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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

绿茶、红茶、白茶、普洱,茶叶保质期顺口溜

  55
Issuing time:2022-02-27 15:33

《1》


茶属于饮品,是用来喝的。


作为入口之物,少不了保质期。


按《预包装食品》国标规定,茶叶在外包装上需要标清楚生产日期和保质期。


然而,至于各大茶类的保质期限时长,没有一刀切的具体规定。


从实际情况看,围绕茶的保质期,多数依靠业内约定俗成。


大部分是12个月、18个月、36个月,或者3年5年等,不一而足。


甚者,也有不少茶商在标保质期时,白纸黑字写明——本品在保存到位下,可长期保存。


由于“老茶热”的兴起,越来越多的人在标注自家产品时,将“长期久存”照搬下来。


对外宣称,XX茶存越久越好!



抛开问题本身的好坏对错不谈,从饮茶安全方面看,干茶含水量是最重要的保存问题。


若是茶叶没存好,分分钟就会变质不能喝。


而从品茶风味看,一款茶的保质期是长是短,本身就是一场博弈,没有准确答案。


其背后,涉及到风味变化、仓储条件、存茶时限等诸多方面较量。


具体到不同的茶叶里,又需要分门别类进行判断。


这天,围绕六大茶类的保质期,听到一条顺口溜。


“普洱白茶永流传,红茶只能三五年,清香乌龙放半年,绿茶黄茶一年半。”


这番话大有深意,值得逐一细说。



《2》


普洱和白茶可以久存到地老天荒?


永流传三字,一般不轻易动用。


因为它含有名留青史、流芳百世的意思,含义“太大”。


按照古时的起名忌讳,男名不带天,女名不带仙。


动辄给某物冠上永流传的光环,说实在的,有些受不起。


坚固、闪耀、瑰丽的钻石,硬度极高。


早年有句成功的广告语,“钻石恒久远,一颗永流传”,现如今广受争议。


是钻石恒久远,还是骗局永流传,暂不置可否。


但可以肯定,“普洱白茶永流传”的说法,肯定不合理。




这一说法没有经过严格实验论证,属于典型的“张口就来”。


结合茶叶发展史看,普洱和白茶在国内走红时间并不长。


时至今日,能严格按照存茶规范,顺利存成30年陈老白茶,50年陈老生普的样品,极少。


(除去随意私藏,没有严实密封和控制温湿度等情况,它们没有参考价值)


所以,白茶和普洱究竟能放多久,目前没有定论。


从保守角度看,在稳妥保存前提下,存放时间在15年左右的白茶和普洱,倒是可以放心饮用。


而超出这个期限后,一款老普洱和老白茶还能不能喝?情况得另说。


得结合它的外形(无发霉)、香气(无异味)、滋味(无杂味),再进行判断。



《3》


红茶的保质期只能放三年五年?


这一概括不准确,红茶的体系复杂,下属有不少分类。


按工艺分,有小种红茶、工夫红茶、红碎茶;


按地域分,有闽红、川红、宁红、滇红等;


按包装方式分,有密封袋装的、有铁罐装的,有独立泡袋装的、也有单独包成茶包的。


林林总总,不一而足。


因此在圈定红茶保质期时,不能一刀切。


以桐木红茶为例(正山小种和金骏眉等)。


有次去桐木时,茶农大姐递来一泡去年的老丛红茶。


边烧水边介绍,哎,先喝去年的茶,这茶放到现在,正是好喝的时候。


啊,为什么?


为什么不喝新红茶,要喝隔了一年的?


按茶农的说法,新红茶香气好,但汤水没有去年的醇。


后来放在一块对比着喝,发现确实如此。


2021年的老丛红茶,香气更清新,汤水更鲜美。


但2020年的老丛红茶,稠滑了却不止一个度,可惜茶香略显内敛。


那这款茶,再放三年五年下去,会不会更好喝?




茶农赶紧摆摆手,说,那不行。


这茶但凡超过三年,香气口感都下降了,第二年最好喝。


接着还调侃到,真正桐木的红茶,产量这么低,一年两年肯定就喝完了,哪里还能放到三五年之后。


这虽是一家之说,但也很有道理。


原则上,为了喝到桐木红茶的最佳风味,趁着一年两年内喝完最好。


当下能喝完,就不要放太久,以免夜长梦多,白白浪费好茶。


另外,红茶的保质期长短,还得看存茶情况。


如果是装在大密封袋,整整一斤、两斤包装的口粮红茶。


据经验看,由于大袋封存的密封效果有限,往往在拆封之后就要尽快喝完。


不然超过大半年后,袋内剩余的茶,十有八九也会跑气变味!



《4》


清香乌龙茶是不是只能放半年?


不好说,何为清香型乌龙茶?还得掰扯清楚再说。


乌龙茶也称青茶,按地区分,主要分为闽北乌龙、闽南乌龙、台湾乌龙、广东乌龙。


闽北乌龙以武夷岩茶为代表,包括有大红袍、水仙、肉桂等;


闽南乌龙以铁观音为代表,曾风靡一时;


台湾乌龙以冻顶乌龙、文山乌龙、东方美人茶为代表;


广东乌龙以凤凰单丛为代表,具有各种不同的香型。


在乌龙茶的大家族里,何为清香型乌龙茶,业内没有定论。


从“清香型乌龙”一词的溯源看,如果没记错,最早它是台湾传到闽南的概念。



岩茶领域里,极少有清香、浓香的说法。


按武夷山人的做茶习惯,一般习惯将岩茶按火功进行分类,分轻火、中火、足火等。


后来,为了适应市场,迎合不懂岩茶的新手,部分茶掌柜在介绍时,悄悄偷了懒。


直接顺着游客、新手的逻辑去介绍。


将轻火的、注重香气的、茶味更清新的,介绍成清香型。


而焙火方式更传统的,火功更足的,则介绍成浓香型。


至此,两者间的概念定义彻底混淆。


焙火程度轻的岩茶,是否可以直接当成清香型乌龙茶,这尚未有定论。



至于说,轻火岩茶是不是只能放半年,那就更不靠谱了!


虽说,焙火足一些的岩茶,水汽含量更少,更耐放。


但轻火岩茶在做青做透,焙火焙到位的前提下,同样可以做到装进泡袋后,一年两年、三年四年、甚至更长的时间,都不返青变味。


去年在武夷山时,就曾在一位制茶大师那喝到一泡轻火白鸡冠。


不得不说,那泡茶的工艺是真的好。


放了2年之后,再拆开泡来喝,不仅没有陈味,反而鲜爽饱满依旧。


将四大名丛之一的白鸡冠品种特征,尽善尽美地保留下来。


可见,还是那句话。


一刀切地圈定一类茶的保质期,实在不靠谱!




《5》


绿茶的保质期是不是一年半?


得看具体情况,得看你如何理解保质期。


如果将保质期,理解成保住最佳风味,那在绿茶新茶上市后的大半年内,趁早喝掉最好。


如果仅仅将保质期当成,保住底线,能喝就行,那放个一年半载确实问题不大。


去年去杭州时,去了一家茶叶店喝茶。


走在沿街路边,随机选了家种着茂密龙爪菊,看着干净清爽的店,推门进去。


坐下来后,请店家给我们上两杯龙井。


两个人,一杯纯龙井,一杯桂花龙井。


彼时正是秋季,丹桂飘香,点后者主要是应应景。


据茶掌柜介绍,桂花是从自家树上采下的,只窨了四、五斤。


有客人就泡一点,一般不卖。



咦,这么有特色的茶,为什么不想卖?


掌柜笑道,桂花龙井不好存。


正常龙井茶放冰箱能存十八个月,要是按老方法用生石灰存,只能放半年。


但窨了花的龙井,容易潮、容易坏。


万一没放好,味道会非常难喝,所以一般客人来,只推荐纯龙井。


原来如此,也难怪,在出了江浙一带后,桂花龙井的名气在外面并不怎么响亮。


但那位健谈的茶掌柜,也提供了不少有关绿茶保质期的一手资料。


当地的龙井绿茶,放冰箱可以保鲜十八个月,即一年半。


至于其它绿茶,则未必。


另外,在成品茶基础上经过二次加工(窨制、加料等)的再加工茶,保质期普遍会缩短。


桂花龙井如此;


茉莉银针如此;


而一些加了白桃干的乌龙茶,同样如此。


一方面,敞开干茶窨制过程中,干茶会受周围空气的水汽影响。


另一方面,干花瓣、果干等含水量,和茶叶干度要求未必一致。


在将两者二合一后,最佳风味期有限,还是趁早喝完为好!


《6》


有句歌词是,情人总是老的好。


现如今,这句话逐渐转移到茶身上。


其实在茶圈内,盲目以老为尊,实在不妥。


尤其是认为茶叶没有保质期,只要没存坏,没发霉,可以存上万年的说法,更是不可取。


曹操在《龟虽寿》里有言:“神龟虽寿,犹有竟时”。


老茶,亦如此。


虽说,茶圈内认可度颇高的老白茶、老普洱。


它们在存老之后,风味的确更为出色。


但存老茶,不可能是毫无节制,久存到地老天荒。


综合来看,平日喝茶时,不推荐大家过分关注白茶和普洱的“年份老”。


比起存茶年份老,原料好、工艺好、储存好,品质到位才是关键。


虽说白茶和普洱具有藏茶价值,但年份越老的茶,市面上越少见。


同时,动辄十几年的老茶,往往价格高昂,遇到做旧造假茶的风险更高。


从安全角度看, 喝茶盲目“求老”本身就不理智。

"1"


Tea is a drink and is meant to be drunk.


As an entry, the shelf life is indispensable.


According to the national standard of "Prepackaged Food", tea needs to be clearly marked with the production date and shelf life on the outer packaging.


However, there is no one-size-fits-all specific regulation on the shelf life of each major tea category.


Judging from the actual situation, most of the shelf life of tea relies on industry conventions.


Most are 12 months, 18 months, 36 months, or 3 years and 5 years, etc.


What's more, there are many tea merchants who state in black and white when marking the shelf life - this product can be stored for a long time if it is stored in place.


Due to the rise of the "old tea craze", more and more people copy "long-term and long-lasting" when labeling their own products.


It is claimed to the public that the longer the XX tea is stored, the better!



Regardless of whether the problem itself is good or bad, from the perspective of tea drinking safety, the moisture content of dry tea is the most important preservation issue.


If the tea leaves are not stored well, they will spoil in minutes and cannot be drunk.


From the perspective of tea taste, whether the shelf life of a tea is long or short is a game in itself, and there is no accurate answer.


Behind it, it involves many aspects such as flavor changes, storage conditions, and tea storage time.


Specific to different teas, it needs to be judged by category.


Today, around the shelf life of the six major types of tea, I heard a jingle.


"Pu-erh white tea is always popular, black tea can only be released for three to five years, fragrant oolong is released for half a year, and green tea and yellow tea is one and a half years old."


These words have profound meanings and deserve to be elaborated one by one.



"2"


Can Pu'er and white tea last forever?


The three characters of eternal circulation are generally not easy to use.


Because it contains the meaning of being famous in history and immortalizing forever, meaning "too big".


According to the ancient taboos of naming names, male names do not carry heaven, and female names do not carry immortals.


To put an eternal halo on something at every turn, to be honest, a little bit unbearable.


A strong, sparkling, magnificent diamond with extreme hardness.


In the early years, there was a successful advertising slogan, "Diamonds are forever, a diamond is forever", which is now widely controversial.


Whether diamonds are eternal, or whether scams are always circulating, it is uncertain for the time being.


But it is certain that the statement that "Pu-erh white tea will be popular forever" is definitely unreasonable.




This statement has not undergone rigorous experimental verification, and is a typical "open mouth".


Judging from the history of tea development, Pu'er and white tea have not been popular in China for a long time.


Today, there are very few samples of 30-year-old white tea and 50-year-old Shengpu that can be successfully stored in strict accordance with the tea storage specifications.


(Except for random storage, no tight sealing and control of temperature and humidity, they have no reference value)


Therefore, there is no conclusion about how long white tea and Pu'er can be kept.


From a conservative point of view, under the premise of safe preservation, white tea and Pu'er that have been stored for about 15 years can be consumed with confidence.


After this period is exceeded, can an old Pu'er and an old white tea still be drunk? The situation must be said otherwise.


It has to be judged based on its appearance (no mold), aroma (no peculiar smell), and taste (no miscellaneous smell).



"3"


The shelf life of black tea can only be kept for three years or five years?


This generalization is inaccurate, the system of black tea is complex, and there are many subordinate classifications.


According to the process, there are Souchong black tea, Gongfu black tea, and broken black tea;


By region, there are Minhong, Chuanhong, Ninghong, Dianhong, etc.;


According to the packaging method, there are sealed bags, iron cans, independent bubble bags, and individual tea bags.


There are many, many, and many others.


Therefore, when delineating the shelf life of black tea, it cannot be one size fits all.


Take paulownia black tea as an example (Jesan Souchong and Jin Junmei, etc.).


One time when I went to Tongmu, the elder sister of the tea farmer handed me a brew of Laocong black tea from last year.


He introduced while boiling water, hey, let’s drink last year’s tea first, it’s the right time to drink this tea now.


Ah why?


Why don't you drink the new black tea, you have to drink it after a year?


According to tea farmers, the new black tea has a good aroma, but the soup is not as mellow as last year.


Later, I put it together and compared it to drink, and found that it was indeed the case.


The Laocong black tea in 2021 has a fresher aroma and a more delicious soup.


But the Laocong black tea in 2020 is more than one degree thick and slippery. Unfortunately, the tea aroma is slightly restrained.


Will this tea taste better if it is kept for another three or five years?




The tea grower quickly waved his hand and said, that's not going to work.


As long as this tea is more than three years old, the aroma and taste have declined, and the second year is the best to drink.


Then he also joked that the real black tea of Tongmu, the output is so low, it must be finished in one or two years, where can it be put in three or five years later.


This is a family saying, but it also makes sense.


In principle, in order to drink the best flavor of Tongmu black tea, it is best to drink it within a year or two.


If you can drink it right now, don’t leave it for too long, so as not to have too many dreams at night and waste good tea in vain.


In addition, the shelf life of black tea depends on the condition of the tea.


If it is packed in a large airtight bag, a full kilogram or two kilograms of ration black tea is packed.


According to experience, due to the limited sealing effect of the big bag, it is often necessary to drink it as soon as possible after unpacking.


Otherwise, after more than half a year, the remaining tea in the bag will in all likelihood become stale!



"4"


Can Fragrant Oolong Tea only be kept for half a year?


It's hard to say, what is the fragrance type oolong tea? Still have to break it down.


Oolong tea, also known as green tea, is classified by region, mainly divided into northern Fujian oolong, southern Fujian oolong, Taiwan oolong and Guangdong oolong.


Northern Fujian oolong is represented by Wuyi rock tea, including Dahongpao, narcissus, cinnamon, etc.;


Oolong in southern Fujian, represented by Tieguanyin, was once all the rage;


Taiwan Oolong is represented by Dongding Oolong, Wenshan Oolong and Oriental Beauty Tea;


Guangdong Oolong is represented by Phoenix Dancong, which has various fragrance types.


In the big family of oolong tea, what is the fragrance type oolong tea, there is no conclusion in the industry.


Judging from the origin of the term "flavor oolong", if I remember correctly, it was the concept that was first spread from Taiwan to southern Fujian.



In the field of rock tea, there are very few sayings about the fragrance and the strong fragrance.


According to the tea making habits of Wuyishan people, it is generally customary to classify rock tea according to fire power, such as light fire, medium fire, and full fire.


Later, in order to adapt to the market and cater to novices who do not understand rock tea, some tea shopkeepers quietly slack off when introducing them.


Directly follow the logic of tourists and novices to introduce.


The light-fire, aroma-focused, and fresher tea flavors are introduced into the fragrance type.


The roasting method is more traditional and the fire power is more sufficient, and it is introduced as a strong aroma type.


So far, the conceptual definitions between the two have been completely confused.


Whether the lightly roasted rock tea can be directly regarded as a fragrant oolong tea has not yet been determined.



As for whether Qinghuoyan tea can only be kept for half a year, it is even more unreliable!


Although, the yancha that has been roasted enough has less water vapor and is more durable.


However, under the premise that Qinghuoyan tea is fully cooked and roasted in place, it can also be put into a bubble bag, and it will not turn green and taste after a year or two, three or four years, or even longer.


When I was in Wuyi Mountain last year, I drank a light-fire white cockscomb from a tea maker.


I have to say, the craft of making tea is really good.


After 2 years of storage, when you open it and drink it, not only does it have no stale taste, but it is still fresh and full.


The characteristics of the white cockscomb variety, one of the four famous clusters, are perfectly preserved.


You see, it's still the same.


It is really unreliable to delineate the shelf life of a type of tea across the board!




"5"


Is the shelf life of green tea a year and a half?


It depends on the situation and how you understand shelf life.


If the shelf life is understood as maintaining the best flavor, then it is best to drink it as soon as possible within half a year after the new green tea is on the market.


If only the shelf life is regarded as the bottom line, and you can drink it, it is not a problem to leave it for a year and a half.


When I went to Hangzhou last year, I went to a tea shop for tea.


Walking along the street, I randomly selected a home with lush dragon claw chrysanthemums. Looking at the clean and refreshing shop, I pushed the door and entered.


After sitting down, ask the store to serve us two cups of Longjing.


Two people, a cup of pure Longjing, a cup of Osmanthus Longjing.


At that time, it was autumn, and the aroma of red osmanthus was fragrant. The latter is mainly for the occasion.


According to the tea shopkeeper, the sweet-scented osmanthus was picked from his own tree and only weighed four or five pounds.


If there are guests, just soak a little, generally not for sale.



Hey, why don't you want to sell such a distinctive tea?


The shopkeeper said with a smile, Osmanthus Longjing is not easy to store.


Normally, Longjing tea can be stored in the refrigerator for 18 months. If you use quicklime in the old way, it can only be stored for half a year.


But the Longjing with its flowers is prone to dampness and damage.


If it is not placed properly, the taste will be very unpleasant, so for ordinary guests, only Pure Longjing is recommended.


It turns out that it is no wonder that after leaving the Jiangsu and Zhejiang areas, the reputation of Osmanthus Longjing is not very loud outside.


But the chatty tea shopkeeper also provided a lot of first-hand information about the shelf life of green tea.


The local Longjing green tea can be kept fresh for 18 months in the refrigerator, that is, one and a half years.


As for other green teas, not necessarily.


In addition, the shelf life of reprocessed tea that has undergone secondary processing (scenting, feeding, etc.) on the basis of the finished tea will generally be shortened.


Osmanthus Longjing is like this;


Jasmine silver needles so;


The same is true for some oolong teas with dried white peach.


On the one hand, in the process of making open dry tea, the dry tea will be affected by the moisture of the surrounding air.


On the other hand, the water content of dried petals, dried fruit, etc. may not be consistent with the requirements for the dryness of tea leaves.


After combining the two into one, the best flavor period is limited, so it is better to drink it as soon as possible!


"6"


There is a lyric that says that a lover is always old.


Nowadays, this sentence is gradually transferred to tea.


In fact, in the tea circle, blindly respecting the old is really inappropriate.


In particular, it is not advisable to think that tea has no shelf life, as long as it is not damaged or moldy, it can be stored for tens of thousands of years.


Cao Cao said in "The Tortoise is Longevity": "Although the tortoise has a long life, it still has its time."


Old tea, too.


Although, old white tea and old Pu'er are highly recognized in the tea circle.


They do taste better as they age.


However, it is impossible to store old tea without restraint, and it will be stored for a long time to the end of the day.


On the whole, when drinking tea on weekdays, it is not recommended that you pay too much attention to the "old age" of white tea and Pu'er.


Compared with the old age of tea storage, the key is to have good raw materials, good craftsmanship, good storage, and good quality.


Although white tea and Pu'er have Tibetan tea value, the older the tea, the less common it is on the market.


At the same time, the old tea that is more than ten years old is often expensive, and the risk of encountering old and fake tea is higher.


From a safety point of view, drinking tea blindly "seeking old age" is not rational in itself.


Article classification: 中国十大名茶
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