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铁观音纯雅礼和
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乌龙茶色香韵味
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News Detail

预制菜市场

  2
Issuing time:2022-02-12 11:37

● 近年来,我国预制菜市场规模不断扩大。预制菜从供应餐厅向供应家庭拓展,逐渐走进千家万户,在虎年春节迎来了爆发式增长。有线上买菜平台7天就卖出了300万份预制菜,每笔单价同比增长1倍


  ● 预制菜方便了家庭生活,但图文不符、偷工减料、食材不新鲜、口味不佳等问题也让不少消费者“吐槽”不已。有消费者提出,商家为节约成本,放置的冰袋数量不够或冰袋太小,影响食材新鲜度


  ● 监管部门可以通过公开通报,风险评估等级、设备监管等办法加强监管。长远来看,预制菜的问题属于社会共治问题,需要监管部门、消费者协会以及媒体、互联网平台等多方面多层次的监督治理


  □ 本报记者 赵丽


  梅菜扣肉、黑椒牛柳、法式羊排、红烧黄花鱼、小鸡炖蘑菇……今年春节前,北京市民陈先生从App上下单了一批预制菜。除夕当天,只是简单加工,一桌丰盛的年夜饭便迅速“做”了出来。“今年年夜饭想在自己家里吃,又觉得做一大桌子菜太麻烦,预制菜成为一个很好很方便的选择。”陈先生说,真是省心又省力。


  所谓预制菜,就是对食品原料预先进行半加工,然后包装以及冷冻保存,消费者购买后经过简单烹饪,就可以上桌食用的菜品。去年以来,受疫情影响,“宅经济”拉动了预制菜从供应餐厅向供应家庭拓展,并逐渐走进千家万户,在虎年春节迎来了爆发式增长。


  预制菜方便了家庭生活,但并非所有消费者都有和陈先生一样的好体验,图文不符、偷工减料、食材不新鲜、口味不佳等问题也让不少消费者“吐槽”不已。


  多位专家近日接受《法治日报》记者采访时建议,要加强对预制菜质量和安全的监管,保障群众舌尖上的安全;同时,也要给相关企业提供良好有序发展的环境,促进行业健康发展,让人民群众更好地享受到这种便捷的生活服务。


  简单加工即可食用


  半成品预制菜火爆


  公开数据显示,进入腊月以来,某生活消费类App搜索“预制菜”次数同比增长超10倍,带动“快手菜”“半成品菜”“加热即食”等相关概念搜索量整体较去年同期涨4倍;有线上买菜平台7天就卖出了300万份预制菜,每笔单价同比增长1倍。


  据相关机构报告,近年来,我国预制菜市场规模不断扩大,预计到2025年将突破8300亿元。


  记者在电商平台搜索供应预制菜的店铺,其中不乏大家耳熟能详的餐馆,菜品既有年夜饭套餐,也有羊蝎子火锅、卤水盆菜、佛跳墙等单品,价位从百元至上千元不等,整体售卖情况也不错。


  “预制菜方便快捷,节省了备菜时间,做饭效率提高了很多;摆盘也比较精致好看,容易让人有食欲;味道有保障,不会太难吃,对不会做饭的人比较友好,非常适合现在人们的生活方式。”一预制菜店铺的卖家告诉记者,该店今年的销量有明显提升,“90后”是主要消费群体。


  在中国人民大学食品安全治理协同创新中心研究员孙娟娟看来,预制菜的流行一方面源自餐饮等行业寻求新的商业模式,推进餐饮工业化;另一方面是回应消费者在家就餐、方便快捷等需求。年夜饭等节日预制菜的流行也契合我国家庭聚餐等饮食风俗。


  据相关平台统计,消费者今年更喜欢“硬菜”,2022年货节期间,预制菜成交额增长148%,其中,花胶鸡、佛跳墙、猪肚鸡等地域特色半成品菜,尤其受年轻消费群体喜爱。


  “像鲍鱼、佛跳墙这种硬菜,处理起来很麻烦,现在网上买好预制菜提前放冰箱冷冻就好。”3口之家留在北京过年,女主人唐莉今年第一次将预制菜列入年夜饭的范畴。


  在北京工作的贾佳今年春节也没有回杭州老家。她网购了品牌连锁店的半成品年夜饭。“我丈夫是北方人,因此我们的年夜饭要兼顾南北方口味。”贾佳说,她选购的半成品菜肴全程冷链运输,品质有保证,而且免洗免切免调料,真的非常方便。


  在中国农业大学食品科学与营养工程学院副教授朱毅看来,预制菜之所以火爆,是因为可以省去洗、切、烹饪等一系列繁琐工序,只需按说明简单加工,就可以快速做出一桌色香味俱全的“硬核”年夜饭;同时,年夜饭在家吃,既可避免人员密集接触,又能满足家庭聚会,延续和家人吃团圆饭的传统习俗。


  行业竞争日趋激烈


  “货不对版”吐槽多


  在北京市民王女士看来,要论年夜饭的C位菜,自然是一条整头整尾的鱼,寓意年年有余。可今年除夕夜她将直播间热卖的预制菜大黄鱼加热后倒进盘子里发现,眼前这盘菜压根儿看不出是一条鱼。这让她非常生气,“当时直播间展示的可是一条完整的鱼”。


  类似的遭遇,很多消费者都曾遇到过。


  北京市民费妍从网上买了份预制菜大礼包,从网上的图片介绍看,这个大礼包非常实惠,但到手后,她的心都凉了半截,其中一份烤牛排只有半个拳头大小,和图片宣传严重不符。


  爱尝鲜的天津市民程女士今年春节期间请朋友来家里聚餐,在某品牌网上店铺买了一份花胶鸡海鲜打边炉。她满怀期待地在朋友面前展示买到的新玩意,结果有种被骗的感觉,“分量少、口味差,还不如一份30元的自热小火锅”。


  “95后”孙初买了被“种草”许久的某品牌佛跳墙,便在朋友圈吐槽:“工业味道很重,真的不敢吃,原来还不清楚什么是预制菜,现在拉黑了。”


  记者浏览预制菜售卖平台发现,消费者对此吐槽的不少,有说缺斤少两的,有说包装损坏的,还有说食材变质的。比如某预制菜品牌的“茶树菇牛肚”,不少消费者吐槽“牛肚不好找”,该菜品只介绍了总重量,而没有标明肉和素菜的净含量。


  由于预制菜采用速冻方式保鲜,食物在运输途中对于温度的要求较高,温度达不到,极易造成预制菜的变质。不少消费者提出,商家为节约成本,放置的冰袋数量不够或冰袋太小,影响食材新鲜度。


  记者采访了解到,消费者之所以吐槽预制菜较多,一方面是作为新生事物,消费者对预制菜的认识还不够全面,另一方面由于预制菜的火爆,大量企业进入该领域,存在制作不规范问题。


  企查查数据显示,中国现存预制菜相关企业6.81万家,2021年新增4212家。


  广东湛江国联水产开发股份有限公司相关负责人在接受媒体采访时说,预制菜品行业有一定门槛,包括品牌规模壁垒、食品质量及安全壁垒、渠道及客户壁垒、研发及创新壁垒等。预制菜品在国内尚处发展初期,经营规模以中小企业为主,数量庞大但市场集中程度较低,区域性特征明显,竞争激烈但格局不明朗。


  根据《2020-2026年半成品菜行业市场调查与前景预测报告》,目前半成品菜生产企业众多、竞争较为激烈,集中度低,规模化企业较少。虽然半成品菜行业市场空间大,但行业内竞争日趋激烈,价格竞争导致企业利润空间下降。企业树立品牌形象能够区别于同类竞品,走出激烈的价格竞争,建立自身优势、提升产品附加值。


  实施分级分类管理


  确保舌尖上的安全


  预制菜是否卫生,安不安全,是消费者最关注的话题之一。


  在朱毅看来,预制菜安全隐患主要来自三个方面:一是企业资质问题,一些预制菜商家资质不全,甚至没有资质,在后厨加工预制菜,设备不达标,食品生熟不分离,安全隐患大;二是存储风险,消费者收到预制菜后,应当迅速分门别类处置,区分冷冻、冷藏等;三是一些预制菜信息不全,配料表、生产日期、保质期、储存条件等信息都应该标注清楚。


  “对于预制菜的安全隐患,很多人都关注食物的储藏运输,却忽略了预制菜原材料的来源问题。预制菜食材的新鲜度、安全性问题需得到重视。”朱毅说。


  有关预制菜面临的安全隐患,北京工商大学新商经研究院执行院长周清杰认为,首先要考虑加工过程是否符合食品安全的问题,其中包括原材料的新鲜程度、加工过程中食品添加剂剂量;运输过程中冷链环节也至关重要,要控制温度,还要注意运输途中的破损问题。

● In recent years, the scale of China's prefabricated vegetable market has been expanding. Prefabricated dishes expanded from supply restaurants to supply families, and gradually entered thousands of households, which ushered in explosive growth in the Spring Festival of the Year of the Tiger. There is an online shopping platform that sold 3 million prepared vegetables in 7 days, and the unit price of each one doubled year on year.


● Prefabricated dishes are convenient for family life, but many consumers also "vomit" because of the inconsistency between pictures and texts, cutting corners, stale ingredients and bad taste. Some consumers have suggested that in order to save costs, the number of ice packs placed by merchants is not enough or the ice packs are too small, which affects the freshness of ingredients.


● Regulatory authorities can strengthen supervision through public notification, risk assessment level and equipment supervision. In the long run, the problem of pre-cooked vegetables belongs to the problem of social co-governance, and it needs multi-level supervision and governance from the regulatory authorities, consumer associations, media and Internet platforms.


□ Our reporter Zhao Li


Braised pork with plum, beef tenderloin with black pepper, French lamb chops, braised yellow croaker, stewed chicken with mushrooms ... Before the Spring Festival this year, Mr. Chen, a citizen of Beijing, ordered a batch of prefabricated dishes from the App. On New Year's Eve, it was just a simple process, and a sumptuous dinner table was quickly "cooked". "I want to eat at my own home this year's New Year's Eve dinner, and I think it's too much trouble to make a big table dish, so prefabricated dishes become a good and convenient choice." Mr. Chen said, it's really worry-free and labor-saving.


The so-called pre-cooked food is a kind of food that is semi-processed in advance, then packaged and frozen, and can be served by consumers after simple cooking. Since last year, affected by the epidemic situation, the "home economy" has promoted the expansion of prefabricated dishes from restaurants to families, and gradually entered thousands of households, which ushered in explosive growth in the Spring Festival of the Year of the Tiger.


Prefabricated dishes are convenient for family life, but not all consumers have the same good experience as Mr. Chen. Many consumers also "vomit" because of problems such as inconsistent pictures and texts, cutting corners, stale ingredients and bad taste.


In an interview with the reporter of Rule of Law Daily recently, a number of experts suggested that the supervision of the quality and safety of pre-cooked vegetables should be strengthened to ensure the safety of people's tongue tips; At the same time, it is also necessary to provide relevant enterprises with a good and orderly development environment, promote the healthy development of the industry, and let the people better enjoy this convenient life service.


It can be eaten after simple processing.


Semi-finished prefabricated vegetables are popular.


According to public data, since entering the twelfth lunar month, the number of searches for "pre-cooked dishes" by a consumer App has increased by more than 10 times year-on-year, driving the search volume of related concepts such as "Aauto Quicker dishes", "semi-finished dishes" and "heated ready-to-eat" to increase by 4 times compared with the same period of last year. There is an online shopping platform that sold 3 million prepared vegetables in 7 days, and the unit price of each one doubled year on year.


According to the reports of relevant institutions, in recent years, the scale of China's prefabricated vegetable market has been expanding, and it is estimated that it will exceed 830 billion yuan by 2025.


The reporter searched the e-commerce platform for shops that supply prefabricated dishes, among which there are many well-known restaurants. The dishes include the New Year's Eve dinner, sheep scorpion hot pot, brine pot dishes, Buddha jumping wall and other single items. The prices range from 100 yuan to 1,000 yuan, and the overall sales are also good.


"Prepacking food is convenient and quick, which saves the time for preparing food and improves the cooking efficiency a lot; The pendulum plate is also delicate and beautiful, which makes people have an appetite easily; The taste is guaranteed, it won't be too bad, it is friendly to people who can't cook, and it is very suitable for people's lifestyle now. " The seller of a prefabricated vegetable shop told reporters that the sales volume of this shop has obviously increased this year, and the post-90s generation is the main consumer group.


According to Sun Juanjuan, a researcher at the Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety Governance of Renmin University of China, the popularity of prefabricated dishes comes from catering and other industries seeking new business models and promoting catering industrialization. On the other hand, it is to respond to consumers' needs of eating at home, convenience and quickness. The popularity of pre-cooked dishes such as New Year's Eve is also in line with the eating customs such as family dinners in China.


According to the statistics of relevant platforms, consumers prefer "hard dishes" this year. During the 2022 New Year Festival, the turnover of prefabricated dishes increased by 148%. Among them, semi-finished dishes with regional characteristics such as Huajiao chicken, Buddha jumping wall and pork belly chicken are especially popular among young consumers.


"Hard dishes like abalone and Buddha jumping wall are very troublesome to handle. Now, just buy prefabricated dishes online and put them in the refrigerator for freezing in advance." The family of three stayed in Beijing for the New Year, and the hostess, Tang Li, included the prepared dishes in the category of New Year's Eve dinner for the first time this year.


Jia Jia Jia, who works in Beijing, did not return to his hometown in Hangzhou this Spring Festival. She bought the semi-finished New Year's Eve dinner of brand chain stores online. "My husband is from the north, so our New Year's Eve dinner should take into account the tastes of the north and the south." Francisco Jailson de Souza said that the semi-finished dishes she bought were transported in cold chain, the quality was guaranteed, and it was really convenient to wash, cut and season.


According to Yi Zhu, an associate professor at the College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, the reason why prefabricated dishes are popular is that a series of tedious processes such as washing, cutting and cooking can be omitted, and a table of "hard core" New Year's Eve dinner with good taste and flavor can be quickly made by simply processing according to the instructions; At the same time, eating New Year's Eve dinner at home can not only avoid intensive contact with people, but also meet family gatherings and continue the traditional custom of having family reunion dinner with family members.


Industry competition is becoming increasingly fierce.


"The goods are not the right version" is a lot of spit.


In the view of Ms. Wang, a citizen of Beijing, when it comes to the C dish of New Year's Eve dinner, it is naturally a fish with a whole head and a whole tail, which means that it is more than enough every year. But on New Year's Eve this year, she heated the prefabricated dish, Pseudosciaena crocea, which was popular in the live broadcast room, and poured it into the plate, and found that it was not a fish at all. This made her very angry. "At that time, a complete fish was displayed in the live broadcast room".


Similar experiences have been encountered by many consumers.


Fei Yan, a citizen of Beijing, bought a gift package of pre-cooked vegetables from the Internet. From the online picture introduction, this gift package is very affordable, but after she got it, her heart was half cold, and one of the roast steaks was only half the size of a fist, which was seriously inconsistent with the picture propaganda.


Ms. Cheng, a citizen of Tianjin who loves early adopters, invited her friends to dinner at home during the Spring Festival this year, and bought a Huajiao chicken seafood edging stove in a brand online shop. She showed the new gadgets she bought in front of her friends with great expectation, and as a result, she felt cheated. "The small quantity and bad taste are not as good as a self-heating hot pot from 30 yuan".


"After 95", Sun Chu bought a brand of Buddha jumping wall that had been "planted grass" for a long time, and then spoke out in the circle of friends: "The industry tastes very heavy, and I really dare not eat it. I didn't know what a prepared dish was, but now it's blackened."


When the reporter browsed the selling platform of prefabricated vegetables, he found that consumers complained a lot about this, some said that there was a shortage, some said that the packaging was damaged, and some said that the ingredients had deteriorated. For example, in the "Tea Mushroom Tripe" brand of a prefabricated dish, many consumers complained that "tripe is not easy to find". This dish only introduces the total weight, but does not indicate the net content of meat and vegetarian dishes.


Because the pre-cooked vegetables are kept fresh by quick freezing, the food has a high requirement for temperature during transportation, and the temperature can not be reached, which easily leads to the deterioration of the pre-cooked vegetables. Many consumers suggest that in order to save costs, the number of ice packs placed by merchants is not enough or the ice packs are too small, which affects the freshness of food.


The reporter learned that the reason why consumers spit out more prefabricated dishes is that, on the one hand, as a new thing, consumers' understanding of prefabricated dishes is not comprehensive enough; on the other hand, due to the popularity of prefabricated dishes, a large number of enterprises enter this field, and there is a problem of nonstandard production.


According to the survey data, there are 68,100 pre-cooked food-related enterprises in China, with 4,212 new ones in 2021.


The relevant person in charge of Guangdong Zhanjiang Guolian Aquatic Products Development Co., Ltd. said in an interview with the media that there are certain thresholds in the prefabricated food industry, including brand scale barriers, food quality and safety barriers, channel and customer barriers, R&D and innovation barriers, etc. Prefabricated dishes are still in the early stage of development in China, and the business scale is mainly small and medium-sized enterprises, with a large number but low market concentration, obvious regional characteristics, fierce competition but unclear pattern.


According to the Report on Market Investigation and Prospect Forecast of Semi-finished Vegetable Industry from 2020 to 2026, there are many semi-finished vegetable production enterprises, fierce competition, low concentration and few large-scale enterprises. Although the market space of semi-finished food industry is large, the competition in the industry is becoming increasingly fierce, and the price competition leads to the decline of enterprise profit space. Establishing the brand image of the enterprise can distinguish it from competing products of the same kind, get out of the fierce price competition, establish its own advantages and enhance the added value of products.


Implement hierarchical and classified management


Ensure safety on the tip of the tongue.


Whether the prepared dishes are hygienic or unsafe is one of the topics that consumers are most concerned about.


In Yi Zhu's view, the potential safety hazards of pre-cooked vegetables mainly come from three aspects: first, the qualification of enterprises, some pre-cooked vegetables merchants are not fully qualified, or even not qualified. When processing pre-cooked vegetables in the back kitchen, the equipment is not up to standard, the raw and cooked foods are not separated, and the potential safety hazards are great; The second is the storage risk. After receiving the prepared dishes, consumers should quickly classify them and distinguish between freezing and cold storage. Third, the information of some pre-cooked dishes is incomplete, and information such as ingredient list, production date, shelf life and storage conditions should be clearly marked.


"For the potential safety hazard of pre-cooked vegetables, many people pay attention to the storage and transportation of food, but ignore the source of raw materials for pre-cooked vegetables. Attention should be paid to the freshness and safety of prefabricated ingredients. " Yi Zhu said.


Regarding the potential safety hazards faced by prepared vegetables, Zhou Qingjie, executive director of the New Business and Economics Research Institute of Beijing Technology and Business University, believes that the first thing to consider is whether the processing process meets the food safety, including the freshness of raw materials and the dosage of food additives during processing; Cold chain is also very important during transportation. To control the temperature, we should also pay attention to the damage during transportation.


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