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铁观音纯雅礼和
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乌龙茶色香韵味
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News Detail

武夷岩茶专业知识大全

  1
Issuing time:2022-02-03 13:24

清代学者梁章钜曾盛赞武夷岩茶焙火功夫:“武夷焙法,实甲天下。”


武夷岩茶精妙的制作工艺中,焙火一直是最玄妙的技艺之一,它让武夷岩茶的焙火香在六大茶类中独树一帜。对应地是,要做出最高标准的武夷岩茶,现代科技无法替代的最重要工艺,也是传统手工炭焙的火工表达。




传统手工炭焙,重味求香,工艺十分复杂、讲究。没有数年身体力行和丰富实践经验,普通人无法轻易尝试。而这经验涵盖了天时地利与人和方方面面的把握与掌控,兴许是传统手工炭焙这项技艺中最大难度所在。




通过焙火固条索、止发酵、定香气、调汤色、散杂味、防霉变、延久存……在极高的温度、烧红的炭块、满室的碳灰等极端条件下,等待来的是其涅槃为岩茶的彻骨之香,将所有曼妙的滋味都融入茶汤之中,最终完美呈现出一款武夷岩茶的最好状态,带给人们最愉悦饱满的品饮体验。


也就是说,了解焙火,喝懂每个焙火阶段的半成品茶,你也算是喝懂岩茶了。




这一次,挑选出了几个茶友们较为关心的“焙火”话题,一一作答。以期让更多爱茶人士能够更加全面地了解武夷岩茶焙火工艺,以及在品鉴武夷岩茶的过程中,喝懂、喝出乐趣,获得得到更多地收益与思考


01


问题一:好的岩茶要焙几次火?


如果说,品种、山场是一款好岩茶的基础,那么工艺,便是一款好岩茶成败的关键所在。其中,焙火,这一环节足以撼动岩茶的整体品质。


同样的毛茶,会因焙火好坏程度而高次立见。这就像煮肉,没煮熟和煮过头都叫煮坏了,只有一分不多一分不少,煮的刚刚好的肉,才能做到香而不烂,吃起来有嚼劲。但如果毛茶本身基础较差,即使焙火多次也不能称之为好茶。更何况,这种情况下焙火次数过多,反而会破坏岩茶的纤维结构,使其碳化。




从一定程度上来说,不是所有的茶都能经得得住两次或两次以上的焙火,而焙火的次数更不能决定一款岩茶品质的好坏。


对应地是,传统武夷正岩茶,对焙火要求极高。事实上,只有经验丰富的师傅,才能做出最好的判断。他们会根据每款茶的等级、特点,并且观察前期加工程度,以及自己的制茶风格,决定这茶要如何焙火,焙几次火。所谓“胸中有丘壑”,如此才能从全局把握这茶,并最终将岩茶做出最棒火工与最佳口感。




这也就意味着,焙火,不能盲目地讲究焙火次数,得讲究一个“度”,并非焙火次数越多越好!


02


问题二:岩茶中火功不足


有哪些表现,会影响口感吗?


首先要明确地是,武夷岩茶焙火的目的在于——让岩茶吃透火,焙火焙足起到了醇化香味,香高味醇且耐储藏,便于常年销售这么一个特点。所以,“火”对于武夷岩茶加工来讲,精细讲究的焙火工艺,是它非物质文化遗产的精髓之一。


虽然“火”对武夷岩茶的品质至关重要,但是在生产当中,仍然还是会出现焙火焙得不够理想的一些品质缺陷。例如,“表火”、“夹生”、“急火”、“老火”、“硬火”等等。那么,这些“火”要怎么理解呢?




专业上来讲,这个“火”,就是指的火候程度。其中,“火”比较常见的有九个方面的不足:


表火:很好理解,即表面火。它是指焙火没焙透。表面上来看茶叶已转色,茶汤可呈橙红色,时间久后茶叶的味道会变。从叶底上可以看出颜色不一致,有绿色、黄色、褐色、黑色的。那么,这种“火”就是岩茶“表火”的特点。


夹生:就好像我们家里面烧饭,煮的夹生饭一样,好像就差那么一点点饭就熟了。那么这样的茶,香气和滋味都带有夹生味道。主要原因是焙火焙得不匀不透造成的。




急火:偏急了,产生急火味的原因:主要是高温短时,上焙的时候温度很高,焙的时间又太短了,就像是赶着将茶焙好。急火的茶的特点:一是,火的味道让茶喝起来不太顺;二是,其香气不容易闻出来。


热火味:焙火的时候温度太高了而产生火味,但是它又没有烧焦。焙火以后,摊晾的时间不足就装箱,这个会产生热火味。这样的茶喝起来有热火味,且对茶叶后期品质非常不利。




老火:温度又偏高,焙火又时间偏长。焙火焙过头了,但是又没焙焦,这个就是“老火”。


硬火:硬火的表现在于,茶喝到嘴里,茶汤不够醇滑,有硬硬的感觉,不够柔和。其主要形成的原因是,温度偏高、时间偏长。


焦条:其产生的原因有二,一是烘焙的时候没有及时地翻拌产生焦条;或者是前一批茶叶焙完后,焙笼或者是烘干机里面留下部分极少的茶叶没有被及时清理干净,残留在焙笼或者烘干机里面,然后继续和下一批茶叶进行焙火。那么这样的茶,香气滋味中也可以喝到有点“焦”的味道。




炭化:多次焙火,焙火时间偏长就会产生炭化。但是这一种炭化的茶,基本上是在陈茶、老茶中比较多见。因为陈茶和老茶入库时间比较长,在储存期如果时不时拿出来多次焙火,就会造成炭化。


烟味:茶叶的滋味和香气带有烟味。其是由于焙火时,翻拌茶叶不匀,且不小心让茶叶的细末都掉在焙坑里面燃烧产生。因为茶叶很能吸味,所以这个烟味就被茶叶吸收,这个是焙火当中产生的烟味。另外,杀青过程中也会产生烟味。




03


问题三:传统岩茶为什么会 采用


高火功?是否是一次焙到位?


传统岩茶火功一般火功较高。是因为当时的人力、物力条件有限,没办法像现在这样做到「文火慢焙」。特别是在统购统销时期,因为要考虑到出口与茶叶保存的问题,岩茶焙成高火功则是常见状态。


但以前的高火功岩茶,也并不完全是“一次焙到位,一次焙成型”。因为当时茶叶站从茶农手中收购的半成品茶,然后进入国营茶厂继续焙火,再到进出口茶叶公司后,再继续焙火,运往海外。期间是经过了多次焙火,并非一步到位、一次成型。而为了稳妥起见,现在的好茶也不会用如此冒险的方式。因为,直接一焙到底的后果存在不确定的因素,如果不小心焙坏了,就损失惨重。




04


问题四:什么火功的岩茶


才不会返青呢?


我们在喝岩茶的时候,偶尔会听到有资深茶友评价:这泡茶返青了。


返青并不是茶叶变回青色。 所谓返青,是指茶叶因受潮而变软,进而茶叶品质受到影响的一种现象。返青一般多指岩茶、单丛一类经过焙火的茶叶。


返青的茶,用手捏干茶不会即刻变粉末状,有点绵软感,香气明显下降,还容易出现杂味。有的茶返青严重会出现酸味、青涩味,不过反之有酸味的茶并不一定是返青造成的。




让茶叶返青的原因,一是多见受潮,即茶叶长期暴露在空气中,吸收了空气中的水分;二是, 茶叶本身含有的含水量,尤其是焙火轻的茶,水分含量比焙火足的茶高。当存放时间久了,水分挥发出来并积累到一定量,就会使得茶叶里的内含物质发生变化,也就开始返青了。


相对而言,中足火以上的岩茶相对不容易出现返青,是因为茶叶焙到中足火以后,其水分含量相对较低。尤其是足火的岩茶,其内在水分更低,在活性转化过程中,其速度也相对缓慢,所以足火的岩茶只需要避光密封保存即可。




值得一提地是,我们要明确一点:“水分”才是茶叶返青的元凶。所以,以焙火轻重来预测岩茶是否会返青,也不完全正确的。更为重要地是,首先要奠定好一款岩茶的基础底子,如果做青做到位,其次茶叶焙透了,轻火也是没有问题的。


05


问题五:武夷山岩茶


是否都采用传统炭焙?


汲取了天地自然之精气的武夷山茶,在制茶师精湛的制茶技艺下成就了武夷岩茶独特的口感和风韵。其中武夷岩茶炭焙法是传统制作工艺的关键之一,已被列为“国家非物质文化遗产”。


炭焙,顾名思义就是用上等木炭为热能持续烘烤茶叶。此法焙出的茶,不但味醇气正,独具风韵,更为耐泡,便于久存,而且具有暖胃功能。




除此之外,在武夷岩茶中也有电焙。近几年来随着科技的发展,制茶机械的进步,武夷岩茶的制作也引进了一些先进的茶叶加工机械。电焙的形式相比传统炭焙,更高产也便于大批量生产。而时间、人力、物力成本较高的传统炭焙,则多出现在高等级的武夷岩茶上。甚至,对于核心山场的顶级岩茶则会更重视炭焙,能够让一款顶级好茶锦上添花,更能表现岩茶的品质。


值得一提地是,以现在的技术和老师傅的手艺,好的岩茶电焙和炭焙带来的口感差异较小。因此, 当我们在购买、品鉴岩茶时,也无需过分迷信传统炭焙,而贬低电焙,喝茶还是应以适口为珍。


事实上,以上所述也仅仅只是武夷岩茶知识的极小一部分。想要彻底搞懂、喝懂武夷岩茶,还得多喝多学,或者通过茶语书院发布的 《岩茶标准制定者陈郁榕教你喝懂岩茶》等相关课程,从解决问题入手,带你一步步走进“懂岩茶”的境界。

Liang Zhangju, a scholar in the Qing Dynasty, once praised Wuyi rock tea roasting skills: "Wuyi roasting method is the best in the world."


In the exquisite craftsmanship of Wuyi rock tea, roasting has always been one of the most mysterious skills, which makes the roasting aroma of Wuyi rock tea unique among the six major tea types. Correspondingly, in order to make the highest standard of Wuyi rock tea, the most important process that cannot be replaced by modern technology is also the pyrotechnic expression of traditional manual charcoal roasting.




Traditional hand-baked charcoal, with heavy flavor and aroma, the craftsmanship is very complicated and exquisite. Without years of hands-on practice and rich practical experience, ordinary people cannot easily try it. This experience covers the grasp and control of all aspects of the right place, the right place, and the people. Perhaps it is the most difficult part of the traditional handmade charcoal roasting technique.




Through roasting, the rope is fixed, fermentation is stopped, aroma is fixed, soup color is adjusted, miscellaneous smell is dispersed, mildew proof, long-lasting... Under extreme conditions such as extremely high temperature, red-burning charcoal blocks, and room full of carbon ash, etc. What awaits is its nirvana, which is the bone-piercing fragrance of rock tea. All the wonderful flavors are integrated into the tea soup, and finally it perfectly presents the best state of a Wuyi rock tea, bringing people the most pleasant and full drinking experience.


In other words, if you understand roasting and drink semi-finished tea at each roasting stage, you can be considered to know rock tea.




This time, Tea Language Network picked out a few topics of "baking fire" that tea lovers are more concerned about, and answered them one by one. In order to allow more tea lovers to have a more comprehensive understanding of the roasting process of Wuyi rock tea, and in the process of tasting Wuyi rock tea, they can understand and enjoy drinking, and gain more benefits and thinking.


01


Question 1: How many times does a good rock tea need to be roasted?


If we say that varieties and fields are the foundation of a good rock tea, then craftsmanship is the key to the success or failure of a good rock tea. Among them, roasting is enough to shake the overall quality of rock tea.


The same Maocha will be judged by the quality of roasting. It's like boiled meat, undercooked and overcooked are called badly cooked. Only when the meat is cooked just right can it be fragrant but not rotten, and it will taste chewy. However, if the base of Maocha itself is poor, even if it is roasted many times, it cannot be called a good tea. What's more, in this case, too many times of roasting will damage the fiber structure of rock tea and make it carbonized.




To a certain extent, not all teas can withstand two or more roastings, and the number of roastings cannot determine the quality of a yancha.


Correspondingly, traditional Wuyi Zhengyan tea has extremely high requirements for roasting. In fact, only experienced masters can make the best judgments. They will decide how to roast the tea and how many times it should be roasted according to the grade and characteristics of each tea, and observing the degree of pre-processing, as well as their own tea-making style. The so-called "hills and valleys in the chest", so that we can grasp the tea from the overall situation, and finally make the rock tea with the best firework and the best taste.




This also means that when roasting, you can't blindly pay attention to the number of roasts. You have to pay attention to a "degree", not that the more times you roast, the better!


02


Problem 2: Insufficient fire power in rock tea


What are the performances that affect the taste?


First of all, it is clear that the purpose of roasting Wuyi rock tea is to make the rock tea eat through the fire, and the roasting and roasting has the characteristics of mellowing fragrance, high fragrance and mellow taste and storage resistance, which is convenient for year-round sales. Therefore, "fire" is one of the essences of its intangible cultural heritage for the processing of Wuyi rock tea.


Although "fire" is very important to the quality of Wuyi rock tea, in the production, there are still some quality defects that the roasting is not ideal. For example, "surface fire", "increased fire", "urgent fire", "old fire", "hard fire" and so on. So, how should these "fires" be understood?




Professionally speaking, this "fire" refers to the degree of fire. Among them, "fire" is more common and has nine deficiencies:


Surface fire: well understood, that is, surface fire. It means that the roast is not cooked through. On the surface, the color of the tea leaves has changed, the tea soup can be orange-red, and the taste of the tea leaves will change after a long time. It can be seen from the bottom of the leaves that the colors are inconsistent, with green, yellow, brown, and black. Then, this kind of "fire" is the characteristic of "surface fire" of yancha.


Jiasheng: It's like cooking rice in our house. It seems that the rice is cooked just a little bit. Then such a tea, the aroma and taste are full of flavor. The main reason is that the roasting is not uniform and opaque.




Urgent fire: It is too urgent, and the reason for the urgent fire smell: mainly because the high temperature is short, the temperature is very high during the upper roasting, and the roasting time is too short, just like rushing to roast the tea. The characteristics of hot tea: First, the smell of fire makes the tea not very smooth; second, its aroma is not easy to smell.


Fire flavor: The temperature is too high to produce a fire flavor when roasting, but it is not burnt. After baking, if the drying time is insufficient, it will be boxed, which will produce a hot smell. This kind of tea tastes hot, and it is very unfavorable for the quality of the tea in the later stage.




Old fire: the temperature is too high, and the baking time is too long. If the fire is over-baked, but it is not burnt, this is "old fire".


Hard fire: The performance of hard fire is that when the tea is drunk in the mouth, the tea soup is not smooth enough, has a hard feeling, and is not soft enough. The main reason for its formation is that the temperature is too high and the time is too long.


Coke sticks: There are two reasons for this. One is that the coke sticks were not stirred in time during baking; It is cleaned up in time and left in the roasting cage or dryer, and then continues to roast with the next batch of tea leaves. Then this kind of tea can also taste a little "burnt" in the aroma and taste.




Carbonization: multiple roasting, long roasting time will produce carbonization. But this kind of carbonized tea is basically more common in old tea and old tea. Because old tea and old tea are stored for a long time, if they are taken out for many times during the storage period, it will cause carbonization.


Smokiness: The taste and aroma of tea leaves are smoky. This is due to the uneven mixing of the tea leaves during roasting, and accidentally letting the fines of the tea leaves fall into the roasting pit and burn. Because tea leaves are very odorous, the smoke smell is absorbed by the tea leaves. This is the smoke smell produced during roasting. In addition, the process of greening will also produce smoke smell.




03


Question 3: Why is traditional rock tea used?


High fire power? Is it baked in place at one time?


Traditional rock tea fire power is generally higher. It was because the manpower and material resources at that time were limited, and there was no way to do this "slowly" as it is now. Especially in the period of unified purchase and sales, it is common to roast rock tea into high fire power because of the problems of export and tea preservation.


However, the previous high-fire rock tea was not completely "one-time roasting, and one-time roasting". Because the semi-finished tea purchased by the tea station from the tea farmers at that time, then entered the state-run tea factory for continuous roasting, and then went to the import and export tea company, and then continued to roast and transported overseas. During this period, it has undergone many times of roasting, and it is not a one-step, one-time molding. And to be on the safe side, the current good tea will not use such a risky way. Because there are uncertain factors in the consequences of direct baking to the end, if it is accidentally baked, it will cause heavy losses.




04


Question 4: What kind of rock tea from Huo Gong?


Will it not turn green?


When we are drinking rock tea, we occasionally hear comments from senior tea friends: This tea has turned green.


Turning green does not mean that the tea leaves turn blue. The so-called greening refers to a phenomenon in which the tea leaves become soft due to moisture, which affects the quality of the tea leaves. Turning green generally refers to tea leaves that have been roasted such as Yancha and Dancong.


The green tea will not immediately become powdery when kneaded by hand, and it will feel a little soft, the aroma will be significantly reduced, and it will be prone to miscellaneous odors. Some teas will have a sour and green astringency when they turn green, but conversely, teas with a sour taste are not necessarily caused by turning green.




The reason why tea leaves turn green is that, first, they are often damp, that is, the tea leaves are exposed to the air for a long time and absorb the moisture in the air; second, the water content of the tea itself, especially the lightly roasted tea, is higher than that of the roasted tea. Foot tea is high. When stored for a long time, the water volatilizes and accumulates to a certain amount, which will change the content of the tea leaves and begin to turn green.


Relatively speaking, rock tea above the mid-foot fire is relatively less likely to turn green, because after the tea leaves are roasted to the mid-foot fire, their moisture content is relatively low. In particular, the yancha of the foot fire has lower internal moisture, and its speed is relatively slow in the process of active transformation, so the yancha of the foot fire only needs to be sealed and stored in the dark.




It is worth mentioning that we have to make it clear that "moisture" is the culprit behind the greening of tea leaves. Therefore, it is not entirely correct to predict whether the yancha will turn green based on the degree of roasting. More importantly, first of all, it is necessary to lay a good foundation for a rock tea. If the green tea is done properly, secondly, the tea leaves are fully roasted, and there is no problem with light fire.


05


Question 5: Wuyi Mountain Rock Tea


Are they all baked with traditional charcoal?


The Wuyi Mountain Tea, which has absorbed the essence of nature and nature, has achieved the unique taste and charm of Wuyi Rock Tea under the exquisite tea-making skills of the tea maker. Among them, the charcoal roasting method of Wuyi rock tea is one of the keys to the traditional production process, and has been listed as a "national intangible cultural heritage".


Charcoal roasting, as the name suggests, is to continuously roast tea leaves with high-quality charcoal as heat energy. The tea baked by this method not only tastes mellow and has a unique charm, but also is more resistant to foaming, easy to store for a long time, and has the function of warming the stomach.




In addition, there is also electric roasting in Wuyi rock tea. In recent years, with the development of science and technology and the progress of tea-making machinery, some advanced tea processing machinery has also been introduced in the production of Wuyi rock tea. Compared with traditional charcoal roasting, the form of electric roasting has higher yield and is convenient for mass production. The traditional charcoal roasting with high cost of time, manpower and material resources mostly appears on high-grade Wuyi rock tea. Even the top rock tea in the core mountain farm will pay more attention to charcoal roasting, which can make a top quality tea icing on the cake and better express the quality of rock tea.


It is worth mentioning that, with the current technology and the craftsmanship of the master, the taste difference brought by electric roasting and charcoal roasting of good rock tea is small. Therefore, when we buy and taste rock tea, we do not need to be overly superstitious about traditional charcoal roasting, and depreciate electric roasting. Tea should still be palatable.


In fact, the above is only a very small part of the knowledge of Wuyi rock tea. If you want to fully understand and understand Wuyi rock tea, you have to drink and learn more, or you can start from solving problems and bring You step by step into the realm of "understanding rock tea".


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