temperature baking → foot dry hair tea and other 7 processes , divided into three stages: air conditioning, greening, frying, and rubbing.




Focus on mastering the environment and three stages of doing youth




  1. Create a green room environment: keep "moderate low temperature, low humidity and air circulation" as the principle.




(1) Construction of the green room: The green room refers to the shaking green room and the cool green room.




(2) Configuration of greening equipment: mainly including air conditioners, exhaust fans (or ceiling fans), dehumidifiers, mobile greening racks, temperature and humidity meters, etc.




(3) Regulate the greening environment: Before cooling the greening, generally turn on the air conditioner 15-20 minutes in advance, set the temperature of the air conditioner at 18-20 °C, and pre-cool the greening room, so that the fresh leaves can be slowed down in time after entering the greening room. Enzymatic oxidation rate of fresh leaves. After that, the temperature of the green room is controlled at 20-22°C, and the relative humidity is controlled at 65-70%. During this period, it is necessary to adjust the wind direction of the air supply from the air conditioner from time to time to prevent the tea green from being stiffened by the wind on one side for a long time and cannot be eliminated.




  2. Air conditioning green technology: based on the principle of "sweet green, thin spread green, and long cool green".




(1) Sun drying: It is advisable to moderate sun drying. The thickness of drying green should be about 0.5 kg per square meter.




(2) Cool green: The fresh leaves after drying should be placed on a cool, clean, non-polluting water sieve or a cement floor with a drying cloth to emit heat. The thickness is about 0.75 kg per square meter. Stir lightly once an hour.




(3) Shaking (stand) green: Making green also includes two processes of shaking green and cooling green, and shaking green and cooling green generally takes 3 times. The operation is based on the principle of "shaking the green lightly, spreading the green thinly, and spreading it for a long time". The first and second times should be shaken gently, and the third time should be shaken properly to remove the astringency and preserve the fragrance. The amount of shaking green leaves: one-half of the installed capacity is appropriate.




Shaking duration: Generally, the first shake is 2-3 minutes, the second shake is 4-6 minutes, and the third shake is 8-20 minutes.




The amount of green leaves spread: the principle is to spread thinly and evenly. The first and second leaf spreads are 0.5-0.75 kg per hedge; the third leaf spread is 0.75-1 kg per square meter.




The duration of the tea planting: It depends on different conditions such as the variety of tea trees, the maturity of tea greens, the temperature and humidity between the tea plants. Generally, the first and second exhibitions last for 2-3 hours, and the last exhibition lasts for 8-16 hours.




Appearance is moderate: hand-made green leaves are soft, the leaf color is slightly yellow-green, the leaf edge is slightly red or red, the stem is full of water and green, the green gas subsides, and the tea fragrance is revealed, and then stir-fry green.




3. Stir-frying green: The principle of re-frying green is "fry at high temperature, throw the leaves properly, stir well and stir thoroughly".




(1) Temperature: The temperature of the drum wall of the drum frying machine is preferably 280-300 °C.




(2) Throwing amount of leaves: 3-5 kg each time, which is higher than the conventional greening temperature, and the amount of throwing leaves is 1/3-2/3 of the traditional method.




(3) The completion time: 5-7 minutes. The weight loss rate after finishing is 35-40%.




Appearance Moderate: There is a clear thorny feel, and the hand is slightly formed into a ball.




4. knead and bake




Based on the principle of "cold rubbing, low drying, and sufficient drying".




(1) Cold-packing and kneading: Stir-fried green leaves are kneaded for 2-3 minutes for a short time, and after cooling down the sieve, use a quick-packing machine, a flat-packing kneading machine, and a deblocking machine to perform quick-packing→packing and kneading→unclumping→sieving , Repeatedly cold pack and knead 4-6 times.




(2) Preliminary baking: After the quick bag and the flat kneading, the tea bag should be opened, deblocked, sieved, and then initially baked at a temperature of about 80--100 °C until the tea leaves have a slightly thorny feel.




(3) Re-packing and kneading: The tea leaves after the initial drying are then wrapped and kneaded for 4-6 times through the quick-packing→packing and kneading→unbundling→sieve powder, and finally the tea leaves are re-dried until the tea is dry enough.




(4) Re-baking: The temperature is between 60-70 ℃, until the shape of the tea is firm and firm, the tea sticks are fragile when kneaded by hand, the tea stems are easily broken by hand, and the moisture content of the tea leaves is between 5-6%. .


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