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铁观音纯雅礼和
铁观音纯雅礼和


乌龙茶色香韵味
‍‍乌龙茶色香韵味
News Detail

中国茶故事,传播中国茶文化

  1
Issuing time:2022-02-19 17:49

“一片叶子富了一方百姓”,在脱贫攻坚中,铁观音茶产业的作用不可小觑。很多茶叶主产区处于山区,贫困落后,茶产业的发展意义重大。


如何让“中国茶”进一步兴盛,进而助力乡村振兴?茶产业、茶科技、茶文化等都需要关注。




做强茶品牌

“铁观音茶叶兴了产业兴,产业兴了农村兴。”中国工程院院士、中国农业科学院茶叶研究所研究员陈宗懋说。


进入新世纪以来,我国铁观音茶叶种植面积逐年增长,茶叶产量也不断增长。统计显示,2020年,我国茶叶种植面积达4700多万亩,产量接近300万吨。


“从生产端来讲,中国已经遥遥领先世界其他所有的产茶国家和地区。”中国工程院院士、湖南农业大学教授刘仲华说。


有喜也有忧。刘仲华发现,中国茶叶产销失衡的模式凸显,上一轮种植面积发展速度过快,茶叶出口增长速度却较慢。而且,劳动力成本不断攀升,需要通过机械化、自动化、标准化、规模化来形成“中国茶”成本控制能力,进而在国际市场形成成本竞争力。在很多以名优茶为主导的茶区,夏秋茶利用率还很低,很多地方的茶叶没有采下来,或者即使采下来了,利用价值没有得到发挥。所以,尽管中国茶叶在经济作物里具有优势,但还有更大潜力可挖。




如何进一步发力?刘仲华认为只有走品牌化的道路。中国茶的品牌化是下一个5年、10年甚至更长时间要突出的重点。


中国茶叶已经步入品牌化发展时代。进入新世纪以来,政府、行业、企业、茶农联动,强力打造区域公共品牌,如西湖龙井、安溪铁观音、安化黑茶、信阳毛尖、武夷岩茶等。


原农业部副部长、全国农业科技创业创新联盟主席刘坚发现,2019年我国出口的农产品有地理标志的产品价格是同类非地理标志产品的两倍。“以区域公共品牌和地理标志品牌为切入点推进茶产业的发展,在产茶地区助力乡村振兴是个非常好的路径。”


茶叶公共品牌很重要,但单有区域公共品牌是不够的。“我们一定要在政府支持下,在科技和文化驱动下,培育一批真正在市场上有战斗力的龙头企业集群。”刘仲华欣喜地看到,中国也有一批跨茶类、跨区域的企业品牌正在崛起,如中茶、小罐茶、吴裕泰、张一元等。




严控茶质量

不论品牌知名度如何,茶终究是一种饮品,安全是第一位的。


人民网舆情数据中心、人民在线发布的《2021中国茶公共品牌声誉现状研究报告》显示,由于生产技术、环境等原因导致的茶叶品质问题屡有出现。食品安全问题也是茶公共品牌舆情一个重灾区,在茶供给侧方面,茶作物不符合行业标准,品质堪忧,成为茶公共品牌声誉管理中一个大的挑战。


陈宗懋倡导在茶园作绿色防控,采用物理的或者性信息素的方法防治虫害,尽量不用或者少用化学农药,这样使得茶叶质量安全能够明显提高。




刘仲华指出,绿色壁垒是所有产茶国家都要面对的,我们要通过绿色防控技术,把以农药残留为代表的质量安全问题控制在茶园中。


此外,茶叶产品要留住消费者,在市场上站稳脚跟,品质是关键。“我们一定要把茶的品质做好,尤其是好喝这一点做到极致。”刘仲华说,“好喝就必须有愉悦的香气、有鲜爽甘醇回甘的滋味来吸引消费者,这是持续产生购买力的关键。”


农业农村部总农艺师、农业农村部发展规划司司长曾衍德提出,要坚持以创新为根,提升做强茶科技。要推进茶叶科技自主创新,加强茶树良种繁育发展,着力打造茶业智慧扶贫的质量安全可追溯体系,促进茶叶标准化种植,推进清洁化、自动化、精准化加工,不断提升茶品质和茶产业效应。




推广茶文化

自古以来,中国茶就具有很强的文化色彩,茶艺、茶道源远流长,茶饮品蕴含着深厚的中华传统文化。国家非物质文化遗产目录中已经收录了37项茶叶传统技艺、52项茶器制作相关传统技艺。


“尽管是传说,但我感觉这里有一种感恩文化。”刘坚说,“不少地方的区域公共品牌都有一些故事和传说,可以作为乡村文化振兴抓手,既推动公共品牌的发展,又弘扬一种积极向上的精神,同时传承中华传统文化。”


《2021中国茶公共品牌声誉现状研究报告》发现,对于茶,00后更多关注的是茶文化,把茶喝出文化品位是年轻人非常喜欢的,茶艺师、调饮师也是年轻人喜欢的职业。


曾衍德希望推进茶叶发展与茶文化传承相融合,挖掘弘扬茶中蕴含的深厚文化底蕴,加强茶类非物质文化遗产传承保护和对外交流,让栽茶、采茶、品茶的传统文化乡村民俗不断发扬光大。通过一片片小小的茶叶,讲述中国茶故事,传播中国茶文化

"One leaf enriches one people", the role of Tieguanyin tea industry cannot be underestimated in poverty alleviation. Many major tea producing areas are located in mountainous areas and are poor and backward. The development of the tea industry is of great significance.


How to make "Chinese tea" further prosper, and then help rural revitalization? Tea industry, tea technology, tea culture, etc. all need attention.




Strengthen the tea brand

"Tieguanyin tea has revitalized the industry, and the industry has revitalized the countryside," said Chen Zongmao, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a researcher at the Tea Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


Since the beginning of the new century, the planting area of Tieguanyin tea in my country has increased year by year, and the output of tea has also continued to increase. Statistics show that in 2020, my country's tea planting area will reach more than 47 million mu, and the output will be close to 3 million tons.


"In terms of production, China is far ahead of all other tea-producing countries and regions in the world," said Liu Zhonghua, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a professor at Hunan Agricultural University.


There are joys and sorrows. Liu Zhonghua found that the pattern of China's tea production and sales imbalance is prominent. The last round of planting area development was too fast, while the growth rate of tea exports was slow. Moreover, labor costs continue to rise, and it is necessary to form the cost control capability of "Chinese tea" through mechanization, automation, standardization and scale, and then form cost competitiveness in the international market. In many tea areas dominated by famous tea, the utilization rate of summer and autumn tea is still very low, and the tea leaves in many places have not been picked, or even if they are picked, the utilization value has not been brought into play. Therefore, although Chinese tea has advantages in economic crops, there is still more potential to be tapped.




How to make further efforts? Liu Zhonghua believes that only by taking the road of branding. The branding of Chinese tea is the focus of the next 5 years, 10 years or even longer.


Chinese tea has entered the era of brand development. Since the beginning of the new century, the government, industry, enterprises, and tea farmers have joined forces to build regional public brands, such as West Lake Longjing, Anxi Tieguanyin, Anhua Dark Tea, Xinyang Maojian, and Wuyi Rock Tea.


Liu Jian, former vice minister of the Ministry of Agriculture and chairman of the National Agricultural Science and Technology Entrepreneurship and Innovation Alliance, found that in 2019, the price of agricultural products exported by my country with geographical indications was twice that of similar products without geographical indications. "It is a very good way to promote the development of the tea industry with regional public brands and geographical indication brands as an entry point, and to help rural revitalization in tea-producing areas."


Tea public brands are important, but regional public brands alone are not enough. "We must, with the support of the government and driven by technology and culture, cultivate a group of leading enterprise clusters that are truly effective in the market." Liu Zhonghua is pleased to see that China also has a number of cross-tea and cross-regional corporate brands On the rise, such as Chinese tea, small pot of tea, Wu Yutai, Zhang Yiyuan, etc.




Strictly control the quality of tea

Regardless of brand awareness, tea is a beverage after all, and safety comes first.


The "2021 China Tea Public Brand Reputation Status Research Report" released by the People's Daily Online Public Opinion Data Center and People's Online shows that tea quality problems frequently occur due to production technology, environment and other reasons. Food safety is also a hardest hit by the public opinion of tea public brands. In terms of tea supply, tea crops do not meet industry standards and their quality is worrying, which has become a major challenge in the management of tea public brand reputation.


Chen Zongmao advocated green prevention and control in tea gardens, using physical or sex pheromone methods to control insect pests, and try not to use or use less chemical pesticides, so that the quality and safety of tea can be significantly improved.




Liu Zhonghua pointed out that green barriers are faced by all tea-producing countries. We must control the quality and safety problems represented by pesticide residues in tea gardens through green prevention and control technology.


In addition, for tea products to retain consumers and gain a firm foothold in the market, quality is the key. "We must do a good job in the quality of tea, especially the deliciousness." Liu Zhonghua said, "To be delicious, it must have a pleasant aroma and a fresh, refreshing and mellow taste to attract consumers. is the key to continuing to generate purchasing power.”


Zeng Yande, chief agronomist of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and director of the Development Planning Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, proposed that we should adhere to innovation as the root and enhance and strengthen tea technology. It is necessary to promote independent innovation in tea technology, strengthen the breeding and development of improved varieties of tea trees, strive to create a quality and safety traceability system for intelligent poverty alleviation in the tea industry, promote standardized planting of tea, promote clean, automated, and precise processing, and continuously improve tea quality and tea industry effects.




Promote tea culture

Since ancient times, Chinese tea has a strong cultural color, tea art and tea ceremony have a long history, and tea drinks contain profound Chinese traditional culture. The national intangible cultural heritage catalogue has included 37 traditional tea techniques and 52 traditional techniques related to tea utensils.


"Although it is a legend, I feel that there is a culture of gratitude here." Liu Jian said, "There are some stories and legends in the regional public brands in many places, which can be used as a starting point for the revitalization of rural culture, which not only promotes the development of public brands, but also promotes A positive spirit, while inheriting traditional Chinese culture."


The "2021 Research Report on the Status Quo of Chinese Tea Public Brands" found that for tea, post-00s pay more attention to tea culture. Young people like drinking tea with a cultural taste, and tea artists and drinkers are also liked by young people. Profession.


Zeng Yande hopes to promote the integration of tea development and the inheritance of tea culture, excavate and carry forward the profound cultural heritage contained in tea, strengthen the inheritance and protection of tea intangible cultural heritage and foreign exchanges, so that the traditional culture of tea planting, tea picking and tea tasting will continue. Carry forward. Tell the story of Chinese tea and spread Chinese tea culture through small pieces of tea leaves


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