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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

铁观音和大红袍

  1
Issuing time:2022-03-03 16:05



铁观音和大红袍



铁观音与大红袍,分别成为闽南乌龙与闽北乌龙的代名词。铁观音是闽南64个茶树品种中的一员,闽南乌龙茶的“四大花旦”,分别是本山、毛蟹、黄金桂、铁观音,而铁观音又是“四大花旦”中的翘楚。




所以,铁观音的品种非常珍贵。




铁观音的珍贵



铁观音原产于安溪县的西坪镇,发现于清初。安溪铁观音属于中叶种,嫩梢肥壮,略带紫红,叶形椭圆,叶肉肥厚,叶尖下垂略歪,叶缘锯齿疏而钝,略向背面反卷,叶面呈波浪状隆起,具有明显的肋骨形。泡完后的叶底,肥厚软亮,如丝绸缎面,少量叶尖略向左歪,当地茶农把纯正的铁观音称为“红心皱面歪尾桃”“歪尾桃”“红心观音”或“红芽歪尾桃”。




铁观音的鲜叶采摘,须在嫩梢形成驻芽、顶叶刚展开呈小开面或中开面时,采下两至三叶,最标准的是一枝三叶型。通常,把从谷雨至立夏后5天内采制的茶叶,称为春茶;把夏至前后到小暑期间采制的茶叶,称为夏茶;把立秋前后至处暑前采制的茶叶,称为暑茶;而把秋分至寒露后5天内采制的茶叶,称为秋茶。市场上,多把寒露前后几天内采制的茶,称为正秋茶。安溪春季多雨,很难制作出高品质的茶。秋季雨少,秋高气爽,做出的茶香气高扬,但茶汤细腻度较春茶稍粗,这就是所谓的“春水秋香”。如果风调雨顺,高品质的茶仍然是休养生息过的春茶。



铁观音的制作工艺



可分为传统做法和清香型做法两种:




传统工艺的茶青,以4~10年树龄的老枞最佳,其工艺主要包括:晒青、晾青、摇青、炒青、揉捻、初烘、包揉、复烘、复包揉、文火烘干等工序。铁观音的晒青,一般从16时至17时开始,晒至鲜叶柔软,光泽消失,略有清香。当春茶的茶青减重率约为7~10%时,移入室内晾青、摊放。晾青时,叶内的水分重新分布,待晒青叶“还阳”后,即可进入摇青阶段。铁观音的老枞,叶厚脆韧,不易发酵,做青时宜重摇。铁观音的摇青,一般在18时前后开始,持续到次日8时左右。正常情况下,摇青4次即可,第一次摇青,2~3分钟;第二次摇青,5~6分钟,中间各静置2~3个小时。第三次摇青,是品质形成的关键环节,需摇青至茶青还阳硬挺、青气浓烈,方为适度。然后,再间隔4~5个小时,待青气退尽,花香初显,叶内水分明显减少,叶缘转黄红后,可进行第四次摇青。第四次摇青,可灵活掌握,摇青后,需要厚摊,促使内含物质充分转化,待花香浓郁、红边显现、叶缘被卷、叶色黄绿时,即可转入固定做青品质的炒青阶段。



铁观音的揉烘,包含了“三揉三烘”六道工序,依靠包揉,使茶坯条索紧结,弯曲成螺,直到塑制成型。然后通过文火慢烘,提高茶香的清纯度,把毛茶的含水率降低到6%左右。经过挑拣,去梗精制后的成品茶,颗粒紧结沉重,色泽鲜润,油亮砂绿,叶表泛白霜,汤色金黄,滋味醇厚甘鲜,耐泡且回甘好。




清香型铁观音的茶青,多选择树龄在3~5年的新枞,其工序相比传统工艺少,基本工艺包括轻萎凋、轻摇青、轻发酵、杀青、揉捻、包揉、烘干等。夏暑茶,多借助空调降温抽湿,稳定品质。




清香型铁观音的轻萎凋,有利于保持鲜叶的生机和活力,萎凋程度中度偏轻,以手摸青叶有柔软感并发出淡淡清香、叶面失去光泽为宜。此时春茶的减重率约为6~8%,比传统工艺高1~2%。其摇青要轻柔,避免青叶损伤,过早红变。摇青次数一般掌握在3~4次,时间约为8~12个小时。当摇青后的叶片呈汤匙状,青气消失,花香渐显,叶片隐约可见红点,即“一红九绿”时,立即进行杀青。



清香型铁观音的制作特点,决定了其外观翠绿清新,香气扑鼻,汤色黄绿明净,叶底青绿或黄绿,气息上可能有微微青气、淡淡酸味。由于该工艺发酵轻,易氧化,茶烘干后必须冷藏,防止质变香消。




而一款好的传统铁观音,其外观,外形紧结拳手弯;色泽,铁色蛙皮带白霜;汤色,蜜黄澄清近琥珀;香气,幽兰浓郁舌根甘。

In the memory of every tea lover,


There will be Tieguanyin's faint orchid fragrance,


And many people were initially attracted by Tieguanyin,


And start to love tea!




Tieguanyin and Dahongpao



Tieguanyin and Dahongpao have become synonymous with Southern Fujian Oolong and Northern Fujian Oolong respectively. Tieguanyin is one of the 64 varieties of tea trees in southern Fujian. The "Four Stars" of Minnan Oolong Tea are Benshan, Hair Crab, Huangjingui and Tieguanyin, and Tieguanyin is the leader of the "Four Flowers".




Therefore, the variety of Tieguanyin is very precious.




The preciousness of Tieguanyin



Tieguanyin originated in Xiping Town, Anxi County, and was discovered in the early Qing Dynasty. Anxi Tieguanyin belongs to the middle-leaf species, with fat young shoots, slightly purple-red, oval leaves, thick mesophyll, slightly drooping leaf tips, sparse and blunt leaf margins, slightly reversed to the back, and wavy uplifted leaves with obvious rib-shaped. The bottom of the leaves after soaking is thick, soft and shiny, like silk satin, with a small amount of leaf tips slightly tilted to the left. Or "red bud crooked peach".




When picking the fresh leaves of Tieguanyin, two to three leaves must be picked when the young shoots form buds and the top leaves have just unfolded to a small or medium open surface. The most standard one is a three-leaf type. Usually, the tea harvested within 5 days from Grain Rain to the beginning of summer is called spring tea; the tea harvested from around the summer solstice to the Xiaoshu period is called summer tea; the tea harvested from around the beginning of autumn to the beginning of summer is called summer tea; The tea that is picked within 5 days after the autumn equinox to the cold dew is called autumn tea. In the market, the tea that is picked within a few days before and after the cold dew is called Zhengqiu tea. Anxi is rainy in spring, making it difficult to make high-quality tea. Autumn is less rainy, and the air is high in autumn, and the aroma of the tea is high, but the delicateness of the tea soup is slightly thicker than that of spring tea, which is the so-called "spring water and autumn fragrance". If the weather is good, high-quality tea is still spring tea after recuperation.



The production process of Tieguanyin



It can be divided into traditional method and fragrance type method:




The tea greens of traditional craftsmanship are best with old fir trees of 4 to 10 years old. Slow fire drying and other processes. The drying of Tieguanyin usually starts from 16:00 to 17:00, until the fresh leaves are soft, the luster disappears, and there is a slight fragrance. When the weight loss rate of spring tea is about 7-10%, move it indoors to dry and spread. When drying green, the water in the leaves is redistributed, and after the green leaves are "returned to the sun", they can enter the shaking green stage. Tieguanyin's old fir, the leaves are thick, brittle and tough, not easy to ferment, and it should be shaken when it is green. The shaking of Tieguanyin usually starts around 18:00 and lasts until about 8:00 the next day. Under normal circumstances, it is enough to shake the green 4 times, the first time to shake the green, 2 to 3 minutes; the second time to shake the green, 5 to 6 minutes, and let stand for 2 to 3 hours in between. Shaking the green for the third time is a key link in the formation of quality. It needs to be shaken until the green tea is still firm and strong, and the green energy is strong. Then, at an interval of 4 to 5 hours, when the green qi recedes, the flower fragrance begins to appear, the moisture in the leaves is significantly reduced, and the leaf margins turn yellow and red, you can shake the green for the fourth time. Shaking the green for the fourth time, you can master it flexibly. After shaking the green, you need to spread it thickly to promote the full transformation of the contained substances. When the flower fragrance is strong, the red edge appears, the leaf edge is rolled, and the leaf color is yellow-green, it can be transferred to the fixed method. The fried green stage of green quality.



The kneading and baking of Tieguanyin includes six processes of "three kneading and three baking". Relying on wrapping and kneading, the tea billets are tightly tied and bent into a snail until they are molded. Then, it is slowly baked on a slow fire to improve the purity of the tea aroma and reduce the moisture content of the tea to about 6%. After selection, de-stemming and refining, the finished tea has dense and heavy particles, fresh color, oily sandy green, hoarfrost on the leaf surface, golden soup color, mellow and fresh taste, good soaking resistance and good taste.




For the tea green of Tieguanyin, the fresh fir tree with a tree age of 3 to 5 years is mostly selected. Compared with the traditional process, the process is less. The basic process includes light withering, light shaking, light fermentation, killing, rolling, wrapping and drying. Wait. In summer summer tea, use air conditioners to cool down and dehumidify to stabilize the quality.




The light withering of the fragrance-type Tieguanyin is conducive to maintaining the vigor and vitality of the fresh leaves. The degree of withering is moderately light. It is advisable to touch the green leaves with a soft feeling and emit a faint fragrance, and the leaves lose their luster. At this time, the weight loss rate of spring tea is about 6-8%, which is 1-2% higher than that of traditional crafts. It should be shaken gently to avoid damage to the green leaves and premature redness. The number of shakes is generally 3 to 4 times, and the time is about 8 to 12 hours. When the leaves after shaking green are spoon-shaped, the green gas disappears, the fragrance of flowers gradually appears, and red dots are faintly visible on the leaves, that is, "one red and nine greens", immediately kill the green.



The production characteristics of the fragrance-type Tieguanyin determine its green and fresh appearance, fragrant aroma, yellow-green soup color, green or yellow-green leaf bottom, and a slightly greenish, slightly sour taste. Since the fermentation process is light and easy to oxidize, the tea must be refrigerated after drying to prevent the quality from changing and the fragrance disappearing.




And a good traditional Tieguanyin, its appearance, the shape is tightly fisted and curved; the color is iron-colored frog belt hoarfrost; the soup color is honey-yellow, clear and close to amber; the aroma, the orchid is strong and the tongue is sweet.


Article classification: 中国十大名茶
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